Abercrombie & Fitch
Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F) is an American lifestyle retailer that focuses on casual wear. Its headquarters are in New Albany, Ohio. The company operates two other offshoot brands: Abercrombie Kids and Hollister Co. The company operates 1,049 stores across all three brands.
|Traded as||NYSE: ANF (Class A)|
S&P 600 Component
|Founded||June 4, 1892|
Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S.
|Founders||David T. Abercrombie|
Number of locations
|1,049 (December 2014)|
|Revenue||US$ 3.493 billion (2017)|
|US$ 72.05 million (2017)|
|US$ 7.09 million (2017)|
|Total assets||US$ 2.326 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||US$ 1.242 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
|Divisions||Abercrombie & Fitch|
Once known for its sexualised ad campaigns, the company has toned down its imagery and no longer displays nearly nude models in their advertisements. According to then-chairman Arthur Martinez, these changes provide the hopes that the audience will see the company is evolving along with its consumers, and boost sales. Abercrombie & Fitch is now targeting an older consumer, from ages 21 to 24.
The company was founded in 1892 in the Manhattan borough of New York City, New York, by David T. Abercrombie as an outfitter for the elite outdoorsman. Ezra Fitch a wealthy lawyer, and real estate developer, and devoted customer of the Abercrombie Company bought a significant interest in the business in 1900. In 1904, it was incorporated and renamed "Abercrombie & Fitch Co." Fitch eventually bought Abercrombie's share of the business becoming the sole owner from 1907 to 1928. Abercrombie & Fitch was an elite outfitter of sporting and excursion goods, particularly noted for its expensive shotguns, fishing rods, fishing boats, and tents. At one time it had outfitted Theodore Roosevelt's safari and Adm. Richard E. Byrd's expedition to Antarctica. Ernest Hemingway was also a regular customer and following the writer's death in 1961 his wife placed several of his guns on consignment with Abercrombie and Fitch  By the 1970s the business was struggling with lower priced competition while trying to maintain its image. It was known for holding an extensive inventory of lavish items but operating expenses forced them to shed the most expensive items, such as an $18,000 ($80,000 in 2018) gold and onyx chess set. Cash flow problems forced them to also cut inventory on moderate priced items. In 1976, Abercrombie & Fitch filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, finally closing its flagship store at Madison Avenue and East 45th Street in 1977.
Shortly thereafter the name was revived in 1978; Oshman's Sporting Goods, a Houston-based chain owned by Jake Oshman, bought the defunct firm's name and mailing list for $1.5 million ($5.9 million in 2017 dollars). Oshman's relaunched A&F as a mail-order retailer specializing in hunting wear and novelty items. It also opened shops in Beverly Hills, Dallas, and (by the mid-1980s) New York City. Finally, in 1988, Oshman's sold the company name and operations to The Limited, a clothing-chain operator based in Columbus, Ohio. Abercrombie & Fitch gradually shifted its focus to young adults, first as a subsidiary of Limited Brands and then as a separate, publicly traded company; and grew to become one of the largest apparel firms in the United States.
Since 1997, the company has consistently kept a high-profile in the public eye, due to its advertising, its philanthropy, and its involvement in legal conflicts over branding, clothing style and employment practices. In the first decade of the 21st century, the Great Recession battered the company's business as teenagers looked to lower-priced fast fashion brands like H&M and Forever 21 for fashion. Abercrombie & Fitch's stock price dropped from an all-time high of $84.23 in October 2007 to a low of $14.64 in November 2008. The company worked to overhaul its merchandise mix and cut underperforming stores, but lackluster performance has continued. Longtime CEO Michael Jeffries stepped down in December 2014, after 22 years with the company.
To combat heavy competition from fast-fashion retailers like Forever 21 and H&M, Abercrombie & Fitch announced key changes to its image. It aims to reduce emphasis on sexualized advertising and focus more on customer service & diversity. Among the changes announced are eliminating sexualized advertising, no longer having shirtless models at new store openings, and eliminating sexualized pictures and advertising on bags, gift cards, and in stores. They are changing the name of store employees from "models" to "brand representatives", and will allow a more individualistic dress code. "Brand representatives" will also focus more on customer service by asking customers for help in stores, as opposed to past policies of aloofness. They also aim to promote more diversity among store employees and executives as well. A&F is signaling it will be implementing changes quickly.
As of May 2015, the changes were already very apparent in stores. All "permanent marketing" images at the cash wrap and fitting rooms have been removed. Also, store models are no longer dressed in Abercrombie clothes.
