This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Victoria's Secret is an American designer, manufacturer, and marketer of women's lingerie, womenswear, and beauty products. The company was founded in 1977 by Roy and Gaye Raymond as a response to packaged underwear, which Roy Raymond considered to be "ugly, floral-print nylon nightgowns". As of 2019, in the United States, Victoria's Secret is the largest lingerie retailer.
Victoria's Secret Store, 722 Lexington Ave, New York, NY
|Founded||June 12, 1977|
Stanford Shopping Center, Palo Alto, California, U.S.
|Founder||Roy Raymond |
|Headquarters||Three Limited Parkway, |
Number of locations
|1,017 company-owned stores|
18 independently owned stores
|Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Maldives, Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Ireland, Poland, Czech Republic, Serbia, Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Panamá, Brazil, Curaçao, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Japan, China, South Korea, South Africa, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Taiwan, Thailand, India, Australia, Qatar, New Zealand, and Singapore|
(CEO of Victoria's Secret Stores)
|Products||Underwear, women's clothing, lingerie, swimwear, footwear, fragrances and beauty products, and make up.|
- 1 History
- 2 Products
- 3 Operating divisions
- 4 Corporate affairs
- 5 Corporate identity
- 6 Criticism and controversy
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Victoria's Secret was founded by Roy Raymond, and his wife, Gaye Raymond, in San Francisco, California, on June 12, 1977. Eight years prior to founding Victoria's Secret, in the late 1960s, Raymond was embarrassed when purchasing lingerie for his wife at a department store. Newsweek reported him looking back on the incident from the vantage of 1981: "When I tried to buy lingerie for my wife," he recalls, "I was faced with racks of terry-cloth robes and ugly floral-print nylon nightgowns, and I always had the feeling the department store saleswomen thought I was an unwelcome intruder." Raymond spent the next eight years studying the lingerie market.
At the time when Raymond founded “Victoria's Secret”, most women in America purchased "dowdy", "pragmatic", "foundation garments" by Fruit of the Loom, Hanes, and Jockey in packs of three from department stores and saved "fancier items" for "special occasions" like honeymoons. "Lacy thongs and padded push-up bras" were niche products during this period found "alongside feathered boas and provocative pirate costumes at Frederick's of Hollywood" outside of the mainstream product offerings available at department stores. In 1977, Raymond borrowed $40,000 from his parents and $40,000 from a bank to establish Victoria's Secret: a store in which men could feel comfortable buying lingerie. The company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center in Palo Alto, California.
Raymond picked the name "Victoria" after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom to associate with the refinement of the Victorian era. The "Secret" was what was hidden underneath the clothes. The “angels” comes from his wife being in a sorority, Pi Beta Phi, where their mascot was an angel.
Victoria's Secret grossed $500,000 in its first year of business, enough to finance the expansion from a headquarters and warehouse to four new store locations and a mail-order operation. By 1982, the fourth store (still in the San Francisco area) was added at 395 Sutter Street. Victoria's Secret stayed at that location until 1990, when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis.
In April 1982, Raymond sent out his 12th catalog; each catalog cost $3 (equivalent to $7.79 in 2018). Catalog sales accounted for 55% of the company's $7 million annual sales in 1982. The Victoria's Secret stores at this time were "a niche player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street."
In 1982, Victoria's Secret had grown to five stores, a 40-page catalog, and was grossing $6 million annually. Raymond sold Victoria's Secret Inc. to Leslie Wexner, creator of Limited Stores Inc of Columbus, Ohio, for $1 million. In 1983, Wexner revamped Victoria's Secret's sales model. He discarded the money-losing model of selling lingerie to male customers and replaced it with one that focused on female customers. Victoria's Secret transformed from "more burlesque than Main Street" to a mainstay that sold broadly accepted underwear. The "new colors, patterns and styles that promised sexiness packaged in a tasteful, glamorous way and with the snob appeal of European luxury" meant to appeal to female buyers. To further this image, the Victoria's Secret catalog continued the practice that Raymond began: listing the company's headquarters on catalogs at a fake London address, with the real headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. The stores were redesigned to evoke 19th century England.
Howard Gross took over as president from his position as vice-president in 1985. In October of that year, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret was stealing market share from department stores; in 1986, Victoria's Secret was the only national chain of lingerie stores.
The New York Times reported on Victoria's Secret's rapid expansion from four stores in 1982 to 100 in 1986, and analysts' expectations that it could expand to 400 by 1988. In 1987, Victoria's Secret was reportedly among the "best-selling catalogs". In 1990, analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses. The New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear." Victoria's Secret also released their own line of fragrances in 1992.
Having joined the business in 1984, Cynthia Fedus (Fields) became the leader of the catalog in 1986 and was promoted to President and CEO in 1987. Cynthia Fedus-Fields “oversaw Victoria’s Secret enormous direct business, including its catalog, from the mid-1980s until 2000.” During her tenure, total revenues increased to “almost $1 billion.”In 1987, Victoria's Secret was already reported to be among the "best-selling catalogs". By 1990, analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses. The New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear."
By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret faced a gap in management that led the company to be "plagued by persistent quality problems". Howard Gross, who had grown the company significantly since Wexner's 1982 purchase, was moved to the poorly performing L Brands subsidiary Limited Stores. Business Week reported that "both divisions have suffered". Grace Nichols, who became President and CEO beginning in 1992, worked to resolve the quality problems; their margins tightened, resulting in a slower growth of profits.
