Ozone Park, Queens
Ozone Park is a neighborhood located in the southwestern section of the borough of Queens, in New York City, New York, United States. It is located next to the Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, a popular spot for Thoroughbred racing and home to the Resorts World Casino & Hotel. The neighborhood was known for its large Italian-American population. Over the years, it has become a very diverse community.
Location within New York City
|City||New York City|
|Community District||Queens 9, Queens 10|
|• Total||21,376 (main section only)|
|Ethnicity (Census 2010)|
|• Median income||$41,291|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Area codes||718, 347, 929, and 917|
The northern border is Atlantic Avenue; the southern border is North Conduit Avenue, the western border is the Brooklyn/Queens border line;[a] and the eastern border is up to 108th Street and Aqueduct Racetrack property line west.
Ozone Park is in two community districts, divided by Liberty and 103rd Avenues.[b] The southern half of the neighborhood is in Queens Community District 10, which is covered by New York City Police Department's 106th Precinct, while the northern half is in Queens Community District 9 and covered by the NYPD's 102nd Precinct. Its ZIP Codes are 11416 and 11417. Ozone Park is also represented by three civic organizations: Our Neighbors Civic Association, Ozone Park Residents Block Association, and Ozone Tudor Civic Association.
The name "Ozone Park" was chosen for the development to "lure buyers with the idea of refreshing breezes blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean to a park-like community". The "Ozone" in the neighborhood's name referred to a park-like area with cool ocean breezes, an archaic definition that is not related to the present-day definition of the alternate form of oxygen.
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An area now part of Ozone Park that pre-dated that community was called "Centreville". It was founded in the 1840s and was centered around Centreville Street and the Centreville Community Church. Part of Ozone Park is still called "Centreville".
In the 1870s, two immigrants from France named Charles Lalance and Florian Grosjean developed a factory in Woodhaven. The factory manufactured cooking materials and porcelain enamelware, but burned down in 1876. Lalance and Grosjean built a second factory, as well as a hundred houses for workers, at Atlantic Avenue and 92nd Street in modern-day Ozone Park.
During the 1870s, an economic depression caused residents of New York City to look for better housing opportunities in the suburbs of Manhattan and Brooklyn, where housing would be cheaper. In 1880, the New York, Woodhaven & Rockaway Railroad began service on the Montauk Branch and Rockaway Beach Branch from Long Island City to Howard Beach, Queens. Two years later, two wealthy partners named Benjamin W. Hitchcock and Charles C. Denton bought plots of land around what would later become the Woodhaven Junction station. The Rockaway Beach Branch's Ozone Park station opened in 1883. Advertisements for Ozone Park proclaimed that the development had "pure air" and "no malaria". Ozone Park was called "the Harlem of Brooklyn" because at the time, the borough of Queens did not yet exist, and Harlem was a thriving Jewish and Italian neighborhood in Manhattan. Hitchcock and Denton chose the "Ozone Park" name because in the 1880s, ozone was associated with breezes from the sea, and the Atlantic Ocean was located nearby.
The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company's Fulton Street elevated railroad line above Liberty Avenue opened in 1915, with a station at Lefferts Avenue (now Lefferts Boulevard). The elevated train system only charged a 5-cent fare. The nickel fare was another major factor in the development of Ozone Park, as residents could travel across the entire elevated and subway system for 5 cents. After the opening of the elevated line, real estate developers began buying up all the lots on either side of Liberty Avenue in hopes the new station would attract more people to want to live in Ozone Park.
Extensive housing construction occurred in the 1920s. The houses featured enclosed front porches, open back porches and stained-glass windows in the living rooms. Most of the houses were detached or semi-detached (very close to the neighboring house, but not sharing a common wall) built to roughly the same plan, with the living room, dining room and kitchen all in line and three bedrooms and a bath upstairs. The stairs were usually in the dining room. One of the builders was named Weyerman.
During the 1920s, Woodhaven Avenue was the main north-south artery in the area, though its southern terminus was at Liberty Avenue. In conjunction with the extension of Woodhaven Avenue to the Rockaway Peninsula, the avenue was widened to 150 feet (46 m) and renamed Woodhaven Boulevard. The extension itself, named Cross Bay Boulevard, opened to traffic in 1925.
