Rolex SA (//) is a Swiss luxury watch manufacturer based in Geneva, Switzerland. Originally founded as Wilsdorf and Davis by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, England in 1905, the company registered Rolex as the brand name of its watches in 1908 and became Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. in 1915. After World War I, the company moved its base of operations to Geneva, Switzerland in order to avoid heavy taxation from a recovering post-war Britain, and in 1920 Hans Wilsdorf registered Montres Rolex SA in Geneva as the new company name which eventually became Rolex SA in later years. Since 1960, the company has been owned by the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, a private family trust.
|Founded||London, United Kingdom|
(1905 ) (Wilsdorf and Davis)
1915 (Rolex Watch Co. Ltd)
1920 (Montres Rolex S.A.)
|Bertrand Gros (Chairman)|
Jean-Frédéric Dufour (CEO)
|More than 800,000 pieces (2016)|
|Revenue||$4.6 billion (2016)|
Number of employees
|Parent||Hans Wilsdorf foundation|
|Subsidiaries||Montres Tudor SA|
Rolex SA and its subsidiary Montres Tudor SA design, manufacture, distribute and service wristwatches sold under the Rolex and Tudor brands. In 2018, Forbes ranked Rolex as the world's 71st most valuable brand. As of 2018, among the world's top ten most expensive watches ever sold at auctions, three are Rolex watches. In particular, Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona currently holds the title of the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch ever sold at auction, fetching 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26, 2017.
Alfred Davis and his brother-in-law Hans Wilsdorf founded Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would eventually become Rolex S.A., in London, England in 1905. Wilsdorf and Davis' main commercial activity at the time involved importing Hermann Aegler's Swiss movements to England and placing them in watch cases made by Dennison and others. These early wristwatches were sold to many jewellers, who then put their own names on the dial. The earliest watches from Wilsdorf and Davis were usually hallmarked "W&D" inside the caseback.
In 1908, Wilsdorf registered the trademark "Rolex", which became the brand name of watches from Wilsdorf and Davis, and opened an office in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Wilsdorf wanted his watch brand's name to be easily pronounceable in any language. He also thought that the name "Rolex" was onomatopoeic, sounding like a watch being wound. It is easily pronounceable in many languages and, as all its upper-case letters have the same size and can be written symmetrically. It was also short enough to fit on the face of a watch.
In 1914, Kew Observatory awarded a Rolex watch a Class A precision certificate, a distinction normally granted exclusively to marine chronometers. In November 1915, the company changed its name to Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. After World War I, Hans Wilsdorf left England in 1919 due to heavy post-war taxes levied on luxury imports, as well as to the high cost driven by exporting duties on the silver and gold used for the watch cases. As a result, Wilsdorf moved the company to Geneva, Switzerland, where the company's name was officially changed to Montres Rolex S.A. in 1920, and eventually to Rolex S.A in later years.
Upon the death of his wife in 1944, Wilsdorf established the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, a private trust, in which he left all of his Rolex shares, making sure that some of the company's income would go to charity. Wilsdorf died in 1960, and since then the trust has owned and run Rolex SA.
In December 2008, following the abrupt departure of Chief Executive Patrick Heiniger for "personal reasons", Rolex SA denied that it had lost 1 billion Swiss francs (approx £574 million, $900 million) invested with Bernard Madoff, the American asset manager who pleaded guilty to an approximately £30 billion worldwide Ponzi scheme fraud. The company announced Heiniger's death on March 5, 2013.
Rolex SA is owned by the private Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, which is registered as a charity and does not pay corporate income taxes. In 2011, a spokesman for Rolex declined to provide evidence regarding the amount of charitable donations made by the Wilsdorf Foundation. In Geneva where the company is based, it is said to have gifted, among many things, two housing buildings to social institutions of Geneva.
According to the 2017 Brand Z report, the brand value is estimated $8.053 billion. Rolex watches continue to have a reputation as status symbols. It produces more than 800,000 timepieces each year.