As of March 26, 2018, the following were key corporate officials:
- Terry Burman – Non-Executive Chairman
- Fran Horowitz – Chief Executive Officer
- Joanne Crevoiserat – Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer
- Stacia Andersen – Brand President of Abercrombie & Fitch and Abercrombie Kids
- Kristin Scott – Brand President of Hollister Co.
- Robert Bostrom – Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
- Scott Lipesky – Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
In April 2017, the company was described by Standard & Poor's as having a market value of $650,000,000 and about $420,000,000 cash on hand. In May 2017, the company was in talks to sell itself. Potential buyers included Express, American Eagle Outfitters and Cerberus Capital Management. Negotiations failed by early July. As a result of the news, on 10 July the firm's stock fell 21%.
The company's headquarters, referred to by the company as "The Home Office", is located outside of Columbus in New Albany, Ohio. The Home Office is designed as a campus of sorts, and is referred to as such. The company's merchandise-distribution centers (1 million square feet) are located exclusively on campus to help ensure brand protection. Also on campus are mock-up stores, one for each of the company's brands, where store layout, merchandise and atmosphere are determined. In January 2017, the company announced they would be cutting 150 jobs at their corporate headquarters.
Marketing, advertising and brand identityEdit
A&F is known for its racy marketing photography by Bruce Weber. It is black and white set outdoors, usually with semi-nude males and females for an increased tone of sexuality. The company promotes its casting sessions, models, and photo shoots in the "A&F Casting" feature on its website. The website also provides a gallery of current photography. Framed copies at A&F stores will sometimes name the model and store.
The Abercrombie & Fitch brand image is heavily promoted as an international near-luxury lifestyle concept. The company began cultivating an upscale image after the 2005 opening of its Fifth Avenue flagship store alongside Prada and other upscale retailers. Having for years used high-grade materials in the manufacture of its merchandise, and pricing them at "near-luxury" levels, A&F introduced the trademark Casual Luxury as a fictional dictionary term with multiple definitions such as "[using] the finest cashmere, pima cottons, and highest quality leather to create the ultimate in casual, body conscious clothing," and "implementing and/or incorporating time honored machinery ...to produce the most exclusive denim..." This upscale image has allowed A&F to open stores in international high-end locations and further promote the image by pricing its merchandise at almost double the American prices.
Overall, CEO Jeffries calls the A&F image a "movie" because of the "fantasy" that plays out instore.
Following a dismal earnings announcement in August 2014, the company decided to drop its logo-branded apparel line, arguing that this element of its brand does not resonate with its target market. The company is now shifting its marketing strategy to trendier outfits and faster production processes. Some experts argue the retailer's focus on exclusivity has caused it to fall out of fashion with its target market.
The company is noted for its use of "brand representatives" (previously called "models") for store customer service. The models were required to buy and wear A&F clothing, but following a company settlement with California state labor regulators may now wear any no-logo clothing as long as it corresponds with the season and style of the brand. The California settlement also provided $2.2 million to reimburse former employees for their forced purchases of company-branded clothing. An "Impact Team" was created in 2004 to control merchandise within each store and maintain company standards. Bigger and higher volume stores have a "Full Time Stock" who trains Impact associates, processes shipment, maintains stock room standards, and can act as a manager if the store is short on management staffing. The store manager and assistant managers are responsible for forms, lighting, photo marketing, fragrance presentations and to ensure models comply with the "look policy".
Women's Wear Daily calls Abercrombie & Fitch clothing classically "neo-preppy", with an "edgy tone and imagery". The company's fashions have a reputation for luxury, with the majority of designs trend-driven. There is heavy promotion of "Premium Jeans". In early 2010, the company introduced a leather handbag collection inspired by designs from Ruehl.
Its prices are recognized as the highest in the youth-clothing industry. Internationally, prices are almost double those in its American stores. Retail analyst Chris Boring warns that the company's brands are a "little more susceptible" should recession hit, because their specialties are premium-priced goods rather than necessities. Indeed, as the late-2000s recession continues, A&F has noticeably suffered financially for its refusal to lower prices or offer discounts. A&F argues that doing so would "cheapen" its near-luxury image. Analyst Bruce Watson warns that A&F risks finding itself transformed into "a cautionary tale of a store that was left by the wayside when it declined to change with the times". A&F's year-to-year revenue, a key indicator of a retailer's health, rose 13% in September 2010, aided by strong international sales.