Because Ozone Park was now more accessible by car, the land became much more valuable, leading to a construction boom . Between 1921 and 1930, Ozone Park saw a population increase of over 180% from 40,000 to 112,950 people.
With this increase in population came the need for schools and sources of entertainment. In response to this demand came the construction of John Adams High School in 1930. This school was built just as the construction boom slowed down and right before the Great Depression. The 1,800-seat Cross-Bay Movie Theatre opened in December 1924, and a 2,000-seat theater at 102nd Street and Liberty Avenue was also built during this time.
One area of Ozone Park is known as "The Hole", and includes the area bounded by 75th (Ruby) Street, South Conduit Avenue, 78th Street and Linden Boulevard. It is named as such because the houses in this area were built below grade, with a ground level that is 30 feet (9.1 m) lower than the surrounding area. The area is run-down, and suffers from frequent flooding. In the 1930s, the city of New York decided to install sewers and sewer lines in Ozone Park to stop the serious flooding that was a major problem. In order to install the sewers, the houses had to be raised almost an entire floor. Owners were given a stipend to raise their homes but some chose not to do so. The first floor in some of the non-raised homes subsequently became basements. In 2004, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection made plans to connect the neighborhood to the city's sewer system to combat the flooding by raising the land.
The Centreville Community Church merged with the United Methodist Church of Ozone Park in 1957 and a new church, the Community Methodist Church of Ozone Park, was built at the Southeast corner of Sutter Avenue and Cross Bay Boulevard. It was completed for Christmas 1958. The old church and the property that surrounded it were sold to Aqueduct Racetrack and the old, historic church was torn down in mid-1959.
The Lalance and Grosjean factory closed in the 1960s and was left to deteriorate over two decades. In 1981, the factory complex was designated as a New York City Landmark. What remains is now "adaptively reused" as a medical clinic. Only the factory's old clock tower remains.
In 1996, a scandal broke surrounding two Ozone Park Jewish cemeteries, Mokom Sholom Cemetery and Bayside Cemetery, which share a coterminous tract bounded by 80th and 84th Streets and Liberty and Pitkin Avenues (the adjoining Acacia Cemetery was not involved). Allegations of the re-using of graves of long-dead mostly infants and small children from the mid-to-late 19th century, for re-sale to recent Russian Jewish immigrants, were made against the owners of Mokom Sholom. In addition, Mokom Sholom and Bayside had also been damaged by a combination of vandals, grave-robbers, and self-styled necromancers, though the former was affected to a greater extent. WABC-TV reported on damage to Mokom Sholom, while damage to Bayside was repaired through philanthropic efforts, headed by the late city councilman Al C. Stabile.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Ozone Park was 21,376, an increase of 324 (1.5%) from the 21,052 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 576.32 acres (233.23 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 37.1 inhabitants per acre (23,700/sq mi; 9,200/km2).
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 30.5% (6,511) White, 5.6% (1,188) African American, 0.4% (82) Native American, 19.4% (4,143) Asian, 0.0% (2) Pacific Islander, 2.6% (559) from other races, and 3.6% (779) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.9% (8,112) of the population.
The entirety of Community Board 10, which comprises Howard Beach, southern Ozone Park (south of 103rd Avenue), and South Ozone Park, had 125,603 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.7 years.:2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.:53 (PDF p. 84) Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of between 0–17, 28% between 25–44, and 28% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 13% respectively.:2
As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 10 was $73,891. In 2018, an estimated 19% of Ozone Park and Howard Beach residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in ten residents (10%) were unemployed, compared to 8% in Queens and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 56% in Howard Beach and South Ozone Park, higher than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018[update], Ozone Park and Howard Beach are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.:7
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Since its beginnings, Ozone Park has been largely populated by various groups of immigrants. The first wave were French immigrants associated with a pot factory on Atlantic Avenue. Germans and the Irish made up a large part of Ozone Park in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Eventually Italians started to migrate into Ozone Park from East New York, Brooklyn. Most of the current Italians in the neighborhood are originally from Brooklyn. Fears of changing neighborhoods caused a stir amongst the Italians that caused them to move into Ozone Park, which at the time was mostly Germans and Irish who had migrated themselves from neighboring East New York. A significant Polish population also developed based around Saint Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr Roman Catholic Church and its associated elementary school.