Rolex SA offers products under the Rolex and Tudor brands. Montres Tudor (SA) has designed, manufactured and marketed Tudor watches since 6 March 1946. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf conceived of the Tudor Watch Company to create a product for authorized Rolex dealers to sell that offered the reliability and dependability of a Rolex, but at a lower price. The number of Rolex watches was limited by the rate that they could produce in-house Rolex movements, thus Tudor watches were originally equipped with off-the-shelf movements while using similar quality cases and bracelets.
Historically, Tudor watches have been manufactured by Montres Tudor SA using movements supplied by ETA SA. Since 2015, however, Tudor has begun to manufacture watches with in-house movements. The first model introduced with a in-house movement was the Tudor North Flag. Following this, updated versions of the Tudor Pelagos and Tudor Heritage Black Bay have also been fitted with an in-house caliber.
Tudor watches are marketed and sold in most countries around the world including the United States, Australia, Canada, India, Mexico, South Africa, some countries in Europe including the UK, South Asia, the Middle East and countries in South America, particularly Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela. Montres Tudor SA discontinued sales of Tudor-branded watches in the United States in 2004, but Tudor returned to the United States market in the summer of 2013 and to the UK in 2014.
Motto and sloganEdit
Rolex mostly produced mechanical watches, but it has also participated in the development of the original quartz watch movements. Although Rolex has made very few quartz models for its Oyster line, the company's engineers were instrumental in design and implementation of the technology during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1968, Rolex collaborated with a consortium of 16 Swiss watch manufacturers to develop the Beta 21 quartz movement used in their Rolex Quartz Date 5100 alongside other manufactures including the Omega Electroquartz watches. Within about five years of research, design, and development, Rolex created the "clean-slate" 5035/5055 movement that would eventually power the Rolex Oysterquartz.
Material-wise, Rolex first used its "Cerachrom" ceramic bezel on the GMT-Master II in 2005, and has since then implemented ceramic bezel inserts across the range of professional sports watches. They are available on the Submariner, Sea Dweller, Deepsea, GMT Master II and Daytona models. In contrast to the aluminum bezel which it replaced, the ceramic bezel color does not wear out from explosure to UV-light and is very scratch resistant.
Notable inventions and patentsEdit
Among the company's innovations are:
- In 1910, the first watchmaker to earn chronometer certification for a wristwatch (1910) Rolex is the largest manufacturer of Swiss made certified chronometers. In 2005, more than half the annual production of COSC certified watches were Rolexes. To date, Rolex still holds the record for the most certified chronometer movements in the category of wristwatches.
- In 1926, produced a waterproof wristwatch, Rolex Oyster. But it was far from the first company to do (see, for example, the "Submarine Watch" from the First World War, which was made by Tavannes and retailed by Brook & Son in Edinburgh). Rolex was the second watch company to create a water resistant wristwatch that could withstand pressure to a depth of 330 feet (100 m). Wilsdorf even had a specially made Rolex watch (the watch was called the "DeepSea") attached to the side of Trieste, which went to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. The watch survived and tested as having kept perfect time during its descent and ascent. This was confirmed by a telegram sent to Rolex the following day saying "Am happy to confirm that even at 11,000 metres your watch is as precise as on the surface. Best regards, Jacques Piccard".
- In 1931, produced first self-winding Rolex wristwatch was offered to the public in 1931 (so-called the "bubbleback" due to the large caseback), preceded to the market by Harwood which patented the design in 1923 and produced the first self-winding watch in 1928, powered by an internal mechanism that used the movement of the wearer's arm. This not only made watch-winding unnecessary, but kept the power from the mainspring more consistent resulting in more reliable timekeeping.
- In 1945, introduced the first wristwatch with an automatically changing date on the dial (Rolex Datejust Ref. 4467).