Abercrombie & Fitch has carried men's fragrances Fierce, Colden, and has re-branded the original cologne Woods (Christmas Floorset 2010). Women's fragrances have included 8, Perfume 41, Wakely, and Perfume #1. Fierce and 8 are the most heavily marketed fragrances, as they are the signature scents of the brand overall.
The company also offers the Abercrombie & Fitch Credit Card, issued by Comenity Bank.
In 2002, A&F sold a shirt that featured the slogan "Wong Brothers Laundry Service – Two Wongs Can Make It White" with smiling figures in conical Asian hats, a depiction of early Chinese immigrants. The company discontinued the designs and apologized after a boycott started by an Asian American student group at Stanford University. That same year, Abercrombie Kids removed a line of thong underwear sold for girls in pre-teen children's sizes after parents mounted nationwide storefront protests. The underwear included phrases like "Eye Candy" and "Wink Wink" printed on the front.
More T-shirt controversies occurred in 2004. The first incident involved a shirt featuring the phrase, "It's All Relative in West Virginia," a jab at alleged incestuous relationships in rural America. West Virginia Governor Bob Wise spoke out against the company for depicting "an unfounded, negative stereotype of West Virginia", but the shirts were not removed. Later, another T-shirt that said "L is for Loser" next to a picture of a male gymnast on the rings gathered publicity. The company stopped selling the shirt in October 2004 after USA Gymnastics president Bob Colarossi announced a boycott of A&F for mocking the sport.
In 2005, the Women and Girls Foundation of Southwest Pennsylvania launched a "Girlcott" of the store to protest the sale of T-shirts displaying messages such as "Who needs brains when you have these?", "Available for parties," and "I had a nightmare I was a brunette." The campaign received national coverage on The Today Show, and the company pulled the shirts from stores on November 5, 2005. Five days after this media coverage, A&F pulled two of the shirts from its shelves, released an apology to girls for producing the T-shirts, and agreed to have corporate executives meet with the "Girlcott" girls at the company's headquarters.
Bob Jones University, a non-denominational Protestant university located in Greenville, South Carolina, and its affiliated pre-collegiate schools, along with other Christian schools, have prohibited A&F and Hollister clothing from being "worn, carried, or displayed" on its campuses because of "an unusual degree of antagonism to the name of Christ and an unusual display of wickedness" in the company's promotions.
After A&F raised its price points in 2004, its products have been described as overpriced. After the company opened its flagship store in London, England and Paris, France, the brand was criticized in the United Kingdom and France because the merchandise that was offered to the customers cost double (or a direct $/£ – $/€ swap) compared to prices found in the U.S.
A T-shirt controversy arose again over A&F's Back-to-School 2009 collection of "humor tees". One shirt proclaims "Show the twins" above a picture of a young woman with her blouse open to two men. Two other shirts state "Female streaking encouraged" and "Female Students Wanted for Sexual Research". The American Family Association disapproved of the influence of the "sex-as-recreation" lifestyle shirts, and asked the brand to remove its "sexualized shirts" from display.
Because of extensive counterfeiting of Abercrombie & Fitch goods, in 2006 the company launched a brand protection program to combat the problem worldwide (focusing more on China, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea) by working with legal forces globally. The program is headed by a former FBI Supervisory Special Agent who was part of the FBI's Intellectual Property Rights program, and covers all A&F brands. A&F says that the program "will improve current practices and strategies by focusing on eliminating the supply of illicit Abercrombie & Fitch products."
In August 2011, A&F offered Mike "The Situation" Sorrentino and other cast members of the MTV reality show Jersey Shore a "substantial payment" if they stopped wearing Abercrombie-branded clothes, stating "We are deeply concerned that Mr. Sorrentino's association with our brand could cause significant damage to our image." In November 2011, Sorrentino filed a lawsuit against A&F after the company allegedly violated his copyrights in making shirts that said "The Fitchuation" and "GTL...You Know The Deal."
Jeffries' 2006 target demographic quoteEdit
In 2013, a 2006 Salon interview with the CEO Mike Jeffries went viral and caused widespread outcry over Abercrombie's marketing practices. The comments made by Mike Jeffries, stating that his brand is only suitable for "the good-looking, cool kids," and that there are people who do not belong in his clothes – namely overweight people, came under fire.
That's why we hire good-looking people in our stores. Because good-looking people attract other good-looking people, and we want to market to cool, good-looking people. We don't market to anyone other than that. ... In every school there are the cool and popular kids, and then there are the not-so-cool kids. Candidly, we go after the cool kids. We go after the attractive all-American kid with a great attitude and a lot of friends. A lot of people don't belong [in our clothes], and they can't belong. Are we exclusionary? Absolutely.