Sales and profits from the catalog continued to expand due to the addition of clothing, swimwear and shoes and increasing circulation. The New York Times reported that the financial success of Victoria's Secret catalog influenced other catalog by presenting lingerie as "romantic and sensual but tasteful", "in which models are photographed in ladylike poses against elegant backgrounds."
Victoria's Secret introduced the Miracle Bra selling two million within the first year, but faced competition from Sara Lee's WonderBra a year later. The company responded with a TV campaign. By 1998, Victoria's Secret's market share of the intimate apparel market was 14 percent. That year Victoria's Secret also entered the $3.5 billion cosmetic market.
The Los Angeles Times described the catalog in 2000 as having achieved "an almost cult-like following” and in May of that year – after delivering record profits in FY 1999 and record first quarter results in 2000, Cynthia Fedus-Fields decided to join her husband in retirement.
In 1999, the company aimed to increase its coverage with the Body by Victoria brand. In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney, previously of Neiman Marcus Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret Direct to turn around catalog sales that were lagging behind other divisions. Forbes reported Turney stating, as she flipped through a Victoria's Secret catalog, "We need to quit focusing on all that cleavage." In 2000, Turney began to redefine Victoria's Secret catalog from "breasts—spilling over the tops of black, purple and reptile-print underthings" to one that would appeal to an "upscale customer who now feels more comfortable buying La Perla or Wolford lingerie."; "dimming the hooker looks" such as "tight jeans and stilettos"; and moving from "a substitute for Playboy in some dorm rooms," to something closer to a Vogue lifestyle layout, where lingerie, sleepwear, clothes and cosmetics appear throughout the catalog. Beginning in 2000, Grace Nichols, CEO of Victoria's Secret Direct, led a similar change at Victoria's Secret's stores—moving away from an evocation of 1800s England (or a Victorian bordello).
By 2006, Victoria's Secret's 1,000 stores across the United States accounted for one third of all purchases in the intimate apparel industry.  In May 2006, Wexner promoted Sharen Jester Turney from the Victoria's Secret catalog and online units to lead the whole company. In 2008, she acknowledged "product quality that doesn't equal the brand's hype." In September 2006, Victoria's Secret reportedly tried to make their catalog feel more like magazines by head-hunting writers from Women's Wear Daily.
In February 2016, Turney stepped down as CEO of Victoria's Secret after serving for a decade. In 2016, direct sales only grew 1.6% and fell by 7.4% in the last quarter of the year, typically a high revenue period due to the holidays. The company discontinued its use of a print catalog and dropped certain categories of clothing such as swimwear. Sales revenue continued to stagnate and drop in early 2017.
In November 2018, it was announced that CEO Jan Singer had resigned amid declining sales. According to The Wall Street Journal, quarterly same-store sales in the last two years raised only once. The announcement came one week after CMO Ed Razek made the controversial comment that the company doesn't cast transgender or plus-size models in its annual fashion show "because the show is a fantasy." After a 40% stock plunge in a single year, Victoria's Secret announced in 2019 that it will be closing 53 stores in the U.S. The company also announced the relaunch of its swimwear line in March 2019. In 2019, April Holt the executive vice president stepped down after 16 years.
Current products and linesEdit
In 2002, Victoria's Secret launched Pink (stylized PINK), a lingerie line targeted toward college-age women, younger than Victoria's Secret's main line customers.
Victoria sports is a line of activewear that can be worn to the gym and on the street.
Victoria's Secret BeautyEdit
The beauty line is composed of fragrances, make-up, accessories, lotions, and other bath and body products.
In 2002, swimwear was introduced and available via the web site and catalog. In 2015 and 2016, a swim special was aired on CBS to promote the line. In April 2016, Chairman and CEO Leslie H. Wexner announced that Victoria's Secret would end their swimwear line, replacing it with a new activewear line. In November 2018, John Mehas replaced Jan Singer as Victoria's Secret's CEO and announced the relaunch of the swimwear line. In March 2019, the swim line was made available in shops.
Recent product historyEdit
In 2010, Victoria's Secret launched the Incredible bra. In 2012, Victoria's Secret launched the Victoria's Secret Designer Collection described by Vogue as the company's "first high end lingerie line."
In 2016, Victoria's Secret stopped selling swimwear, shoes, accessories and apparel that were only sold in online Victoria's Secret stores to stay more focused on the lingerie, fragrances and sleepwear that are still available in stores and online. In 2017 Victoria's Secret began to put more emphasis on bralettes (bras without underwire, often intended to be worn visibly) and sports bras (under the Victoria Sport label) to appeal to a younger customer base.
In 2019, Victoria's Secret relaunched its product line of eyewear, footwear and swimwear line in hopes of boosting struggling sales for the brand.
Victoria Secret's operations are organized into three divisions: Victoria's Secret Stores (stores), Victoria's Secret Direct (online and catalog operations), and Victoria's Secret Beauty (their bath and cosmetics line). The company does business in the following retail formats: general merchandise stores, apparel stores.
Victoria's Secret storesEdit
|Victoria's Secret stores 1982–2012|
|Year||# of stores||Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Throughout the 1980s, Victoria's Secret took over the market using "faux-British veneer, romantic styling and soft classical music." In 2000, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret continued the practice of putting "on a British air—or what the Ohio-based chain thinks Americans believe is British. Boudoirish. Tony. Upscale."
During the 1990s, Victoria's Secret saw a 30% increase in store sales after the use of analyzing in their data warehouse in which specific store the styles, sizes and color of which bras were selling.
