Fifth Avenue

Route map:

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Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive and elegant streets in the world.[3][4]

Fifth Avenue
Museum Mile
Photograph of Fifth Avenue from the Metropolitan—New York City.jpg
Looking northward from the Metropolitan Museum of Art at 81st Street
OwnerCity of New York
Maintained byNYCDOT
Length6.197 mi[1][2] (9.973 km)
LocationManhattan, New York City
South endWashington Square North in Greenwich Village
Major
junctions
Madison Square in Flatiron
Grand Army Plaza in Midtown
Duke Ellington Circle in East Harlem
Marcus Garvey Park in Harlem
Madison Avenue Bridge in Harlem
Harlem River Drive in Harlem
North end Harlem River Drive / 143rd Street in Harlem
EastUniversity Place (south of 14th)
Broadway (14th to 23rd)
Madison Avenue (north of 23rd)
WestSixth Avenue (south of 59th)
Central Park-East Drive (59th to 110th)
Lenox Avenue (north of 110th)
Construction
CommissionedMarch 1811

Fifth Avenue carries two-way traffic from 142nd to 135th Street and carries one-way traffic southbound for the remainder of its route. The entire street used to carry two-way traffic until 1966. From 124th to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Most of the avenue has a bus lane, though not a bike lane. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City, and is closed on several Sundays per year.

Fifth Avenue was originally only a narrower thoroughfare but the section south of Central Park was widened in 1908. The midtown blocks between 34th and 59th Streets were largely a residential area until the turn of the 20th century, when they were developed as commercial areas. The section of Fifth Avenue in the 50s is consistently ranked among the most expensive shopping streets in the world, and the section between 59th and 96th Streets across Central Park was nicknamed "Millionaire's Row" in the early 20th century due to the high concentration of mansions there. A section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 110th Streets, also alongside Central Park, is also nicknamed Museum Mile due to the large number of museums there.

HistoryEdit

5th Avenue was originally only a narrower thoroughfare. As early as 1900, rising traffic led to proposals to restrict traffic on the avenue.[5] The section south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic.

In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections along the lower portion of Fifth Avenue.[6] The idea of using patrolmen to control traffic at busy Fifth Avenue intersections was introduced as early as 1914.[7] The first such towers were installed in 1920 upon a gift by Dr. John A. Harriss, who paid for patrolmen's sheds in the middle of Fifth Avenue at 34th, 38th, 42nd, 50th and 57th Streets.[8] Two years later, the Fifth Avenue Association gave seven 23-foot-high (7.0 m) bronze traffic towers, designed by Joseph H. Freedlander, at important intersections between 14th and 57th Streets for a total cost of $126,000.[9] The traffic signals reduced travel time along Fifth Avenue between 34th and 57th Streets, from 40 minutes before the installation of the traffic towers to 15 minutes afterward.[6] Freedlander's towers were removed in 1929 after they were deemed to be obstacles to the movement of traffic.[10] He was commissioned to design bronze traffic signals at the corners of these intersections, with statues of Mercury atop the signals. The Mercury signals survived through 1964,[8] and some of the statues were restored in 1971.[11]

In 1954, rising traffic led to a proposal to limit use of the avenue to buses and taxis only.[12] On January 14, 1966, Fifth Avenue below 135th Street was changed to carry only one-way traffic southbound, and Madison Avenue was changed to one-way northbound. Both avenues had previously carried bidirectional traffic.[13]

In 1998, a midblock crosswalk was installed south of the intersection of Fifth Avenue and 50th Street, part of an experiment to allow vehicular traffic to turn without conflicting with pedestrians. At the time, it was one of a few midblock crosswalks in the city.[14] A similar crosswalk was later installed at 49th Street, and both crosswalks were removed in 2019.