At the turn of the 21st century immigrants from Latin America, South Asia (Bangladesh), the West Indies, and South America (Indo-Guyanese & Indo-Surinamese) moved in, adding a diverse atmosphere to the neighborhood, which is especially apparent along 101st Avenue and Liberty Avenue near the neighborhood's border with Richmond Hill. The neighborhood remains largely Italian-American; however, these new arrivals have made Ozone Park become one of the fastest-growing and most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in New York City. Aside from these larger groups, there is a large Hispanic population in Ozone Park, mainly concentrated in the northern portion of the neighborhood near the Woodhaven border, and an African-American minority, spread throughout the neighborhood.
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Census data from the late 18th century shows how Ozone Park was a sparsely populated neighborhood because of the lack of transportation. By 1915, the Fulton Street Line opened, connecting Ozone Park with the rest of New York City, thus starting the enormous influx by the Italians. Ozone Park then formed many smaller sub-neighborhoods with specific identities.
Centreville, which still uses this name, is bordered by Aqueduct on the east, Cross Bay Boulevard on the west, North Conduit Avenue on the south, and Rockaway Boulevard on the north. Liberty Heights is a triangular area bordered by Liberty Avenue on the south, diagonal-running 101st Avenue (Jerome Avenue) from the southwest to the northeast, and Woodhaven Boulevard to the east. Balsam Village was named after Balsam Farms, which sold off parcels of land for development, and is bordered by Liberty Avenue and North Conduit Avenue on the north, 84th Street on the west, and Cross Bay Boulevard on the east.
Tudor Village, in southwestern Ozone Park, is extremely small, consisting of approximately two hundred and fifty homes; it spans only five residential streets and two avenues. Its population consists mostly of Italian Americans. Its residents consist of approximately six hundred people. The village was incorporated in the late 1800s and has since flourished. Tudor Village hosts suburban tree-lined streets with what is referred to as the "Tudor Malls" in its center, boasting floral arrangements throughout.
The village is also home to Tudor Park, a 20-acre (81,000 m2) recreational park which features a baseball field, racquetball courts, picnic area, and a fountain as well as a playground. Located on the southeast end of the village are another baseball field and benches and shaded areas for resting. Tudor Village is on the border of Howard Beach.
Also inside of Ozone Park are areas named Magnolia Court (95th St & 150th Rd), Park Village (Tahoe St & North Conduit Ave), Kaybern Court (97-52 75th St), Ozone Plaza (84-23 103rd Ave), Dumont Village (Dumont Ave & 85th St), Greentree Condos (Albert Road & 95 St), Albert Gardens (94-20 Albert Rd), and Sterling Manor (105-25 88th St).
Police and crimeEdit
Howard Beach, southern Ozone Park (south of 103rd Avenue), and South Ozone Park are patrolled by the 106th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 87-34 118th Street. The 106th Precinct ranked 26th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. The rate of car thefts is high because of the area's proximity to the Belt Parkway, a major travel corridor. With a non-fatal assault rate of 32 per 100,000 people, Howard Beach and South Ozone Park's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 381 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.:8
The 106th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 81.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 6 murders, 16 rapes, 183 robberies, 246 felony assaults, 133 burglaries, 502 grand larcenies, and 97 grand larcenies auto in 2018.
In the 1980s, the 106th Precinct became the source and scene of several police brutality incidents, including the stun gunning of high schooler Mark Davidson on April 17, 1985, who was arrested on marijuana possession charges. The officer accused of stun-gunning Davidson was later acquitted.
Preterm births are more common in Ozone Park and Howard Beach than in other places citywide, though teenage births are less common. In Howard Beach and South Ozone Park, there were 97 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 14.2 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).:11 Ozone Park and Howard Beach have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 8%, lower than the citywide rate of 12%.:14
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Ozone Park and Howard Beach is 0.0068 milligrams per cubic metre (6.8×10−9 oz/cu ft), less than the city average.:9 Twelve percent of Ozone Park and Howard Beach residents are smokers, which is lower than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.:13 In Howard Beach and South Ozone Park, 27% of residents are obese, 19% are diabetic, and 34% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 22%, 8%, and 23% respectively.:16 In addition, 21% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.:12
Eighty-three percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is less than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 77% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," about equal to the city's average of 78%.:13 For every supermarket in Howard Beach and South Ozone Park, there are 8 bodegas.:10
Post office and ZIP codesEdit
Ozone Park is covered by the ZIP Code 11416 north of 103rd Avenue and 11417 south of 103rd Avenue. The United States Post Office operates both zip codes out of the Ozone Park Station at 91-11 Liberty Avenue.