- In 1953, The first wristwatch case waterproof to 100 m (330 ft) (Rolex Oyster Perpetual Submariner Ref.6204, 1953)
- In 1954, The first wristwatch to show two time zones at once (Rolex GMT Master ref.6542, 1954)
- In 1956, The first wristwatch with an automatically changing day and date on the dial (Rolex Day-Date, 1956)
Rolex watches are frequently counterfeited, and these are often illegally sold on the street and online. Counterfeit Rolex watches vary in quality: some use the cheapest of movements, while others use automatic movements, and some use an ETA movement. However, the majority of these counterfeit watches are easily identifiable by jewellers and other experts. O. J. Simpson wore a counterfeit Rolex during his 1994 murder trial.
In December 2018, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) released an official report giving environmental ratings for 15 major watch manufacturers and jewelers in Switzerland. Rolex, along with 7 other manufacturers including Patek Philippe, Audemars Piguet and Breguet, was given the lowest environmental rating as "Latecomers/Non-transparent", suggesting that the manufacturer has taken very few actions addressing the impact of its manufacturing activities on the environment and climate change.
There are concerns over the lack of transparency in manufacturing activities and the sourcing of precious raw materials such as gold, which is a major cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation. The situation is especially serious in the developing countries which are top producers of gold, including China, Russia and South Africa. It is estimated that the watch and jewelry sector uses over 50% of world's annual gold production (over 2,000 tons), but in most cases the watch companies are not able to or are unwilling to demonstrate where their raw materials come from and if the material suppliers use eco-friendly sourcing technologies.
In general, Rolex has three watch lines: Oyster Perpetual, Professional and Cellini (the Cellini line is Rolex's line of "dress" watches). The primary bracelets for the Oyster line are named Jubilee, Oyster, President, and Pearlmaster. The watch straps on the models are usually either stainless steel, yellow gold, white gold, or rose gold. In the United Kingdom, the retail price for the stainless steel 'Pilots' range (such as the GMT Master II) starts from GBP 5,600. Diamond inlay watches are more expensive. The book "Vintage Wristwatches" by Antiques Roadshow's Reyne Haines listed a price estimate of vintage Rolex watches that ranged between US$650 and US$75,000, while listing vintage Tudors between US$250 and US$9,000.
Most expensive piecesEdit
- On October 26, 2017, a Rolex Daytona (Ref. 6239) wristwatch, manufactured in 1968, was sold by Phillips in its New York auction for US$17.75 million. The watch was originally purchased by Joanne Woodward in 1968 and was given by Joanne to her husband Paul Newman as a gift. The auction price set a record at $15.5-million, plus buyer's premium of 12.5%, for a final price of $17,752,500 in New York City. As of 2018, it is the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch ever sold at auction. Notably, "[a]t the time that Newman gave the watch to James Cox [as a gift], the watch was selling for about $200."
- On May 28, 2018, a Rolex Daytona "Unicorn" Ref. 6265 was sold in auction by Phillips for US$5.937 million in Geneva, making it the second most expensive Rolex timepiece ever sold at auction (as of 2018).
- The most expensive Rolex (in terms of retail price) ever produced by the Rolex factory was the GMT Ice reference 116769TBR with a retail price of US$485,350. A Forbes magazine article on the Swiss watch industry compared the retail value of Rolex to that of competing brands Corum, Universal Genève and IWC.
Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf created the Air-King line to honor RAF pilots of the Battle of Britain. By 2007, the 1142XX iteration of the Air-King featured a COSC-certified movement in a 34mm case, considered by some a miniaturized variant of the 39mm Rolex Explorer as both watches featured very similar styling cues; the 34mm Air-King lineup was the least expensive series of Oyster Perpetual. In 2014 the Air-King was dropped, making the Oyster Perpetual 26/31/34/36/39 the entry-level Rolex line. In 2016 Rolex reintroduced the Air-King, available as a single model (number 116900), largely similar to its predecessors but with a larger 40mm case, and a magnetic shield found on the Rolex Milgauss; indeed the new 40mm Air-King is slightly cheaper than the 39mm Explorer (the Explorer lacks the magnetic shield but its movement has Paraflex shock absorbers that are not found in the Air-King's movement).