These quotes, which were the basis for the article's "youth, sex and casual superiority" headline, went largely unnoticed when the article was published in 2006, until they resurfaced in May 2013 after Kirstie Alley brought them up in an Entertainment Tonight interview and prominent talk-show host Ellen DeGeneres spoke out against the company.
Jeffries issued an official statement on May 17, 2013, regarding the news articles, saying, "I want to address some of my comments that have been circulating from a 2006 interview. While I believe this 7-year-old, resurrected quote has been taken out of context, I sincerely regret that my choice of words was interpreted in a manner that has caused offense." He also stated, "We are completely opposed to any discrimination, bullying, derogatory characterizations or other anti-social behavior based on race, gender, body type or other individual characteristics."
The exterior of the contemporary store design features white molding and formerly black louvers. From 2013 to 2014, the louvers were removed from all locations except flagship stores. The company stated that the louvers were removed in an effort to eliminate the exclusive atmosphere from stores and to experiment with window marketing. The currently featured marketing image directly faces the entrance. The interior is lit with dim ceiling lights and spot lighting. Electronic dance music meant to create an upbeat atmosphere may be played at sound levels as high as 90 decibels, exceeding the corporate policy of 84 decibels and comparable to heavy construction machinery and harmful to the ears.
The company operates 1,049 stores across all four brands. The A&F brand has 278 locations in the United States, five in Canada (two in Alberta, two in Ontario and one in British Columbia). The company currently operates 25 full-line stores and four outlet stores across sixteen countries.
The Abercrombie & Fitch brand is believed to have reached its maximum growth potential in the American market. International expansion began in 2005, with the long-term goal of opening flagships for A&F (and eventually all its brands), in high-profile locations worldwide "at a deliberate pace". After initially opening at a deliberately slow pace, the company began to accelerate international expansion for its namesake and its Hollister Co. brand in 2012.
The first non-U.S. Abercrombie & Fitch stores opened in Toronto and Edmonton in 2005, and then expanded to other major cities in Canada. The company first entered the European market in 2007 with the opening of its flagship London store at 7 Burlington Gardens, Savile Row. Since then, the company has opened stores in Milan, Copenhagen, Paris, Madrid, Brussels, Dublin and other major cities in Europe, including six stores in Germany. The company opened its first Asian A&F flagship store in Tokyo in 2009, followed by Fukuoka, Singapore, Hong Kong and Seoul. The company would primarily focus on the Chinese and Japanese markets where luxury consumption is high. The company has also entered a franchise agreement with Grupo AXO to open retail stores in Mexico by 2015. The company entered the Middle Eastern market in 2015 with the opening of its flagship store in Kuwait. Since then the company has opened locations in Dubai and plans to expand deeper into the Middle East with stores in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman.
Remembrance poppy prohibition in the UKEdit
In November 2010, the Southampton, England, A&F store prevented 18-year-old Harriet Phipps from wearing a remembrance poppy, which is worn as part of the Remembrance Day commemorations in the United Kingdom and Canada every November. The official A&F reason for the refusal was reported to be that the poppy is not considered part of the corporate approved uniform, and is therefore prohibited. The ban drew criticisms, and on November 8 the company posted on its Facebook page the following statement: "As an American company that has been around since 1892, we appreciate the sacrifices of the British and American servicemen/women in the World Wars and in military conflicts that continue today. Our company policy is to allow associates to wear a poppy as a token of this appreciation on Remembrance Day. Going forward, ...we will revisit this policy to the days/weeks leading up to Remembrance Day."
Abercrombie Kids shop on Savile RowEdit
In 2012, A&F announced plans that it would open its Abercrombie Kids shop at No. 3 on Savile Row, next door to Gieves & Hawkes. The plans drew criticism and opposition from the tailors of the Row, who were already unhappy about the presence of the main A&F store on Burlington Gardens at the end of the Row to begin with, which eventually led to a protest organized by The Chap magazine on April 23, 2012. During the consultation period, objections were lodged to Westminster City Council and in February 2013 the Council rejected many of A&F's proposals for the store, and branded the entire plans "utterly unacceptable." A&F appealed, managed to overcome the obstacles and opened the store in September 2014. The following year, A&F was subject to nearly £16,000 in fines and legal costs when it was ruled that changes it had made to the Grade II-listed building were illegal.