DevelopmentEdit

The midtown blocks were largely a residential area until the turn of the 20th century, when they were developed as commercial areas.[15][16] The first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896.[17] The B. Altman and Company Building was erected between 1906 and 1914, occupying the whole of its block front. The result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them.[18]:266 The Lord & Taylor Building, formerly Lord & Taylor's flagship store and now a WeWork office, was built at Fifth Avenue and 38th Street in 1914.[19] The Saks Fifth Avenue Building, serving as Saks Fifth Avenue's flagship, opened between 49th and 50th Streets in 1924.[20] The Bergdorf Goodman Building between 57th and 58th Streets, the flagship of Bergdorf Goodman, opened in stages between 1928 and 1929.[21]:2

Fifth Avenue was being developed with office and commercial buildings at the beginning of the 20th century.[22] By the 1920s, Fifth Avenue was the most active area for development in Midtown, and developers were starting to build north of 45th Street, which had previously been considered the boundary for profitable developments.[23]:2–3[24]:14–15[25] The most active year for construction in that decade was 1926, when thirty office buildings were constructed on Fifth Avenue.[23]:2[24]:14[26] The two-block-wide area between Fifth and Park Avenues, which represented eight percent of Manhattan's land area, contained 25% of developments that commenced between 1924 and 1926.[25]

 
Fifth Avenue after a snow storm in 1905

DescriptionEdit

Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge.

Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan; for example, it separates East 59th Street from West 59th Street. Higher-numbered avenues such as Sixth Avenue are to the west of Fifth Avenue, while lower-numbered avenues such as Third Avenue are to the east.[27] Address numbers on west-east streets increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue. A hundred street address numbers were provided for every block to the east or west of Fifth Avenue; for instance, the addresses on West 50th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues were numbered 1–99 West 50th Street, and between Sixth and Seventh Avenues 100–199 West 50th Street.[27] The building lot numbering system worked similarly on the East Side before Madison and Lexington Avenues were added to the street grid laid out in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811. Unlike at other avenues, west-east street addresses do not increment to the next hundred to the east of Madison and Lexington Avenues.

The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis.[4] In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world. Some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings.[28]

The American Planning Association (APA) compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America. This historic street has many world-renowned museums, businesses and stores, parks, luxury apartments, and historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future.[29] By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.[30]

Traffic patternEdit

Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 143rd Street to 142nd Street and from 135th Street to Washington Square North. The changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown (northbound).[13] From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West.

 
Members of Naval Reserve Center Bronx's color guard march up Fifth Avenue at the 244th Annual NYC St. Patrick's Day parade

Parade routeEdit

Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; thus, it is closed to traffic on numerous Sundays in warm weather. The longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, and the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades usually proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village. The Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams", takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.[31][32]

Bicycling routeEdit

Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with very heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along most of Fifth Avenue.[33] A protected bike lane south of 23rd Street was added in 2017,[34] and another protected lane for bidirectional bike traffic between 110th and 120th Streets was announced in 2020.[35]

In July 1987, then New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth, Park, and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned.[36] When the trial was started on August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned.[37] On August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit.[38]

Public transportationEdit

Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along which streetcars did not operate. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, and again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.[39] Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, and M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 also run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street.[40] Numerous express buses from Brooklyn, the Bronx, and Staten Island also run along Fifth Avenue.[41]

NicknamesEdit

 
1026–1028 Fifth Avenue, one of the few extant mansions on Millionaire's Row

Upper Fifth Avenue/Millionaire's RowEdit

In the late 19th century, the very rich of New York began building mansions along the stretch of Fifth Avenue between 59th Street and 96th Street, looking onto Central Park. By the early 20th century, this portion of Fifth Avenue had been nicknamed "Millionaire's Row", with mansions such as the Mrs. William B. Astor House and William A. Clark House. Entries to Central Park along this stretch include Inventor's Gate at 72nd Street, which gave access to the park's carriage drives, and Engineers' Gate at 90th Street, used by equestrians.

A milestone change for Fifth Avenue came in 1916, when the grand corner mansion at 72nd Street and Fifth Avenue that James A. Burden II had erected in 1893 became the first private mansion on Fifth Avenue above 59th Street to be demolished to make way for a grand apartment house. The building at 907 Fifth Avenue began a trend, with its 12 stories around a central court, with two apartments to a floor.[42] Its strong cornice above the fourth floor, just at the eaves height of its neighbors, was intended to soften its presence.