The name of the watch line in catalogs is often "Rolex Oyster Perpetual ______" or "Rolex ______"; Rolex Oyster and Oyster Perpetual are generic names and not specific product lines, except for the Oyster Perpetual 26/31/34/36/39 and Oyster Perpetual Date 34.
Within the Oyster Perpetual 26/31/34/36/39 lineup, there are three different movements; the 39 features the Caliber 3132 movement with the Parachrom hairspring and Paraflex shock absorbers (the Oyster Perpetual 39 is a less sporty variant of the Rolex Explorer 39mm as they share the same case, same bracelet and buckle, same bezel and same movement, with a different dial and different hands), while the 34 and 36 models have the Caliber 3130 featuring the Parachrom hairspring, and the smallest 28 and 31 models have Calibre 2231. The Oyster Perpetual Date 34 (or simply Date 34) adds a date display and date movement, plus the options of a white gold fluted bezel and diamonds on the dial.
Certain models from the Date and Datejust are almost identical, however the Datejust have 36 mm and 41 mm cases paired with a 20 mm bracelet, compared to the Date's 34 mm case and 19 mm bracelet. Modern versions of the Oyster Perpetual Date and Datejust models share Rolex's 3135 movement, with the most recent change to the 3135 movement being the introduction of Rolex's "parachrom bleu" hairspring, which provides increased accuracy. As the Date and Datejust share a movement, both have the ability to adjust the date forward one day at a time without adjusting the time; this feature is not confined to the Datejust. Compared to the Date, the Datejust has a much wider range of customization options, including other metals beyond stainless steel, various materials for the dial, and optional diamonds on the dial and bezel. The Datejust II, which was released in 2009, has a bigger case (41mm diameter) than the standard Datejust and it also features an updated movement, being only available in steel with white, yellow or rose gold on an Oyster bracelet. In 2016, Rolex released the Datejust 41, which has the same 41mm diameter case as the Datejust II, however the Datejust 41 has smaller indexes and a thinner bezel compared to the Datejust II.
Rolex produced specific models suitable for the extremes of deep-sea diving, caving, mountain climbing, polar exploration, and aviation. Early sports models included the Rolex Submariner (1953) and the Rolex Sea Dweller. The latter watch has a helium release valve, co-invented with Swiss watchmaker Doxa, to release helium gas build-up during decompression.
The Explorer (1953) and Explorer II (1971) were developed specifically for explorers who would navigate rough terrain, such as the world-famous Mount Everest expeditions. The 39 mm Rolex Explorer was designed as a "tool watch" for rugged use, hence its movement has Paraflex shock absorbers which gives them higher shock resistance than other Rolex watches. The 41mm Rolex Explorer II has some significant differences from the 39mm Explorer; the Explorer II adds a date function, and an orange 24-hour hand which is paired with the fixed bezel's black 24-hour markers.
Another iconic model is the Rolex GMT Master (1954), originally developed at the request of Pan Am Airways to provide its crews with a dual time watch that could be used to display GMT (Greenwich Mean Time), which was the international time standard for aviation at that time (and still is) and was needed for Astronavigation during longer flights.
POWs and the Great EscapeEdit
By the start of World War II Royal Air Force pilots were buying Rolex watches to replace their inferior standard-issue watches. However, when captured and sent to POW camps, their watches were confiscated. When Hans Wilsdorf heard of this, he offered to replace all watches that had been confiscated and not require payment until the end of the war, if the officers would write to Rolex and explain the circumstances of their loss and where they were being held. Wilsdorf was in personal charge of the scheme. As a result of this, an estimated 3,000 Rolex watches were ordered by British officers in the Oflag (prison camp for officers) VII B POW camp in Bavaria alone. This had the effect of raising the morale among the allied POWs because it indicated that Wilsdorf did not believe that the Axis powers would win the war. American servicemen heard about this when stationed in Europe during WWII and this helped open up the American market to Rolex after the war.