Numerous New York City Bus routes stop in the area, such as the Q7, Q8, Q9, Q10, Q11, Q21, Q24, Q37, Q41, Q52 SBS, Q53 SBS, Q112. The B15 runs through the neighborhood without stopping. The New York City Subway's IND Fulton Street Line (A train) and IND Rockaway Line (A train) also run through the neighborhood.
Politics and governmentEdit
Ozone Park was is split between 5th, 7th and 8th congressional districts. These districts are represented by Gregory Meeks, Nydia Velasquez, and Hakeem Jeffries respectively, as of 2018[update].
Ozone Park is part of the 10th, 12th, and 15th State Senate districts, represented by James Sanders Jr., Michael N. Gianaris, and Joseph Addabbo Jr. respectively, and the 23rd, 31st, and 38th State Assembly districts, represented by Stacey Pheffer Amato, Michele Titus, and Michael G. Miller respectively. It is part of Districts 28 and 32 in the New York City Council, respectively represented by Adrienne Adams and Eric Ulrich.
Ozone Park and Howard Beach generally have a lower rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. While 28% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 23% have less than a high school education and 49% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 39% of Queens residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.:6 The percentage of Ozone Park and Howard Beach students excelling in math rose from 33% in 2000 to 61% in 2011, and reading achievement rose from 37% to 48% during the same time period.
Ozone Park and Howard Beach's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is less than the rest of New York City. In Howard Beach and South Ozone Park, 18% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, lower than the citywide average of 20%.:24 (PDF p. 55):6 Additionally, 82% of high school students in Ozone Park and Howard Beach graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%.:6
- PS 63 Old South School (grades Pre-K to 5, and special education)
- PS 64 Joseph P. Addabbo School (grades K-5, special education)
- PS 65 The Raymond York Elementary School (grades K-5)
- MS 137 America's School-Heroes (grades 6-8)
- JHS 202 R. H. Goddard (grades 6-8)
- JHS 210 Elizabeth Blackwell (grades 6-8)
- PS 316 Queens Explorers Elementary School (grades Pre-K to 5, and special education)
- Robert H Goddard High School Of Technology and Communications (grades 9-12)
- John Adams High School (grades 9-12)
- High School for Construction Trades, Engineering and Architecture (grades 9-12)
- PS 377 (grades 3K, Pre-K to 1)
- PS 335 (grades Pre-K to 5)
- St Elizabeth's RC Elementary
- St Mary Gate of Heaven RC Elementary
- Divine Mercy Catholic Academy (originally Nativity B.V.M. and St. Stanislaus Schools, which were combined renamed in 2007)
- Little Dolphin Pre-School
- Khans Academy
- Our Lady of Wisdom RC Secondary
- St. Stanislaus Parish School
- Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary Parish School-renamed Divine Mercy
In popular cultureEdit
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Ozone Park has served as the setting and subject of numerous media works.
- A Bronx Tale (1993) features a scene set at Aqueduct Racetrack.
- A Shock to the System (1990) contains a scene filmed in the old Aqueduct Racetrack station.
- Boss of Bosses (2001, starring Chazz Palminteri) features a scene with John Gotti in Ozone Park at the Bergin Hunt and Fish Club.
- Goodfellas (1990) is an Academy Award-winning gangster film that takes place in and around Ozone Park.
- Holy Rollers (2010) features external shots of the Gold and Zimmerman houses.
- Lucky Number Slevin (2006) contains a scene at the beginning, wherein the father and son are at Aqueduct Racetrack.
- This Is My Life (1992) starring Julie Kavner as Dottie Ingels living in Ozone Park
- All in the Family's (1970s TV sitcom) principals, Archie and Edith Bunker, had a cousin Bertha who lived in Ozone Park.