As of 2010, there are 1,000 Victoria's Secret lingerie stores and 100 independent Victoria's Secret Beauty Stores in the United States, mostly in shopping centers. They sell a range of bras, panties, hosiery, cosmetics, sleepwear, and other products. Victoria's Secret mails more than 400 million of its catalogs per year.
|Victoria's Secret Canada stores 2011–2012|
|Year||# of stores||Store sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Up until the early 2000s, management at Victoria's Secret actively decided to not expand outside the United States. The drive to continue growing coupled with facing a maturing of the American retail market led to a change in that decision and to expand Victoria's Secret outside the United States. Victoria's Secret announced the company's plan to expand into Canada in 2010. The company opened 23 stores stores in Canada with locations in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan.
In November 2005, the company opened its first boutique in the United Kingdom at Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5 with the help of World Duty Free. This was followed in 2009 with several Victoria's Secret Travel and Tourism stores residing within airports outside the United States. These include locations in Schiphol International Airport, The Netherlands.
Victoria's Secret opened their first store located at the Westfield Shopping Centre, Stratford, London on July 24, 2012.[deprecated source] Their flagship 40,386-square-foot- (3,752.0 m2) store on New Bond Street, London opened on August 29, 2012, and there will be further nationwide expansion across the United Kingdom. Victoria's Secret executive vice president and chief administrative officer Martyn R Redgrave told Women's Wear Daily "That's what we're looking to do as we expand, in the UK in particular, and those will be company-owned and operated". Since 2013, stores opened across the United Kingdom in Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, Bristol and London including Westfield London, Bluewater and Brent Cross and Glasgow. As of 2018, there are 16 stores in the United Kingdom.
In 2010, Victoria's Secret expanded with franchises internationally.
The first franchise store in Latin America opened in Isla Margarita, Venezuela on June 25, 2010 followed by other stores in the country, and in Bogota, Colombia, in July 2012 selling beauty products and accessories. Angel's Group, the Colombian company operating the franchise, is planning to open 10 stores in Colombia. Victoria's Secret is also planning on opening a store in the exclusive Multiplaza Mall in San Salvador, El Salvador.
In 2010, M.H. Alshaya Co. opened the first Victoria's Secret store in the Middle East region in Kuwait. M.H. Alshaya Co. operates the Victoria's Secret franchise located in the Marina Mall selling products including "cosmetic and branded accessories, but it has left out the brand's infamous lingerie line".
The brand's first Caribbean store opened in November 2011 at Plaza Las Americas in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Two stores also opened in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic at the Agora, (mainly selling beauty products and accessories) and Sambil Santo Domingo malls in August 2012 and October 2012, respectively.
The first Polish store opened in July 2012 at the Złote Tarasy shopping mall in Warsaw and is operated by M.H. Alshaya Co. It was the first Victoria's Secret franchise store in Europe, and it opened just a day before the first British store in London.
Victoria's Secret DirectEdit
|Victoria's Secret catalog sales 1982–2012|
|Year||Millions mailed||Sales in millions of U.S. dollars|
Prior to the emergence of e-commerce, the Victoria's Secret's catalogs provided both an informative and exciting experience in the comfort of the consumer's home.
The catalog under Raymond's leadership took the form of an upmarket version of Frederick's of Hollywood lingerie catalog being more sensuous than the catalog published under the future leadership of The Limited.
The New York Times reported that the financial success of Victoria's Secret catalogs influenced other catalogs, which changed to present lingerie as "romantic and sensual but tasteful" "in which models are photographed in ladylike poses against elegant backgrounds."
This led to Victoria's Secret dominating the catalog field for "lingerie and sexy nightwear." The catalogs allowed for consumers to review the entire spectrum of product offerings, along the axes of style, color and fabric. Victoria's Secret accepted catalog orders via telephone 24 hours a day.
Victoria's Secret's catalog offers a more diverse range of merchandise.
The Los Angeles Times described the catalog in 2000 as having achieved "an almost cult-like following."
In May 2016, the brand decided to discontinue the catalog which had cost the brand $125 million to $150 million annually. The decision came after the brand had the impression that catalogs have grown stale as a marketing device and that tests of dialing back the release of its catalog hadn't resulted in negative sales numbers.
In 1995 Victoria's Secret began building its e-commerce website which the company launched after three years of development at 6 p.m. December 4, 1998, using the domain VictoriasSecret.com. Twenty minutes later the first order was placed on the website from a Littleton, Colorado, customer at 6:20 p.m.
It was reported that the three year development was a result of the company's concern of rolling out a half-baked website that could "discourage return visits".
Viewers who logged onto the Victoria's Secret's website to view the company's first webcast of their fashion show on February 3, 1999, were unable to view the webcast due to the Internet infrastructure Victoria Secret's selected was unable to meet user demand causing some users to be unable to view the webcast.
Victoria's Secret BeautyEdit
The Limited, Inc in 1998 created Intimate Beauty Corporation with a mandate to establish a group of beauty businesses with Victoria's Secret Beauty being the first company in the firm's portfolio.
In November 2012 Susie Coulter became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty; the company's beauty division located in New York City
Victoria's Secret was originally owned by "The Limited". In 2002 Wexner reincorporated Victoria's Secret into the Limited; previously Victoria's Secret's parent company was Intimate Brands, a separately traded entity whose President was Ed Razek.
By 2006, 72% of Limited Brands' revenue—and almost all of their profits—came from their Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works units.