On 10 March 1943, while still a prisoner of war, Corporal Clive James Nutting, one of the organizers of the Great Escape, ordered a stainless steel Rolex Oyster 3525 Chronograph (valued at a current equivalent of £1,200) by mail directly from Hans Wilsdorf in Geneva, intending to pay for it with money he saved working as a shoemaker at the camp. The watch (Rolex watch no. 185983) was delivered to Stalag Luft III on 10 July that year along with a note from Wilsdorf apologising for any delay in processing the order and explaining that an English gentleman such as Corporal Nutting "should not even think" about paying for the watch before the end of the war. Wilsdorf is reported to have been impressed with Nutting because, although not an officer, he had ordered the expensive Rolex 3525 Oyster chronograph while most other prisoners ordered the much cheaper Rolex Speed King model which was popular because of its small size. The watch is believed to have been ordered specifically to be used in the Great Escape when, as a chronograph, it could have been used to time patrols of prison guards or time the 76 ill-fated escapees through tunnel 'Harry' on 24 March 1944. Eventually, after the war, Nutting was sent an invoice of only £15 for the watch, because of currency export controls in England at the time. The watch and associated correspondence between Wilsdorf and Nutting were sold at auction for £66,000 in May 2007, while at an earlier auction in September 2006 the same watch fetched A$54,000. Nutting served as a consultant for both the 1950 film The Wooden Horse and the 1963 film The Great Escape. Both films were based on actual escapes which took place at Stalag Luft III. It was also reported that in November 2013 the Rolex Speed King owned by Flight Lieutenant Gerald Imeson during the Great Escape was sold for £60,000.
In a famous murder case, the Rolex on Ronald Platt's wrist eventually led to the arrest of his murderer, Albert Johnson Walker—a financial planner who had fled from Canada when he was charged with 18 counts of fraud, theft, and money laundering. When the body was found in the English Channel in 1996 by a fisherman named John Coprik, a Rolex wristwatch was the only identifiable object on the body. Since the Rolex movement had a serial number and was engraved with special markings every time it was serviced, British police traced the service records from Rolex and identified the owner of the watch as Ronald Platt. In addition, British police were able to determine the date of death by examining the date on the watch calendar. Since the Rolex movement was fully waterproof and had a reserve of two to three days of operation when inactive, they were able to determine the time of death within a small margin of error.
In tennis, Rolex is the official timekeeper of Wimbledon, the Australian Open, the US Open, and the French Open, all four Grand Slams. In golf, it is the official time keeper for two of the four majors, The Open Championship and the U.S. Open, as well as the PGA Tour and European Tour; the presenting sponsor for one of the five senior majors, The Senior Open Championship; and the official sponsor of the Women's World Golf Rankings.
Rolex is the title sponsor to the 24 Hours of Daytona, from which the Daytona model takes its name, along with the Rolex Sports Car Series. In 2013, Rolex became the official timekeeper to the FIA Formula 1 motor racing championship. Rolex has also been the official timekeeper to the Le Mans 24 Hours motor race since 2001. Ex-Formula 1 driver Sir Jackie Stewart has advertised Rolex since 1968. Others who have done so for some years include Arnold Palmer, Roger Penske, Jean Claude Killy, and Dame Kiri Te Kanawa. It is also the sponsor of the Rolex International Jumping Riders Club Top 10 Final competition.