- Getting Gotti (1994 TV film starring Lorraine Bracco) is based on a real-life woman, Diane Giacalone, who grew up in Ozone Park and through the years first-handedly watched Gotti rise to power on the streets of Ozone Park; she eventually became an Assistant US Attorney and built up a case against him.
- The King Of Queens TV sitcom often contains scenes in which the old United Artists Cross Bay movie theatre on Rockaway Boulevard can be seen.
- The Perfect Crimes History Channel documentary features the Lufthansa heist and discusses the Lucchese crime family crews living, killing and running businesses in Ozone Park.
- The Sopranos character, Rusty Millio (played by Frankie Valli), lives in Ozone Park, as revealed in the episode "Live Free or Die".
Notable current and former residents of Ozone Park include:
- Ray Abruzzo (born 1954), actor who appeared in The Sopranos
- Joseph Patrick Addabbo (1925-1986), Congressman; P.S. 64 was named after him.
- Joseph Addabbo Jr. (born 1964), member of the New York State Senate from the 15th District and of the New York City Council from the 32nd Council District. He is the son of Joseph Patrick Addabbo.
- Pedro Beato (born 1986), relief pitcher of the Baltimore Orioles
- Charles Camarda (Born 1952), astronaut, Mission Specialist on STS-114.
- The Capris - 1950s Doo Wop group.
- Kvitka Cisyk (1953–1998), singer and actress
- Gerald Edelman (born 1929), 1972 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
- Elizabeth Eden (1946–1987), real life character of Leon from the 1975 film Dog Day Afternoon.
- Peter Facinelli (born 1973), actor
- Mary Flaherty (1926–2000), player for two seasons in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.
- John Frascatore (born 1970), baseball player
- John Gotti (1940–2002), Mafia boss (headed the Gambino crime family)
- Neal Heaton (born 1960), former MLB baseball pitcher
- Carol Heiss (born 1940), Olympics figure skater
- Father Rob Keighron (born 1980), Roman Catholic priest, co-host/co-producer of The Catholic Guy
- Jack Kerouac (1922–1969) - writer, lived in Ozone Park with his parents at 133-01 Cross Bay Boulevard for 11 years after discharge from the U.S. Navy in 1943. He wrote his first novel, The Town and the City, as well as the quintessential On the Road, while living in Ozone Park. His friends jokingly called him "The Wizard of Ozone Park".
- Cyndi Lauper (born 1953), singer/actress. (104th Street)
- Jack Lord (1920-1998), actor, star of the 1960s Hawaii Five-0 TV series, attended John Adams High School located on Rockaway Boulevard in Ozone Park
- Joe Lo Truglio (1970-) - actor
- Bernadette Peters (1948-) - actress/singer.
- Peter Polaco - American professional wrestler better known by his ring name, "Justin Credible".
- Tom Postilio, Celebrity real estate broker and star of HGTV's Selling New York.
- Nick Scotti - actor, singer, and model
- Ronald Spadafora - FDNY Chief
- Anthony Trentacosta - Gambino crime family member
- Eric Ulrich (born 1985), member of the New York City Council from the 32nd Council District.
- Thomas Von Essen - Senior Vice President at Giuliani Partners and 30th New York City Fire Commissioner.
- Debra Wilson (born 1962), actress, comedian, voice actress, and TV presenter
- The border with Brooklyn runs on a zigzag. Going south from Atlantic Avenue, it travels south on Eldert Lane, east on 95th Avenue, south on Drew Street, east on Liberty Avenue, south om 75th Street, and east on North Conduit Avenue.
- The border of Community Districts 9 and 10 is Liberty Avenue west of 84th Street, and 103rd Avenue east of 84th Street
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- Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
- Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
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- Shaman, Diana. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Ozone Park; Changing Faces, Enduring Values", The New York Times, October 5, 2003. Accessed August 30, 2018. "Housing development dates to the late 19th century, when two partners, Benjamin W. Hitchcock and Charles C. Denton, began carving farmland into building lots after the New York, Woodhaven & Rockaway Rail Road opened service in 1880 from Long Island City to Howard Beach. The developers chose the name Ozone Park to lure buyers with the idea of refreshing breezes blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean to a parklike community."