In January 1922, the city reacted to complaints about the ongoing replacement of Fifth Avenue's mansions by apartment buildings by restricting the height of future structures to 75 feet (23 m), about half the height of a ten-story apartment building.[43] Architect J. E. R. Carpenter brought suit, and won a verdict overturning the height restriction in 1923. Carpenter argued that "the avenue would be greatly improved in appearance when deluxe apartments would replace the old-style mansions."[43] Led by real estate investors Benjamin Winter, Sr. and Frederick Brown, the old mansions were quickly torn down and replaced with apartment buildings.[44]

This area contains many notable apartment buildings, including 810 Fifth Avenue and the Park Cinq, many of them built in the 1920s by architects such as Rosario Candela and J. E. R. Carpenter. A very few post-World War II structures break the unified limestone frontage, notably the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum between 88th and 89th Streets.

 
The Museum Mile street sign

Museum MileEdit

Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 110th streets on the Upper East Side,[45][46] in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill.[47] The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Nine museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue.[48] A ninth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009; its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959,[49] opened in late 2012.

In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival to promote the museums and increase visitation.[50] The Museum Mile Festival traditionally takes place here on the second Tuesday in June from 6 – 9 p.m. It was established in 1979 to increase public awareness of its member institutions and promote public support of the arts in New York City.[51] The first festival was held on June 26, 1979 (1979-06-26).[52] The nine museums are open free that evening to the public. Several of the participating museums offer outdoor art activities for children, live music and street performers.[53] During the event, Fifth Avenue is closed to traffic.

Museums on the mile include:

Further south, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 70th Street, lies the Henry Clay Frick House, which houses the Frick Collection.[55]

Historical landmarksEdit

Buildings on Fifth Avenue can have one of several types of official landmark designations:

  • The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is the New York City agency that is responsible for identifying and designating the City's landmarks and the buildings in the City's historic districts. New York City landmarks (NYCL) can be categorized into one of several groups: individual (exterior), interior, and scenic landmarks.[56]
  • The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance.[57]
  • The National Historic Landmark (NHL) focuses on places of significance in American history, architecture, engineering, or culture; all NHL sites are also on the NRHP.[58]
  • World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and are legally protected by international treaties.[59]

Individual landmarksEdit

Below is a list of historic sites on Fifth Avenue, from north to south.[60][61] Historic districts are not included in this table, but are mentioned in § Historic districts. Buildings within historic districts, but no individual landmark designation, are not included in this table.