Tenzing Norgay and other members of the Hunt expedition wore Rolex Oysters in 1953 at altitude 8,848 m on Mount Everest but the only watch that Hillary wore to the summit was a Smith De Luxe (currently on display at the Clockmakers' Museum within the Science Museum, London). Both Rolex and Smiths had claimed to the first to the summit and while feasible (eg if Hillary and/or Tenzing had carried both or if one had a Smiths and the other a Rolex) it was later admitted by Mr. R. A. Winter, Director of the Rolex Watch Co., Ltd that Hillary was only wearing one watch at the summit, "and that a Smiths watch." He goes on to congratulate Smiths "on the fact that their Smiths de Luxe ordinary wind wrist watch reached the summit with Sir Edmund Hillary." (BHI's Horological Journal, Letters, October 1953, 651)
Also on the year 1953, one or several Rolex Oyster whatches have been given to members of the Italian expedition "Sesto Continente", an exploration in the Red Sea, either underwater and on coasts of the surrounding countries- The expedition, organized and directed by Bruno Vailati, has been filmed in the homonymous documentary that was shot in the Red Sea and the Dahlak Islands and presented at the 15th Venice International Film Festival in 1954. The expedition included commander Raimondo Bucher as director of the sports section, accompanied by his wife Enza, Italian underwater hunting champion, Silverio Zecca, known as the amphibious man, the painter Priscilla Hastings, who would make her own works directly on the sea bed, the journalist Gianni Roghi, the hydrobiologists Francesco Baschieri Salvadori and Luigi Stuart Tovini of the University of Rome, dr. Alberto Grazioli, expedition doctor, film operator Masino Manunza and photographer Giorgio Ravelli. The Sesto Continente is a (edited 1954) film directed by Folco Quilici during the "National Underwater Expedition in the Red Sea" well organized by Bruno Vailati, the first in color in the history of Italian underwater cinema. The Rolex Oyster watches have been precious, and perfectly proper for the hard job to dive for thousand hours.
Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh had a specially designed experimental Rolex Oyster Perpetual Deep-Sea Special strapped to the outside of their bathyscaphe during the 1960 Challenger Deep / Mariana Trench dive to a world-record depth of 10,916 metres (35,814 ft). When James Cameron conducted a similar dive in 2012, a specially designed and manufactured Rolex Oyster Perpetual Sea-Dweller Deep Sea Challenge watch was being "worn" by his submarine's robotic arm.
Mercedes Gleitze was the first British woman to swim the English Channel on 7 October 1927. However, as John E. Brozek (author of The Rolex Report: An Unauthorized Reference Book for the Rolex Enthusiast) points out in his article "The Vindication Swim, Mercedes Gleitze and Rolex take the plunge", some doubts were cast on her achievement when a hoaxer claimed to have made a faster swim only four days later. Hence Gleitze attempted a repeat swim with extensive publicity on 21 October, dubbed the "Vindication Swim". For promotional purposes, Hans Wilsdorf offered her one of the earliest Rolex Oysters if she would wear it during the attempt. After more than 10 hours, in water that was much colder than during her first swim, she was pulled from the sea semi-conscious seven miles short of her goal. Although she did not complete the second crossing, a journalist for The Times wrote "Having regard to the general conditions, the endurance of Miss Gleitze surprised the doctors, journalists and experts who were present, for it seemed unlikely that she would be able to withstand the cold for so long. It was a good performance". As she sat in the boat, the same journalist made a discovery and reported it as follows: "Hanging round her neck by a ribbon on this swim, Miss Gleitze carried a small gold watch, which was found this evening to have kept good time throughout". When examined closely, the watch was found to be dry inside and in perfect condition. One month later, on 24 November 1927, Wilsdorf launched the Rolex Oyster watch in the United Kingdom with a full front page Rolex advert in the Daily Mail. The Vienna Herald described the 1969 Apollo moon landing as: 'an event almost as significant as the time a woman swam most of the English Channel with a waterproof watch on.'
- "Rolex on the Forbes World's Most Valuable Brands List". Forbes. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- www.rolex.com https://www.rolex.com/about-rolex-watches/made-in-switzerland.html#. Retrieved 24 March 2019. Missing or empty
- "History - Fondation de la Haute Horlogerie". www.hautehorlogerie.org. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "1905 - 1919". Rolex. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- "Hans Wilsdorf - Fondation de la Haute Horlogerie". www.hautehorlogerie.org. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "The Rolex Story - Hans Wilsdorf". www.watchmasters.net. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Company Overview of The Rolex Watch Company Ltd". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "1905 - 1919". Rolex. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Company Overview of Rolex SA". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- Stone, Gene (2006). The Watch. Harry A. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3093-5. OCLC 224765439.