On July 10, 2007, the Victoria's Secret parent company, Limited Brands, sold a 75% interest in their apparel brands, Limited Stores and Express to Sun Capital Partners, to focus on expanding their Victoria's Secret and Bath & Body Works units. The immediate impact of the sale resulted in Limited Brands taking a $42 million after-tax loss.
In 2017 Victoria's Secret recorded net sales of about US$7.39 billion worldwide.
Victoria's Secret storesEdit
In 1985, Howard Gross was promoted to president from vice president. In 1991 Grace Nichols replaced Gross as president of Victoria's Secret Stores. Nichols previously had been "executive vice president and general merchandise manager of Limited's lingerie division."
Victoria's Secret DirectEdit
Victoria's Secret BeautyEdit
In May 2006, Christine Beauchamp was named president and CEO of Victoria's Secret Beauty. Beauchamp was succeeded by Shashi Batra in 2009, who became president of Victoria's Secret Beauty. Robin Burns was CEO of Victoria's Secret Beauty.
After two years of pressure from environmentalist groups, Victoria's Secret's parent firm and a conservation group reached an agreement to make the lingerie retailer's catalog more environmentally friendly in 2006. The catalog would no longer be made of pulp supplied from any woodland caribou habitat range in Canada, unless it has been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The catalogs will also be made of 10 percent recycled paper.
In 2006 it was reported that Victoria's Secret paid workers $7 per day to make bras for them in Thai factories.
Prior to the 1982 sale, the company's business name was Victoria's Secret, Inc. then afterwards the name was changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, Inc. In 2005, the company changed to Victoria's Secret Stores, LLC.
In 1989, FCB/Leber Katz Partners and Victoria's Secret executed a national advertising campaign featuring for the first time in the company's history a ten-page glossy insert that appeared in the November issue of Elle, Vogue, Vanity Fair, Victoria, House Beautiful, Bon Appetit, New Woman, and People magazines. Victoria's Secret used the insert to announce their expansion into the toiletries and fragrance business. Up until the ten-page insert, the company's growth had been driven by their catalog, sporadic ads in fashion publications, and word of mouth. Catalogs were discontinued in early 2016.
The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show is an annual "elaborate marketing tool for Limited Brands". The show is a mix of "beautiful models scantily clad in lingerie" and A-list entertainers "And every year, it becomes less about fashion and more about show". The company gained notoriety in the early 1990s after it began to use supermodels in its advertising and fashion shows. Throughout the 2000s, Victoria's Secret has turned down celebrity models and endorsements. In 1999, Victoria's Secret's 30 second Super Bowl advertisement led to one million visits to the company's website within an hour of airing.
In 2004, Victoria's Secret featured Bob Dylan in an advertisement to test new marketing possibilities while Victoria's Secret dropped their fashion show for 2004 as a result of the fallout from the Janet Jackson/Super Bowl incident that caused complaints from women's groups.
The company created a campaign to market its "Body" bra line called "The Perfect Body." The campaign has elicited substantial controversy, with many sources saying it will lower women's self-esteem because it does not embrace all body types.
Victoria's Secret Fashion ShowEdit
In 1995, Victoria's Secret began holding their annual Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, which is broadcast on primetime American television. Starting with the 1995 fashion show, they are "a combination of self-assured strutting for women and voyeuristic pleasures for men—and lingerie becomes mainstream entertainment."
Ken Weil, vice president at Victoria's Secret, and Tim Plzak, responsible for IT at Victoria's Secret's parent company Intimate Brands, led Victoria's Secret's first-ever online streaming of their fashion show in 1999. The 18 minutes webcast streamed February 2, 1999, was at the time the Internet's "biggest event" since inception. The 1999 webcast was reported as a failure by a number of newspapers on account of some user's inability to watch the show featuring Tyra Banks, Heidi Klum, and Stephanie Seymour as a result of Victoria's Secret's technology falling short being able to meet the online user demand resulting in network congestion and users who could see the webcast receiving jerky frames. In all, the company's website saw over 1.5 million visits while the Broadcast.com's computer's were designed to handle between 250,000 and 500,000 simultaneous viewers. In total, 1.5 million viewers either attempted or viewed the webcast.
The 1999 webcast served to create a database for Victoria's Secret of over 500,000 current and potential customers by requiring users to submit their contact details to view the webcast. The next spring Victoria's Secret avoided technical issues by partnering with Broadcast.com, America Online, and Microsoft. The 2000 webcast attracted more than two million viewers.
By 2011, the budget for the fashion show was $12 million up from the first show's budget of $120,000.
Victoria's Secret AngelsEdit
Victoria's Secret started working with renowned models in the early 1990s, with the hiring of Stephanie Seymour, Karen Mulder, Yasmeen Ghauri, and Jill Goodacre. These models helped the brand gain notice and soon enough were featured in televised commercials. Veronica Webb is one of the original Victoria's Secret models.
Angels is one of Victoria's Secret's lingerie lines, which was launched in 1997, with a commercial featuring Helena Christensen, Karen Mulder, Daniela Peštová, Stephanie Seymour, and Tyra Banks as well as pop star Tom Jones. The commercial was a major success and the Angels began to be featured in various commercials, alongside other contract models for the brand such as Yasmeen Ghauri, Inés Rivero, and Laetitia Casta. From then onwards, the term Angel started to become synonymous with being a contracted spokesmodel for the brand and in February 1998, the Angels made their runway debut at Victoria's Secret's 4th annual fashion show, with Chandra North filling in for Christensen.