Abercrombie opens college campus storesEdit
In an attempt to more effectively reach the brand's ideal "college-age" customer Abercrombie & Fitch is opening two campus stores in August 2018.
In 2017, Abercrombie began remodeling select locations into new a prototype design. The design features a complete revamp of the store entrance including removing the gender-specific sides of the store and majority of the interior walls. Lighting is also brighter throughout the store and the cologne amount sprayed has been reduced. The prototype stores also feature suite-style changing rooms, which include lighting and music volume control specific for the suite and oversized mirrors.
Abercrombie & Fitch has operated four concept brands apart from its namesake over the years; they have been referred to as subsidiaries, but operate as divisions under the A&F umbrella.
- Abercrombie Kids
- Prep-school by Abercrombie & Fitch Themed as "classic cool" for kids 7 through 14, this is the children's version of Abercrombie & Fitch.
- Hollister Co.
- Southern California by Abercrombie & Fitch Themed after "SoCal" for teenagers 14 through 18, with significantly lower prices than its parent brand.
- Gilly Hicks
- The cheeky cousin of Abercrombie & Fitch Themed after "Down Under" Sydney, it offered underwear and loungewear for women 18 and up. All stores closed in 2015.
In recent years, Abercrombie & Fitch has engaged in philanthropic and humanitarian projects. In January 2010, the company began communicating on its website about its diversity, inclusion, human rights, philanthropy, and sustainability.
The A&F Challenge is an annual fundraising event held on the home office campus in New Albany that features running, walking, biking, entertainment, and food. The funds raised go to the Ohio State University Medical Center's Program for Health, which focuses on "women's cancers and the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease."
In 2008, Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio agreed to rename its emergency room to the Abercrombie & Fitch Emergency Department and Trauma Center in exchange for a $10 million donation. Ohio State’s Emergency Department was renamed to honor Abercrombie & Fitch's donation of more than $10 million.
The company has been involved in legal conflicts over its employment practices, treatment of customers, and clothing styles.
In a 2004 lawsuit González v. Abercrombie & Fitch, the company was accused of discriminating against African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and women by preferentially offering floor sales positions (called Brand Representatives or Models) and store management positions to Caucasian males. The company agreed to a settlement of the class-action suit, which required the company to (1) pay $40 million to African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and women who applied and were not hired or worked in certain store positions, (2) revise its hiring, performance measurement, and promotion policies, (3) revise its internal complaint procedures, (4) appoint a Vice President of Diversity, (5) hire 25 recruiters to seek out minority applicants, (6) discontinue the practice of recruiting employees at primarily white fraternities and sororities, (7) include more minorities in marketing materials, (8) report to a neutral court-appointed monitor twice per year regarding its progress in those areas, and (9) report to the court once per year.
In June 2009, British law student Riam Dean, who had worked at A&F's flagship store in London's Savile Row, took the company to an employment tribunal. Dean, who was born without a left forearm, claimed that although she was initially given special permission to wear clothing that covered her prosthetic limb, she was soon told that her appearance breached the company's "Look Policy" and sent to work in the stock room, out of sight of customers. Dean sued the company for disability discrimination, and sought up to £20,000 in damages. In August 2009, the tribunal ruled the 22-year-old was wrongfully dismissed and unlawfully harassed. She was awarded £8,013 for loss of earnings and wrongful dismissal.
In a lawsuit filed in September 2009, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, in U.S. District Court by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 17-year-old Samantha Elauf said she applied, in June 2008, for a sales position at the Abercrombie Kids store in the Woodland Hills Mall, located in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The teenager, who wears a hijab in accordance with her religious beliefs, claims the manager told her the headscarf violates the store's "Look Policy". The United States Supreme Court agreed to hear the case on February 25, 2015, and ruled 8-1 on June 1, 2015 against the company.
In 2010, a Muslim woman working at a Hollister store in San Mateo, California, was fired. Before being dismissed, Hani Khan had refused Abercrombie & Fitch's human-resources representative's demand that she remove her hijab. The representative reportedly stated that the headscarf, which Khan wears for religious reasons, violated the company's "Look Policy". The Council on American-Islamic Relations has stated that the dismissal is a violation of nondiscrimination laws, and filed a complaint with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
In 2011, the Belgian Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism started an investigation into A&F's hiring and remuneration policies. The firm was suspected of only hiring personnel under 25 years old, making heavy demands on the physical appearance of its staff and rewarding a premium to male models that work shirtless.