- Naas, Roberta. "Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona Fetches $17.7+ Million at Phillips Auction: Find Out Why". Forbes. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- Mullen, Rob McLean and Jethro. "Most expensive wristwatch ever auctioned just fetched $17.8 million". CNNMoney. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Paul Newman's 'Paul Newman' Rolex Daytona Sets World Record, Fetches $17.8 Million". Phillips. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Rolex story". Fondation de la Haute Horlogerie. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- Giorgia Mondani; Guido Mondani (1 January 2015). Rolex Encyclopedia. Guido Mondani Editore e Ass. p. 7. GGKEY:4RFR3GAHPWA.
- Liebeskind, David (Fall–Winter 2004). "What Makes Rolex Tick?". Stern Business. New York University Stern School of Business. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- Marcus Leroux. "Madoff casts shadow over Rolex as chief executive Patrick Heiniger quits". The Times. 20 December 2008.
- "Privatizing Rolex -- The Fake Tells A Truer Tale". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- "Deux immeubles offerts au social".
- Branch, Shelly (1 May 1997). "CNN Money". CNN. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Time Magazine: China". TIME. 21 September 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- Vogel, Carol (6 December 1987). "Modern Conveniences". New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- Cartner-Morley, Jess (1 December 2005). "What is it with men and their watches?". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Tudor Watches | History | From 1926 to 1949". tudorwatch. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Hans Wildorf's Intuition".
- "A Story of Transcendence — Hans Wilsdorf - Revolution". 2 December 2016.
- "Hands-On: With The New Tudor Pelagos, Now With In-House Movement".
- "Buying A Tudor". Montres Tudor SA.
- Clymer, Benjamin. "It's Official: Tudor Is Coming Back To The United States, And Soon! — HODINKEE – Wristwatch News, Reviews, & Original Stories". Hodinkee.com. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Nast, Condé. "Time to Kill: How a Rolex Helped to Solve a Murder Case". GQ. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "The History of the Rolex Logo - Bob's Watches Rolex Blog". Bob's Watches. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "The Quartz Date 5100". oysterquartz.net. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
- "The 5035 movement". oysterquartz.net. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- "Materials". Rolex.
- "Rolex production news from 'Swiss Watch News 2005'". Fhs.ch. 15 July 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "The first waterproof watch - and how it came to fame". Salon QP, March 2016.
- "How to Buy a Watch". gq.com. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Rolex Submariner 6204". Jake's Rolex Blog.
- "Rolex GMT-Master". Blowers Jewellers.
- "Rolex Day-Date". Blowers Jewellers.
- "For the Loser of Fine Watches". The New York Times. 1 July 2006.
- "Simpson's Rolex is a fake, Goldmans find". Articles.latimes.com. 6 October 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Jeweler Finds O.J. Simpson's Rolex Watch to Be Fake". Fox News. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- Dillonnews, Nancy (3 October 2007). "Lawyer: O.J.'s Rolex given to Goldman family a fake". NY Daily News. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- Andrew Blankstein. "OJ Turns Over Fake Rolex To Goldman Family". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Environmental rating and industry report 2018" (PDF). World Wide Fund for Nature. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- swissinfo.ch, S. W. I.; Corporation, a branch of the Swiss Broadcasting. "Swiss luxury watches fail to meet environmental standards". SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
- Vidal, John; Guest, graphic by Pete (15 August 2015). "How developing countries are paying a high price for the global mineral boom". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "China needs to get to grips with its gold mining pollution crisis". www.chinadialogue.net. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Einhorn, Dom (9 February 2015). "Mining in Russia: An economic boost or an environmental threat?". Born2Invest. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "South Africa has failed to protect locals from gold mine pollution: Harvard report". MINING.com. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Haines, Reyney (12 April 2010). Vintage Wristwatches (Rolex price listing pages 188–204; Tudor price listing pages 221–222). Krause Publications. ISBN 1-4402-0409-8.