Seymour, Mulder, Pestova, Banks, and Casta were all featured in both of Victoria's Secret webcast and took part in the promotion as the brand's contract models. Starting 2001, the show has been televised and usually features the year's Angel line-up at the start of the show, starting with Pestova, Banks, Klum, Adriana Lima, and Gisele Bundchen[a] In 2004, due to the Super Bowl controversy, instead of a televised show, Victoria's Secret sent its five contract models (Banks, Klum, Bundchen, Adriana Lima, and Alessandra Ambrosio) on a tour called Angels Across America, as by then, the word had become synonymous with Victoria's Secret spokesmodels. The last original Angel, Tyra Banks, departed the following year, as Karolina Kurkova, Selita Ebanks, and Izabel Goulart were hired.
Among other recognitions, the Victoria's Secret Angels were chosen to be part of People magazine's annual "100 Most Beautiful People in the World" issue in 2007 and became the first trademark awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on November 13, 2007, with Klum, Lima, Ambrosio, Kurkova, Goulart, Ebanks, Marisa Miller, and Miranda Kerr at hand. Alongside new Angel Doutzen Kroes, they also took part in the grand reopening of the Fontainebleau in Miami in 2008. In 2009, it was widely reported that Candice Swanepoel, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Chanel Iman, Emanuela de Paula and Lindsay Ellingson had been hired by the brand. However, De Paula was absent from the fashion show and Erin Heatherton was credited in her place, alongside the Angels (Klum, Ambrosio, Kerr, Miller, Kroes, and Behati Prinsloo, with Lima being on maternity leave). The brand also held a nationwide competition to hire a new "runway Angel" (as are dubbed all the models who walk in the show), Kylie Bisutti was crowned as the winner but soon parted ways with the brand. In the following year-and-a-half Swanepoel, Huntington-Whiteley, Iman, Heatherton, and Ellingson all were revealed as Angels.
Various tours have been held featuring the Angels, such as the Bombshell Tour in 2010 (featuring Laura Croggon, Sophia Timpano, Katie Bryan, and new recruit Lily Aldridge), a VSX tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ambrosio, Ellingson, and Aldridge) and a Swim Tour in 2013 (featuring Swanepoel, Ellingson, and Heatherton). The Angels have been heavily featured on the brand's social media, including on a short-lived Facebook application in 2013-2014 highlighting the Angels (then including Lima, Swanepoel, Ellingson, Aldridge, and Karlie Kloss) as well as Lais Ribeiro, Toni Garrn, and Barbara Palvin.
Ellingson, Kroes, and Kloss all departed soon after the 2014 fashion show, leaving the brand with only 5 Angels. In 2015, the Angels as well as models Elsa Hosk, Joan Smalls, Lais Ribeiro, Martha Hunt, Jasmine Tookes, Stella Maxwell, and Monika 'Jac' Jagaciak were featured on the brand's first ever Swim Special. Soon after, in the brand's biggest group hiring ever, all but Smalls were revealed as Angels, along with longtime catalog regulars Lais Ribeiro and Sara Sampaio as well as Kate Grigorieva, Taylor Hill, and Romee Strijd. The following year, Jagaciak and Griegorieva exited, while catalog regular Josephine Skriver was added to the roster. In 2017, Alessandra Ambrosio announced that the yearly fashion show would be her last.
In 2019, new Angels Barbara Palvin, Alexina Graham, Leomie Anderson, and Grace Elizabeth were added to the roster. Palvin made her fashion show debut with Victoria's Secret in 2012, afterwards not appearing in a runway show again until 2018, while Graham had appeared in Victoria's Secret Fashion Shows in 2017 and 2018. Graham became the first redhead to be named a Victoria's Secret Angel. Anderson first began walking in 2015, while Elizabeth walked her first show in 2016 and was a PINK spokesmodel from 2016 to 2019.
In August 2019, the brand cast its first openly transgender Brazilian model Valentina Sampaio. The 22-year-old was hired for catalog work of its athletic line, VS Pink. However, days after Sampaio was hired, Victoria's Secret chief marketing officer Ed Razek stepped down. The Senior Executive had sparked controversy in 2018, and was extensively criticized for claiming that the lingerie retailer shouldn't cast “transsexual” as “the show is a fantasy”.
Other notable spokesmodels for the brand have included: Claudia Schiffer, Eva Herzigová, Oluchi Onweagba, Jessica Stam, Ana Beatriz Barros, and Bregje Heinen as well as a handful of celebrities such as Taylor Momsen.