In 2009, the company was fined more than $115,000 by the Minnesota Department of Human Rights for refusing to let a teenage girl help her sister, who has autism, try on clothes in a fitting room. The amount of the fine reflected "pushback" by the company according to Michael K. Browne, the legal affairs manager of the Minnesota Department of Human Rights.
A 16-year-old sued the company after discovering that she was being videotaped in an A&F changing room by an employee, Kenneth Applegate II. Applegate denied the claim, but co-workers discovered his camera days later with the video on it.
In 2010, a customer filed a class action relating to a 2009 holiday gift card promotion. The lawsuit alleges that the gift cards said "No Expiration Date" but Abercrombie voided and expired the gift cards in early 2010. In 2012, a judge certified a nationwide class in the case. In May 2013, Class Notice went out to potential class members.
Lawsuits against other partiesEdit
In 2002, the company filed a lawsuit against American Eagle Outfitters, claiming that American Eagle copied A&F garment designs, among other things. The lawsuit was based on a trade-dress claim, stating that American Eagle had very closely mimicked A&F's products' visual appearance and packaging. Specifically, A&F claimed that American Eagle copied particular articles of clothing, in-store displays and advertisements, and even the A&F product catalog. Despite the admission that American Eagle might have utilized very similar materials, designs, in-store displays, symbols, color combinations, and patterns as A&F, the court ruled that there was not an excessive level of similarity to confuse potential customers, and therefore the court ruled in favor of American Eagle.
On October 18, 1999, Abercrombie & Fitch had a lawsuit about making false and misleading statements concerning its growth while knowing the actual growth was less than Wall Street expectations, and paid $6,050,000 for settlement.
- United States Security and Exchange Commission (March 31, 2014). "Abercrombie & Fitch 2013 10-K". Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch". Fortune. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- "Four Iconic Businesses: One "BRAND"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2008.
- "These before-and-after photos show how much Abercrombie & Fitch has changed". Business Insider. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Launches New Fully Integrated Campaign: "This is the Time"" (Press release). October 19, 2017.
- Kell, John (April 24, 2015). "Abercrombie's shirtless models are about to cover up". Fortune. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "The bizarre history of Abercrombie & Fitch – and how the retailer is transforming yet again". Business Insider. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Barmash, Isadore (August 7, 1976). "Abercrombie & Fitch in Bankruptcy Step". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Co. History". Funding Universe. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Wall Street Journal, 1978[full citation needed]
- "Why Abercrombie Is Losing Its Shirt". New York. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "CPI Inflation Calculator". United States Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Barmash, Isadore. "Company Information". The New York Times.
- Banay, Sophia. "Top Company Profiles – Abercrombie & Fitch". Portfolio.com. Archived from the original on June 22, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
- "ANF Historical Prices | Abercrombie & Fitch Company Com Stock". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Rupp, Lindsey (May 27, 2014). "Abercrombie plans overhaul after steady decline in profits". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Covert, James (December 9, 2014). "Abercrombie & Fitch CEO Mike Jeffries steps down". New York Post. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "Our Company – Executive Officers". Abercrombie.com. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
- "Arthur Martinez to Step Down as Executive Chairman of Abercrombie & Fitch; Lead Director Terry Burman to Become Non-executive Chairman" (Press release). Abercrombie & Fitch. January 22, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Bray, Chad (July 11, 2017). "Abercrombie & Fitch Ends Talks to Sell Itself". New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Careers, Home Office" Archived April 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Abercrombie & Fitch.
- "Struggling Abercrombie cuts 150 jobs at new". bizjournals.com. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Eye Jil Sander". Fashion United. July 26, 2005. Retrieved December 15, 2007.
- Reichert, Tom; Jacqueline Lambiase (2005). Sex in Consumer Culture. Routledge. pp. 330–331. ISBN 978-0-8058-5091-8.
- 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 "Abercrombie & Fitch Co. F1Q09 (Qtr End 05/02/09) Earnings Call Transcript."
- "Abercrombie store opens on Fifth Avenue". Quadrangle. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
- Casual Luxury image from abercrombie.com, Christmas 2006.
- "Abercrombie's Beefcake Brigade". Time. February 14, 2000. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- "Boom! Abercrombie & Fitch Drops Its Logo". Forbes. September 2, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch's decision to ditch its logo is unlikely to revive the brand". The Guardian. September 2, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- Strasburg, Jenny (June 24, 2003). "Clothier settles dress-code complaint / Abercrombie to pay $2.2 million over workers' 'uniforms'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "Employees: 'Hierarchy of Hotness' Rules at Abercrombie & Fitch". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on September 2, 2008.