Name Image Address Cross-street NHL NRHP NYCL Notes
369th Regiment Armory   2366 Fifth Avenue 142nd–143rd Streets Yes exterior [62][63]
St. Andrew's Church   2067 Fifth Avenue 127th Street Yes exterior [62][64]
Harlem Fire Watchtower   Marcus Garvey Park 122nd Street Yes exterior [62][65]
Central Park   N/A 60th–110th Streets Yes Yes scenic landmark [62][61][66]
Museum of the City of New York   1220–1227 Fifth Avenue 103rd-104th Streets exterior [67]
Willard D. Straight House   1130 Fifth Avenue 94th Street exterior [68]
Felix M. Warburg House   1109 Fifth Avenue 92nd Street Yes exterior [62][69]
Otto H. Kahn House   1 East 91st Street 91st Street exterior [70]
Andrew Carnegie Mansion   2 East 91st Street 91st Street Yes exterior [62][71]
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum   1009 Fifth Avenue 82nd Street Yes Yes exterior and interior Also designated as WHS[61][62][72][73]
Duke Residence   1009 Fifth Avenue 82nd Street Yes exterior [62][74]
Metropolitan Museum of Art   1000 Fifth Avenue 80th–84th Streets Yes Yes exterior and interior [61][62][75]
998 Fifth Avenue   998 Fifth Avenue 81st Street exterior [76]
Payne Whitney House   972 Fifth Avenue 78th–79th Streets, midblock exterior [77]
James B. Duke House   1 East 78th Street 78th Street Yes exterior [62][78]
Edward S. Harkness House   1 East 75th Street 75th Street exterior [79]
Henry Clay Frick House   1 East 70th Street 70th Street Yes Yes exterior [62][61][80]
Robert Livingston Beeckman House   854 Fifth Avenue 66th–67th Streets, midblock exterior [81]
Knickerbocker Club   2 East 62nd Street 62nd Street exterior [82]
The Metropolitan Club   2 East 60th Street 60th Street exterior [83]
Grand Army Plaza   58th–60th Streets scenic landmark [84]
The Sherry-Netherland Sidewalk Clock   783 Fifth Avenue 59th Street Yes [62]
Plaza Hotel   768 Fifth Avenue 58th–59th Streets Yes Yes exterior and interior [61][62][85]
Bergdorf Goodman   754 Fifth Avenue 57th–58th Streets exterior [21]
Coty Building   714 Fifth Avenue 55th–56th Streets, midblock exterior [86]
712 Fifth Avenue   712 Fifth Avenue 55th–56th Streets, midblock exterior [87]
The Peninsula New York   696 Fifth Avenue 55th Street exterior [88]
St. Regis New York   693 Fifth Avenue 55th Street exterior [89]
Aeolian Building (689 Fifth Avenue)   689 Fifth Avenue 54th Street exterior [90]
University Club of New York   1 West 54th Street 54th Street exterior [91]
Saint Thomas Church   Corner 1 West 53rd Street exterior [92]
Morton F. Plant & Edward Holbrook House   653 Fifth Avenue 52nd Street Yes exterior [62][93]
Houses at 647, 651-53 Fifth Avenue and 4 East 52nd Street   647, 651 Fifth Avenue 52nd Street Yes [62]
Rockefeller Center (including British Empire Building, La Maison Francaise, International Building)   1–75 Rockefeller Plaza 49th–51st Streets Yes Yes complex [61][62][94]
St. Patrick's Cathedral   460 Madison Avenue 50th–51st Streets Yes Yes exterior [61][62][95]
Saks Fifth Avenue Building   611 Fifth Avenue 49th–50th Streets exterior [96]
Goelet (Swiss Center) Building   608 Fifth Avenue 49th–50th Streets exterior and interior [97][98]
Charles Scribner's Sons Building   597 Fifth Avenue 48th Street exterior and interior [99]
Fred F. French Building   551 Fifth Avenue 45th Street Yes exterior and interior [62][23][100]
Sidewalk Clock, 522 Fifth Avenue   522 Fifth Avenue 44th Street Yes object [62][101]
Manufacturers Trust Company Building   510 Fifth Avenue 43rd Street exterior and partial interior [102]
500 Fifth Avenue   500 Fifth Avenue 42nd Street exterior [103]
New York Public Library Main Branch   476 Fifth Avenue 40th–42nd Streets Yes Yes exterior and partial interior [61][62][104]
Knox Building   452 Fifth Avenue 40th Street Yes exterior [62][105]
Lord & Taylor Building   424 Fifth Avenue 38th Street exterior [106]
Stewart & Company Building   402 Fifth Avenue 37th Street exterior [107]
Tiffany and Company Building   401 Fifth Avenue 37th Street Yes exterior [62][108]
390 Fifth Avenue   390 Fifth Avenue 36th Street exterior [109]
B. Altman and Company Building   355–371 Fifth Avenue 34th–35th Streets Yes [110]
Empire State Building   350 Fifth Avenue 33rd–34th Streets Yes Yes exterior and partial interior [61][62][111]
The Wilbraham   284 Fifth Avenue 30th Street Yes exterior [62][112]
Marble Collegiate Church   272 Fifth Avenue 29th Street Yes exterior [62][113]
Sidewalk Clock, 200 Fifth Avenue   200 Fifth Avenue 24th Street Yes object [62][114]
Flatiron Building   173–185 Fifth Avenue 22nd–23rd Streets Yes Yes exterior [62][61][115]
Scribner Building   153–157 Fifth Avenue 21st–22nd Streets, midblock Yes exterior [62][116]
Salmagundi Club   47 Fifth Avenue 11th–12th Streets, midblock Yes exterior [62][117]

Historic districtsEdit

There are numerous historic districts through which Fifth Avenue passes. Buildings in these districts with individual landmark designations are described in § Individual landmarks. From north to south, the districts are:

  • The Carnegie Hill Historic District, a city landmark district, which covers 400 buildings, primarily along Fifth Avenue from 86th to 98th Street, as well as on side streets extending east to Madison, Park, and Lexington Avenues.[118]:3
  • The Metropolitan Museum Historic District, a city landmark district, which consists of properties on Fifth Avenue between 79th and 86th Streets, outside the Metropolitan Museum of Art, as well as properties on several side streets.[119]:2
  • The Upper East Side Historic District, a city and NRHP district. The city district runs from 59th to 78th Streets along Fifth Avenue, and up to Third Avenue at some points.[120]:3[121]:4
  • The Madison Square North Historic District, a city landmark district, which covers 96 buildings from 25th to 29th Streets around Broadway, Fifth Avenue, and side streets.[122]
  • The Ladies' Mile Historic District, a city landmark district, which covers 440 buildings from roughly 15th Street to 24th Street and from Park Avenue South to west of Sixth Avenue.[123]
  • The Greenwich Village Historic District, a city landmark district, which covers much of Greenwich Village and includes almost all buildings on Fifth Avenue south of 12th Street.[124]

OtherEdit

In addition, the cooperative apartment building at 2 Fifth Avenue was named a New York cultural landmark on December 12, 2013 by the Historic Landmark Preservation Center, as the last residence of former New York City Mayor Ed Koch.[125]

EconomyEdit

 
Fifth Avenue looking north from 51st Street. This section of the street contains numerous boutiques and flagship stores.

Between 49th Street and 60th Street, Fifth Avenue is lined with prestigious boutiques and flagship stores and is consistently ranked among the most expensive shopping streets in the world.[126]

Many luxury goods, fashion, and sport brand boutiques are located on Fifth Avenue, including Louis Vuitton, Tiffany & Co., Gucci, Prada, Armani, Tommy Hilfiger, Cartier, Omega, Chanel, Harry Winston, Salvatore Ferragamo, Nike, Escada, Rolex, Bvlgari, Emilio Pucci, Ermenegildo Zegna, Abercrombie & Fitch, Hollister Co., De Beers, Emanuel Ungaro, Gap, Versace, Lindt Chocolate Shop, Henri Bendel, NBA Store, Oxxford Clothes, Microsoft Store, Sephora, Tourneau, and Wempe. Luxury department stores include Saks Fifth Avenue and Bergdorf Goodman. Fifth Avenue also is home to New York's fifth most photographed building, the Apple Store.