|Nationality||Name||Contract[b]||First hiring||Runway shows|
|United States||Stephanie Seymour||1997–2000||1992||1995–2000|
|Czech Republic||Daniela Peštová||1997–2002||1996||1998–2001|
|United States||Tyra Banks||1997–2005||1996||1996–2003 • 2005|
|Germany||Heidi Klum||1999–2010||1997||1997–2003 • 2005 • 2007–2009 (host only in 2006)|
|Brazil||Gisele Bündchen||2000–2007||1999||1999–2003 • 2005–2006|
|Adriana Lima||2000–2018||1999||1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018|
|Alessandra Ambrosio||2004–2017||2000||2000–2003 • 2005–2017|
|Czech Republic||Karolína Kurková||2005–2008||2000||2000–2008 • 2010|
|Cayman Islands||Selita Ebanks||2005–2009||2004||2005–2010|
|United States||Marisa Miller||2007–2010||2002||2007–2009|
|Australia||Miranda Kerr||2007–2013||2005||2006–2009 • 2011–2012|
|Netherlands||Doutzen Kroes||2008–2014||2004||2005–2006 • 2008–2009 • 2011–2014|
|Namibia||Behati Prinsloo||2009–present||2007||2007–2015 • 2018|
|United Kingdom||Rosie Huntington-Whiteley||2010–2011||2005||2006–2010|
|South Africa||Candice Swanepoel||2010–present||2007||2007–2015 • 2017–2018|
|United States||Chanel Iman||2010–2012||2008||2009–2011|
|Karlie Kloss||2013–2015||2011||2011–2014 • 2017|
|United States||Taylor Hill||2015–present||2014||2014–2018|
|United States||Martha Hunt||2015–present||2012||2013–2018|
|New Zealand||Stella Maxwell||2015–present||2014||2014–2018|
|Brazil||Lais Ribeiro||2015–present||2010||2010–2011 • 2013–2018|
|United States||Jasmine Tookes||2015–present||2012||2012–2018|
|Denmark||Josephine Skriver||2016–present ||2013||2013–2018|
|Hungary||Barbara Palvin||2019–present||2011||2012 • 2018|
|United Kingdom||Alexina Graham||2019–present||2017||2017–2018|
|United States||Grace Elizabeth||2019–present||2016||2016–2018|
|United States||Rachel Hilbert||2015–2016|
|United States||Zuri Tibby||2016–present|
|United States||Grace Elizabeth||2016–2019|
Criticism and controversyEdit
Influence on sociocultural body image normsEdit
In the 2008 article "Victoria’s Dirty Secret: How Sociocultural Norms Influence Adolescent Girls and Women" written by Strahan, Lafrance, Wilson, and Ethier from Wilfrid Laurier University along with Spencer and Zanna from the University of Waterloo have stated: "Women's body dissatisfaction is influenced by sociocultural norms for ideal appearance that are pervasive in society and particularly directed at women." These norms tell women that they are valued for their bodies, physical appearance, and scale of attractiveness. Girls as young as 10 years old start dieting because they are struggling with their weight and body perception. This will continue throughout their life span. Victoria's Secret sends a message to these adolescent girls and women that their models are the standard of beauty. The models are shown on TV commercials, ads, and magazines meaning it is seen on an everyday basis. Girls are comparing themselves with these high unrealistic standards that is captivated by the media. Women in these ads are highly objectified, idealized, and sexualized. If women feel they have to live up to this sociocultural norm standard, it is only telling men that it is okay to objectify and sexualize women. The article concludes by stating: "Exposure to societal messages that reflect the sociocultural norm for ideal appearance has a negative effect on women."
In 2009, Victoria's Secret was sued several times. The lawsuits alleged that defective underwear contained formaldehyde that caused severe rashes on women who wore them. Six cases were filed in Ohio and two in Florida. At least 17 other suits were filed in six other states after January 2008. The plaintiff refused to submit to a simple patch test to determine the precise cause of her reaction and her case was later withdrawn. The Formaldehyde Council issued a statement that formaldehyde quickly dissipates in air, water and sunlight.
Also in 2012, Victoria's Secret was sued by Zephyrs, "accused of breaching a 2001 agreement and selling cheap 'knockoffs' of the company's stockings."
Go East lingerie collectionEdit
The company drew criticism for a newly released lingerie collection titled "Go East" whose tagline pledged to women the capacity to "indulge in touches of eastern delight with lingerie inspired by the exquisite beauty of secret Japanese gardens." The collection included a mesh teddy "Sexy Little Geisha" featuring "flirty cutouts and Eastern-inspired florals".
The Wall Street Journal reported that the collection was "accessorized with a miniature fan and a kimono-esque obi sash."
Perfect Body campaignEdit
In 2014, a petition against the newly released lingerie collection called "Body" was created when the poster ads displayed the words 'THE PERFECT "BODY"' over well-known VS Angels. The petition, while becoming popular across social media, demanded that Victoria's Secret "apologize and take responsibility for the unhealthy and damaging message that their ‘Perfect Body’ campaign sends out about women's bodies and how they should be judged."
The petition also demanded a change in the wording on Victoria's Secret advertisements for their bra range Body, to something that does not promote unhealthy and unrealistic standards of beauty," asking the company to not use such harmful marketing in the future. Petitioners created the hashtag "#iamperfect", which trended on Twitter for "body shaming women". The petition had over 30,000 signatures.
Although there was never a formal apology released, Victoria's Secret took note of the petition and changed the words on their ad campaign to 'A BODY FOR EVERY BODY.'
At the 2016 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show, the brand was accused of "cultural appropriation" during the segment "The Road Ahead" that drew inspiration from Chinese culture. Kendall Jenner's flame tail, Elsa Hosk's dragon costume, and Adriana Lima's embroidered thigh-high boots is what caused an uproar because many fans thought that it was inappropriate for women of other cultures to wear those items that meant so much to the Chinese culture. The reason behind Victoria's Secret including this segment to the 2016 fashion show is because of their recent expansion into the Chinese market. They thought it would be a good way to appeal to the new Chinese customer. No apology or statement was released from the brand.
In November 2018, Victoria's Secret president Edward Razek and executive Vice President Of public relations Monica Mitro were interviewed by Vogue. In the interview, when discussing diversity, Razek made the following comments regarding the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show: “Shouldn’t you have transsexuals in the show? No. No, I don’t think we should. Well, why not? Because the show is a fantasy. It’s a 42-minute entertainment special. That’s what it is.”  These comments received immediate backlash from many in the modeling community, including transgender model Carmen Carrera, current and former Victoria's Secret Angels Lily Aldridge and Karlie Kloss, and model Kendall Jenner.