- Lindsay, Greg (December 11, 2003). "Death of A&F Quarterly: Problem Wasn't the Sex but Brand's Loss of Cool". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
- "Abercrombie and Fitch: The biggest brand loser of the recession". Daily Finance. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- "Abercrombie's New Idea: Down Underwear". Shopping Centers Today. International Council of Shopping Centers. March 2008. Archived from the original on March 4, 2008.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Sept. Revenue Metric Rises". Bloomberg Businessweek. Associated Press. October 7, 2010. Archived from the original on October 11, 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- "Mens and Women's division". Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Retrieved November 26, 2007.[permanent dead link]
- Guillermo, Emil (April 23, 2002). "Humoring Ethnic America: Abercrombie & Fitch Still Doesn't Get It". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- Dial, Karla (undated; copyright 2003). "Megan vs. A&F" Archived October 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Boundless Webzine. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- Dao, James (March 22, 2004). "T-Shirt Slight Has West Virginia in Arms". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- Sprow, Chris. "L is for Lighten Up". Flak Magazine. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- (November 4, 2005). "Abercrombie & Fitch To Pull Tees After "Girlcott". Reuters.
- Staff (October 25, 2005). "Abercrombie and Fitch Target of 'Girlcott'" Archived January 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "Student Handbook 2011–12" (PDF). Bob Jones University. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Rozhon, Tracie (July 13, 2004). "Abercrombie & Fitch May Be Cool – But Cool Only Goes So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2001.
- Poulter, Sean (April 6, 2007). "The Trendy US Gear That Costs Double Over Here". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- [dead link] "Abercrombie & Fitch Draw Heat Over "New College" Line Of T-Shirts". All Headline News. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Expands Anti-Counterfeiting Program". Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
- Smith, Aaron (August 17, 2011). "Abercrombie Drops 9% after 'Jersey Shore' Diss". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "Mike 'The Situation' sues Abercrombie & Fitch over clothing dispute, report says". The Star-Ledger. Newark, NJ. November 16, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- Connell, Charlie. "Mike Jeffries Abercrombie: Retail Chain Ignores Plus-Sized Women; 'Doesn't Want Large People in His Store'". Headlines & Global News. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- Chan, Jennifer. "Abercrombie & Fitch CEO Mike Jeffries Doesn't Want Fat Customers, Says Author Robin Lewis". E!. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- Murray, Rheana. "Abercrombie & Fitch targets skinny shoppers, won't sell larger sizes for plus-sized women". Daily News. New York. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- Abcarian, Robin (May 11, 2013). "Abercrombie & Fitch CEO's ugly quest for attractive 'cool kids'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- "The man behind Abercrombie & Fitch". Salon. January 24, 2006. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Denizet-Lewis, Benoit (January 24, 2006). "The man behind Abercrombie & Fitch: Mike Jeffries turned a moribund company into a multibillion-dollar brand by selling youth, sex and casual superiority. Not bad for a 61-year-old in flip-flops". Salon. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Winston, Fan (May 15, 2013). "Kirstie Alley Slams Abercrombie and Fitch for CEO's Anti-Fat Remarks". Us Magazine. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Peter Scowen (May 15, 2013). "Mad at Abercrombie's anti-plus-size stance? Don't do what this guy did". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- "Video: Ellen DeGeneres Lashes Out Against Abercrombie & Fitch!". tooFab.com. May 17, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Chen, Joyce (May 17, 2013). "Abercrombie And Fitch CEO Mike Jeffries Apologizes For 'Cool Kids' Comment". Us Magazine. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Chang, Jane (September 10, 2006). "The Ab in Abercrombie". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
- "High Volume Sales – A hazard to your hearing?". ABC15 News. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Reports Second Quarter 2012 Results Board of Directors Declares Quarterly Dividend of $0.175 and Increases Share Repurchase Authorization by Ten Million Shares". Reuters. August 15, 2012. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- "Abercrombie Kids' Heads to 5th Ave". Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- Hazlett, Curt (August 2006). "Brits Get Fitched: Saucy American Brand Shakes Up London's Formal Savile Row". Shopping Centers Today. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Feb 2011 Current Report, Form 8-K, Filing Date Feb 18, 2011" (PDF). secdatabase.com. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- Wohl, Jessica (May 18, 2010). "Abercrombie & Fitch Trims Overseas Store Plans". Reuters. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