Many airlines at one time had ticketing offices along Fifth Avenue. In the years leading up to 1992, the number of ticketing offices along Fifth Avenue decreased. Pan American World Airways went out of business, while Air France, Finnair, and KLM moved their ticket offices to other areas in Midtown Manhattan.[127]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ Google (September 12, 2015). "Fifth Avenue (south of 120th Street)" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  2. ^ Google (September 12, 2015). "Fifth Avenue (north of 124th Street)" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  3. ^ "Fifth Avenue The World's Most Expensive Shopping Street (PHOTOS) (Subtext: "For the 9th year in a row, Fifth Avenue between 39th and 60th Streets ranks first among Cushman & Wakefield's Main Streets Across the World Report, according to the New York Post.")". HuffingtonPost.com, Inc. September 21, 2010. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  4. ^ a b Foderaro, Lisa W. "Survey Reaffirms 5th Ave. at Top of the Retail Rent Heap", The New York Times, April 29, 1997. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
  5. ^ "Fifth Avenue Traffic Bill; Mr. Weekes Introduces the Bill to Bar Wagons During Certain Hours". The New York Times. February 9, 1900. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Gray, Christopher (May 16, 2014). "A History of New York Traffic Lights". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  7. ^ Taylor, S. W. (August 3, 1914). "Fifth Avenue Traffic; Plan for Policeman in "Crow's Nest" Is Proposed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  8. ^ a b Gray, Christopher (February 2, 1997). "Mystery of 104 Bronze Statues of Mercury". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  9. ^ "Start New Towers for 5th Av. Traffic". The New York Times. June 20, 1922. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  10. ^ "Signal Towers to Go as 5th Av. Obstacles". The New York Times. February 2, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  11. ^ "Statuettes of Mercury Restored to Fifth Ave. (Published 1971)". The New York Times. May 13, 1971. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  12. ^ Sershen, John (December 22, 1954). "Restricted Fifth Avenue Traffic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  13. ^ a b Kihss, Peter (January 12, 1966). "5th and Madison Avenues Become One-Way Friday; Change to Come 7 Weeks Ahead of Schedule to Ease Strike Traffic 5th and Madison to Be Made One-Way Friday". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  14. ^ Newman, Andy (April 11, 1998). "Barricade-Weary Pedestrians Welcome New Midblock Crosswalks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  15. ^ Wist, Ronda (1992). On Fifth Avenue : then and now. New York: Carol Pub. Group. ISBN 978-1-55972-155-4. OCLC 26852090.
  16. ^ "Mr. Edward Harriman..." (PDF). The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide. 79 (2038): 296. April 6, 1907 – via columbia.edu.
  17. ^ "Altman Firm to Build a Fifth Avenue Store; New Establishment to Be Opposite Waldorf-Astoria". The New York Times. December 11, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  18. ^ White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  19. ^ "Fifth Avenue's Wonderful Evolution as Shopping Centre". The New York Times. February 22, 1914. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  20. ^ "Saks New Store Opens Tomorrow; Marks Another Milestone in the Development of Fifth Avenue. (Published 1924)". The New York Times. September 7, 1924. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  21. ^ a b "Bergdorf Goodman" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYCL-2427 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ a b c "Fred F. French Building" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. March 18, 1986. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Fred F. French Building" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service. December 19, 2003. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  25. ^ a b "Millions of Dollars for New Buildings Invested in the Fifth Avenue Area: Steady Increase Shown in Real Estate Values". The New York Times. July 25, 1926. p. RE1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 7, 2020 – via ProQuest.
  26. ^ Robinson, Cervin (1975). Skyscraper style : art deco, New York. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-502112-7. OCLC 1266717.
  27. ^ a b Williams, Keith (September 15, 2017). "Manhattan's Confusing Avenue Addresses (Published 2017)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  28. ^ "- Manhattan NYC New York Penthouses for Sale and Rent. Manhattan Penthouse Apartments". www.nycpenthouses.com.
  29. ^ Great Places in America. Planning.org (February 24, 2011). Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  30. ^ Kilgannon, Corey. "The Empty Storefronts of New York: A Panoramic View". Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  31. ^ "Giannina Braschi". National Book Festival. Library of Congress. 2012. ’Braschi, one of the most revolutionary voices in Latin America today’ is the author of Empire of Dreams.
  32. ^ Marting, Diane (2010), New/Nueva York in Giannina Braschi's 'Poetic Egg': Fragile Identity, Postmodernism, and Globalization, Indiana: The Global South, pp. 167–182.
  33. ^ "NYC DOT – Bicycle Maps" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Transportation. 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  34. ^ "Here Are The Changes Coming To The Fifth Avenue Bike Lane". Gramercy-Murray Hill, NY Patch. July 13, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  35. ^ staff/jake-offenhartz (February 19, 2020). "Here Are The New Protected Bike Lanes Coming To Manhattan In 2020". Gothamist. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  36. ^ Dunham, Mary Frances. "Bicycle Blueprint – Fifth, Park and Madison" Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Transportation Alternatives. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
  37. ^ "Ban on Bikes Could Bring More Mopeds". The New York Times. August 25, 1987. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  38. ^ "Bike Messengers: Life in Tight Lane (Published 1987)". The New York Times. September 4, 1987. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  39. ^ Neuman, William "Step to the Rear of the Bus, Please, or Take a Seat Upstairs", The New York Times, Tuesday, May 23, 2008.
  40. ^ "Manhattan Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  41. ^ See:
  42. ^ The smallest apartment was a half-floor, of 12 rooms; 907 Fifth Avenue.
  43. ^ a b J. E. R. Carpenter, The Architect Who Shaped Upper Fifth Avenue, New York Times, August 26, 2007, Christopher Gray, [1]
  44. ^ Entrepreneur Magazine: "Built for Business: Midtown Manhattan in the 1920s". Retrieved November 11, 2014
  45. ^ Ng, Diana. "Museum Mile" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2., p.867
  46. ^ Street signs saying "Museum Mile" actually extend to 80th Street. "Street View: 80th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York" Google Maps
  47. ^ Kusisto, Laura (October 21, 2011). "Reaching High on Upper 5th Avenue". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
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Further reading

External linksEdit