Razek later issued an apology, stating "My remark regarding the inclusion of transgender models in the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show came across as insensitive. I apologize. To be clear, we would absolutely cast a transgender model for the show."
Sexual Harassment allegationsEdit
In 2019 Model Alliance and Time's Up movement Victoria's Secret for protection of young models who suffered harassment 
- There have been various instances where the fashion show credits included models who weren't Angels but were prominently featured by the brand, such as Candice Swanepoel, Lindsay Ellingson, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Erin Heatherton, and Behati Prinsloo in 2009, Lais Ribeiro in 2011, PINK model Elsa Hosk in 2013 and Hosk, Ribeiro, Jasmine Tookes, Martha Hunt, and Stella Maxwell in 2014. All of them later went on to become Angels.
- Most Angels started working with the company years prior to signing an Angel contract. Listed above are the dates of first published or aired campaigns or, by default, first runway show or event.
- Contracted as a replacement Angel for Helena Christensen during the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 1998 and released immediately afterwards
- Melise R. Blakeslee (January 15, 2010). Internet crimes, torts and scams: investigation and remedies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537351-6. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "About Limited Brands". Limited Brands. October 10, 2012. Archived from the original on May 6, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Ell, Kellie (November 20, 2018). "Victoria's Secret Is Bringing Back Swimwear". WWD. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Bishop, Katherine (December 27, 1986). "An Elegant Kids' Store Fails". New York Times. San Francisco, United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Cheng, Andria (February 28, 2019). "Victoria's Secret Knows It Has A Problem, But Does It Have Time To Fix It?". Forbes. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
- "Victoria's Secret". Fashion Model Directory. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Roy Raymond, 47; Began Victoria's Secret". New York Times. San Francisco, United States. The New York Times Company. September 2, 1993. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Newhall, Emily (November 16, 1981). "A Catalog-Business Boom". Newsweek.
- Peter J. Rea; Harold Kerzner (September 19, 1997). Strategic Planning: A Practical Guide. Wiley. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-471-29197-8. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Adler, Carlye (June 9, 2010). "Victoria's Secret's Secret – The man behind the company that made lingerie mainstream and mall-friendly". Newsweek. Archived from the original on September 13, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Barr, Naomi (October 30, 2013). ""Happy Ending, Right?"". Slate. United States. The Slate Group. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Tom Pendergast; Sara Pendergast (2000). St. James encyclopedia of popular culture. St. James Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-55862-403-0. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Schiro, Anne-Marie (May 15, 1982). "Luxury Lingerie: A Mail-Order Success". New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Watson, Lloyd (June 3, 1990). "Union Square Area Draws Five Big-Name Retailers". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Palmeri, Christopher (December 4, 2006). "Victoria's Secret Is Sexy Again". BloombergBusinessweek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "Briefs". New York Times. July 15, 1982.
- "Victoria's Secret". The Globe and Mail. August 5, 1982.
- Tomasino, Anna (2007). Discovering popular culture. Pearson Longman. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-321-35596-6. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Faludi, Susan (August 15, 2006). Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-307-34542-4. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "Lerner Stores' New President". New York Times. May 21, 1985. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Groves, Martha (November 5, 1985). "Frederick's Tries to Update Its Image as Rivals Get Tougher". Los Angeles Times. United States. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Belkin, Lisa (August 24, 1986). "Lingerie's Great Leap Forward". New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Hochswender, Woody (June 7, 1988). "Patterns". New York Times. United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Asinof, Lynn (April 16, 1987). "Mail-Order Catalog". Wall Street Journal. United States. Dow Jones & Company Inc.
- Hirsch, James (May 29, 1990). "Victoria's Secret? Keep Earnings Up with Garter Belts". Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y., United States. Dow Jones & Company Inc. p. A1.
- Gross, Michael (April 26, 1987). "Lingerie Catalogues: Changing Images". New York Times. United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Agins, Teri (January 23, 1992). "Specialty Shops Chase Sweet Scent Of Success". Wall Street Journal. New York, N.Y., United States. Dow Jones & Company Inc.
- "Did Leslie Wexner Take His Eye Off The Ball?". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg L.P. May 23, 1993. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- Storm, Stephanie (July 7, 1992). "Gap Is Reportedly Adding Women's Underwear Brand". New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Strom, Stephanie (November 21, 1993). "Profile: Grace Nichols; When Victoria's Secret Faltered, She Was Quick to Fix It". New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Grace Nichols Profile". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- Lieberman, Allyson (June 6, 2000). "Change at the Top: Victoria's Secret Turns Page at Catalog". New York Post. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Underwood, Elaine (September 19, 1994). "Bust-Boosting Bra Battle Begins; Victoria's Secret Launches Rare TV Campaign to Fight Wonderbra Barrage". AdWeek. AdWeek.
- Goldman, Abigail (April 10, 1999). "Amid Wear and Tear, Firm Seeks to Rework Image". Los Angeles Times. United States. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Ono, Yumiko (September 14, 1998). "Victoria's Secret to Launch Makeup With Sexy Names". Wall Street Journal. United States. Dow Jones & Company Inc. p. B6. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Ellison, Sarah (May 20, 2002). "Is Less Risque Risky For Victoria's Secret?". Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y., United States. Dow Jones & Company Inc. p. B1. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Wells, Melanie (November 13, 2000). "Cosmetic Improvement". Forbes.