- "Abercrombie accelerating overseas plans". The Business Journals. November 19, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "U.S. Retailer Abercrombie & Fitch Opens 1st Asian Store in Tokyo". Japan Times. Retrieved December 19, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "The Business of Luxury and Culture in China". Jing Daily. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- "Can the High End Hold Its Own? European Luxury Brands Expand in Japan as the Market Is Starting To Ebb". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Announces Entry Into Mexico" (Press release). Abercrombie & Fitch. November 21, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Co., Abercrombie & Fitch. "Abercrombie & Fitch Continues Middle East Expansion With First A&F Branded Store In The UAE". prnewswire.com. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Abercrombie and Fitch Is Expanding Further Into the Middle East". Fortune. May 9, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- Staff (November 8, 2010). "Southampton Hollister Employee Told To Take Off Poppy". BBC News. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch with its 'crappy clothes' threatens staid Savile Row". The Guardian. March 11, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "The Abercrombie & Fitch Protest". The Chap. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Sorry chaps, Abercrombie & Fitch simply doesn't fit Savile Row". The Guardian. April 24, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch's plans for Savile Row branch are 'deeply flawed'". London Evening Standard. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Utterly Unacceptable". Savile Row Bespoke. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- "Abercrombie Kids lands in the UK with debut store opening". Fashion United. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Lynch, Russell (July 7, 2015). "Fashion chain fined for altering Beatles building". London Evening Standard. p. 7.
- Easton, Dan (June 29, 2018). "Abercrombie & Fitch coming to Gateway as it secures its first college campus stores". Columbus Business First. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch". Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch F2Q07 Earnings Call Transcript".
- Feran, Tim (November 6, 2013). "Abercrombie to close its Gilly Hicks stores". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Reports Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year-End Results". Abercrombie & Fitch Co. February 16, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2010.
- "A&F Cares". Abercrombie & Fitch. Retrieved January 4, 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "A&F Challenge". Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Partners with NSHSS to Advance Global Leadership through Scholarships". National Society of High School Scholars. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- Elliot, Stuart (March 12, 2008). "When a Corporate Donation Raises Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "Ohio State Abercrombie and Fitch Emergency Department Opens". wexnermedical.osu.edu. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "$40 Million Paid to Class Members in December 2005 in Abercrombie & Fitch Discrimination Lawsuit Settlement". Lieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein, LLP. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007.
- "National Clothing Retailer Must Pay For Discrimination" The Defender. Winter 2005, 1. A publication of the NAACP LDF. Description of the settlement of Gonzalez.
- Greenhouse, Steven (November 17, 2004). "Abercrombie & Fitch Bias Case Is Settled". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Discrimination Lawsuit Settlement Website". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- Staff (June 24, 2009). "Disabled Woman Sues Clothes Store". BBC News. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- Staff (August 13, 2009). "Designer Shop Sued By Disabled Worker". Sky News. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Woman Wins Clothes Store Tribunal". BBC News. August 13, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Complaint, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc" (PDF). PacerMonitor. PacerMonitor. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Gregory, Sean (September 23, 2009). "Abercrombie Faces a Muslim-Headscarf Lawsuit". Time. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Supreme Court To Hear Case Of Muslim Who Says Abercrombie & Fitch Denied Her Job Because Of Hijab". The Huffington Post. February 19, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- de Vogue, Ariane (June 1, 2015). "SCOTUS rules in favor of Muslim woman in suit against Abercrombie and Fitch over head covering". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Knowles, David (February 26, 2010). "Store Fires Woman for Wearing Muslim Head Scarf". AOL News. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- De Wilde, Sander (December 9, 2011). "CGKR opent dossier tegen A&F". De Standaard. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
- "Sweatshop Hall of Shame 2010" (PDF). International Labor Rights Forum.
- Shiffer, James Eli; Friedman, Jane (September 9, 2009). "Girl: I Was Treated Like a 'Misfit' at Abercrombie & Fitch" Archived September 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Star Tribune. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- Walters, Chris (September 10, 2009). "16-Year-Old Unwittingly Stars in Homemade Abercrombie & Fitch Dressing Room Video". The Consumerist. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "Boundas v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc". Class Notice Website. Archived from the original on June 1, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
- "Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc. v. American Eagle Outfitters". Audiocasefiles.com. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
- "Stockholders Sufficiently Plead Investors Relied On Defendants' Misleading Statements To Analysts; In re Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Sec. Litig".