- "Paul Newman's 'Paul Newman' Rolex Daytona Sets World Record, Fetches $17.8 Million". Phillips. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Paul Newman watch sells for record $18m". 28 October 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- Stevens, Matt (27 October 2017). "Paul Newman Rolex Sells at Auction for Record $17.8 Million" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Phillips: NY080117,". Phillips. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- Williams, Alex (31 August 2017). "Paul Newman's Rare Rolex Has Auction Watchers Buzzing" – via NYTimes.com.
- Besler, Carol. "Paul Newman's Rolex Sells For Record $17.8-million at Phillips Bacs & Russo Auction in New York".
- Slawson, Nicola (28 October 2017). "Paul Newman's Rolex watch sells for record $17.8m". the Guardian.
- Bauer, Hyla Ames. "Paul Newman's 'Paul Newman' Rolex Daytona Sells For $17.8 Million, A Record For A Wristwatch At Auction".
- Wolf, Cam (27 October 2017). "The Story Behind Paul Newman's $17.8 Million Rolex Daytona".
- "Rolex owned by legendary actor Paul Newman sold for $17.8million".
- "Phillips: CH080318, Rolex". Phillips. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Rolex Cosmograph Daytona "The Unicorn" Reference 6265 Sold For $ 5,936,906". www.gmtpost.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Forbes, Bertie Charles (1980). "Forbes Magazine". 126. Forbes, Inc.: 286.
- "The Complete History Of The Rolex Air King". www.rolexmagazine.com.
- "Telling stories: the Rolex Air – King – HH Journal".
- "Rolex Air-King 116900 - One Of The Most Confusing Rolex Watches". 17 October 2016.
- "Hands-On: Some Quick Thoughts On The New Rolex Air-King Versus The New Explorer (Live Pics, Official Pricing)".
- "Review: The New Rolex Explorer -". 1 May 2016.
- Jens Koch (24 April 2017). "A Watch for All Seasons: Rolex Oyster Perpetual 39". www.watchtime.com.
- "Hands-on Review – The 2015 Rolex Oyster Perpetual 39mm Ref. 114300 – specs & price". monochrome-watches.com. 24 April 2015.
- "Rolex Datejust Watch - Rolex Swiss Luxury Watches". www.rolex.com.
- "Full Review – The new Rolex Datejust 41 from Baselworld 2016, with new case, new 3235 movement and comeback of the Jubilee (live pics & price)". monochrome-watches.com. 12 April 2016.
- "Rolex Explorer II Watch: 904L steel - 216570". Rolex.
- Ernesto Gavilanes. "Antiquorum information release through Internet Archive". Antiquorum.com. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2011.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- The Sydney Morning Herald Time on your hands by James Cockington 27 September 2006
- Times online For sale: Rolex sent by mail order to Stalag Luft III by Bojan Pancevski in Vienna 12 May 2007
- "Picture of the watch and Rolex certificate with Nutting's name". Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- Australian auction house Through Internet Archive
- Madoff ‘Prisoner’ Rolex Sale Won’t Calm Swiss Time Town’s Ire Quote: "The prisoners involved in the mass breakout from Stalag Luft III in March 1944, depicted in the Steve McQueen film "The Great Escape", may have used the watches to time the movements of guards as they dug tunnels out of the camp, Antiquorum said."
- Sun on Sunday. 10 November 2013
- D'Arcy Jenish (17 March 2003). "Walker Money Hunt". Maclean's Magazine. thecanadianencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- Discovery Channel Documentary on Ronald Platt's murder
- "24 Hours of Le Mans | ACO - Automobile Club de l'Ouest". 24h-lemans.com. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Video: Racing Legend Sir Jackie Stewart Talks Rolex At Pebble Beach 2014". Quill & Pad. 27 August 20014.
- "Official Rolex Website - Timeless Luxury Watches". Rolex.com. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- Brozek, John E. (December 2003). "The Vindication: Mercedes Gleitze and Rolex take the plunge and become world-renowned" (PDF). International Wristwatch Magazine: 88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008.