- "Ozone Park" Archived March 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine on the Queens Economic Development Corporation website
- Pollak, Michael. "F.Y.I.: Real Money Men", The New York Times, May 29, 2009. Accessed August 30, 2018. "The name sprang from the fancy of two 19th-century developers, Benjamin W. Hitchcock and Charles C. Denton, who bought farmland and created building lots after a railroad opened in 1880 from Long Island City to Howard Beach. They decided to call their development Ozone Park to promote the idea of cool, clean breezes blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean. Fresh air is one of the meanings of ozone."
- Centreville Forgotten New York
- "LOSSES BY FIRE.; DESTRUCTION OF THE LALANCE AND GROSJEAN MANUFACTORY AT WOODHAVEN,LONG ISLAND--LOSS $400,000". The New York Times. February 21, 1876. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
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- "New Route To Rockaway. Steel Rails And Superior Rolling Stock. Extra Trains To Be Run To-day". New York Times. August 29, 1880. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
The New-York, Woodhaven and Rockaway Railroad, which began operations on Thursday last, has already grown into popular savor by reason of the comparative shortness of the route and the superior accommodation
- Shaman, Diana (October 5, 2003). "If You're Thinking of Living In/Ozone Park; Changing Faces, Enduring Values". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "A Grand Success". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. May 14, 1883. p. 1.
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- "NEW ELEVATED LINE OPENED FOR QUEENS; Parades and Speeches Near the Lefferts Avenue Station of Liberty Avenue Route. EXTENDS 5-CENT FARE ZONE Children's Placards with Demands for School Improvements a Surprise to Committee". The New York Times. September 26, 1915. Retrieved July 20, 2018.
- "Cross Bay Boulevard Completed in 1925 Gives Impetus to Seaside Development". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. December 7, 1924. p. 72.
- Staff. "Jamaica Bay Highway Ready This Month; New $7,000,000 Boulevard Will Be Open to Motorists the Week of Oct. 26.", The New York Times, October 11, 1925. accessed August 30, 2018. "The Jamaica Bay Boulevard, which will run from Liberty Avenue, Ozone Park, Queens, to Rockaway Beach, shortening the distance between the Rockaway peninsula and Manhattan and Brooklyn nearly ten miles, will be opened to public traffic late this month. When completed its cost will have been $6,935,972."
- Fisher, Janon (October 17, 2004). "Echoes of the Wild West Mark an Urban Frontier". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
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- Leduff, Charlie (November 24, 1996). "3 Cemeteries Are Haunted By Vandals". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
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- "106th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). www.nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Coakley, Michael (April 28, 1985). "NEW YORK SHAKEN BY CHARGES OF STUN-GUN TORTURE BY POLICE". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Fried, Joseph P. (June 4, 1991). "6 Years Later, Queens Officer Is Cleared in Stun-Gun Case". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- "Engine Company 285/Ladder Company 142". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- New York City Health Provider Partnership Brooklyn Community Needs Assessment: Final Report, New York Academy of Medicine (October 3, 2014).
- Finkel, Beth (February 27, 2014). "Guide To Queens Hospitals". Queens Tribune. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Howard Beach, New York City-Queens, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Location Details: Ozone Park". USPS.com. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- "Queens Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Bloch, Matthew; Buchanan, Larry; Katz, Josh; Quealy, Kevin (July 25, 2018). "An Extremely Detailed Map of the 2016 Presidential Election". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- New York City Congressional Districts, New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Accessed May 5, 2017.
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...at which members of long-forgotten groups like the Elegants (from Staten Island) and the Capris (Ozone Park, Queens) examined the Italian-American influence on doo-wop.
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Carol Heiss of Ozone Park, Queens, Miss Personality of the ice, skated off with her third world figure skating championship tonight with a perfectly-executed freestyle exhibition.
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She found simpatico musicians to help her repossess the songs that reverberated through her childhood block in Ozone Park, Queens. And she felt ready to celebrate a lifetime of spirited dancing.
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After relating such immediate events, the book, which will be in stores Aug. 6, recounts Von Essen's life story. It's that of a boy from Ozone Park, Queens, who was adrift until he joined the Fire Department in 1970 at age 24.[permanent dead link]