- Barbaro, Michael (July 15, 2006). "What Women Want; Underwear That Fits So Well It Can Be Outerwear". New York Times. United States. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Seckler, Valerie (March 19, 2008). "Advice on Staying Ahead of the Trends". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). p. 8. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Tang, Syl (September 2, 2006). "Catalogue shopping for the discerning crowd". Financial Times. Nikkei. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret CEO Quits Suddenly". British Vogue. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- Wahba, Phil. "Investors Rattled After Victoria's Secret CEO Quits Suddenly". Fortune. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- "The departure of Victoria's Secret's longtime CEO 'does feel very abrupt' - Business Insider". Business Insider. February 17, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- "Victorias Secret direct sales grow little in 2016". Digital Commerce 360. February 23, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- "Victoria's Secret Sales Are Down 20% and L Brands' Stock Is Plummeting". Fortune. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Safdar, Khadeeja. "Victoria's Secret Chief Is Out Amid Declining Sales". WSJ. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- "Will The Victoria's Secret CEO's Resignation Provoke Brand Change?". Vogue. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- Cadenas, Kerensa. "Victoria's Secret Apologizes After Executive's Statements About Transgender and Plus-Size Models". Vanities. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- Talarico, Brittany (March 19, 2019). "Victoria's Secret's Swimwear Line Is Back Just in Time for Spring Break". People. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Business, Jordan Valinsky, CNN. "Victoria's Secret head of stores is stepping down". CNN. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
- "Victoria's Secret Home Page".
- "Victoria Sport".
- "Victoria's Secret Beauty".
- Branch, Shelly (October 25, 2002). "A New Secret From Victoria: The Bikini Show". Wall Street Journal.
- E! News
- Rao, Priya (August 11, 2010). "In SoHo, 'Incredible' Launch". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella (January 25, 2012). "Lingerie Secret". Vogue. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Bernard, Katherine (January 4, 2017). "From Push-Ups to Bralettes: Victoria's Secret Revamps". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Dougherty, Philip H. (June 9, 1988). "Advertising; Victoria's Secret Goes To FCB/Leber Katz". New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Hochswender, Woody (January 17, 1989). "FASHION: Patterns; Risks and Hard Work". New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Groves, Martha (September 18, 1989). "Victoria's Secret Won't Keep Secret Anymore". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Goldman, Beth (April 8, 1991). "Now, Her Dreams Are of Innerwear; An intimate industry has a firm foundation". Newsday (New York).
- Bradsher, Keith (February 4, 1990). "A Job for Real Men: Buying Lingerie". New York Times. United States. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Goldman, Beth (April 8, 1990). "Now, Her Dreams Are of Innerwear; An intimate industry has a firm foundation". United States: Newsday (New York).
- The Limited 1994 Annual Filing
- "The Limited, Inc 1995 Annual Report". TheLimited1995AnnualFiling.
- Machan, Dyan (June 5, 1995). "Knowing your limits".
- Machan, Dylan (June 5, 1995). "Sharing Victoria's Secrets". Forbes. United States.
- The Limited 1996 Annual Filing
- The Limited 1998 Annual Filing
- Cohen, Scott Lyle (February 6, 1997). "Pssst. Two Words. Victoria's Secret". Los Angeles Times. United States. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Wedlan, Candace A. (August 11, 2000). "The Pillar of Panties". Los Angeles Times. United States. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Eaton, Dan (May 7, 2007). "Retailers debuting at Tuttle Crossing as Limited, others shuffle space". United States: Columbus Business First (Ohio). Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "2011 Annual Report and 2012 Proxy Statement" (PDF). United States: LimitedBrands. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "Retailers on Parade at ICR". United States: Women's Wear Daily (WWD). January 13, 2012.
- Rubin, Sylvia (October 27, 2007). "Bras — a century of suspension". San Francisco Chronicle. United States. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Roger D. Blackwell (November 12, 1997). From Mind to Market: Reinventing the Retail Supply Chain. HarperCollins. pp. 188–189. ISBN 978-0-88730-833-8. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Marianne M. Jennings (December 13, 2010). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment. Cengage Learning. pp. 510–. ISBN 978-0-538-47054-4. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Greenberg, Cara (February 14, 1993). "Where Strong Men Fear to Tread". New York Times (Foraging). United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Rozhon, Tracie (October 25, 2002). "A Lingerie Maker Returns To Its Racier Past". New York Times. United States. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Marvin Traub; Lisa Marsh (September 15, 2008). Marvin Traub: Like No Other Career. Assouline Publishing Corporation. pp. 145–173. ISBN 978-2-7594-0272-4. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Holmes, Elizabeth (March 29, 2010). "U.S. Apparel Retailers Map an Expansion to the North". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Kelsey, Sarah (May 3, 2012). "Victoria's Secret To Open First Quebec Store". The Huffington Post Canada. Canada. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret, the intimate apparel retailer and catalogue company". Fashionunited.co.uk. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret Opens Its First Store In Schiphol Aitport Lounge 3". Design Curial. June 14, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Mezzasalma, Nicole (November 13, 2012). "Victoria's Secret opens second Schiphol store". DFNI Online. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Lidbury, Olivia (May 21, 2012). "Victoria's Secret set date for UK debut". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on June 16, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret Angel Barbara Palvin looks Parisian chic as Britain's first ever Victoria's Secret store opens at Westfield just in time for Olympics". Daily Mail. London. July 17, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Karmali, Sarah (August 28, 2012). "Secret No More". Vogue UK. United Kingdom. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella (August 2, 2012). "Angels Are Go". Vogue. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret UK store list". Victoria's Secret. Archived from the original on May 13, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Kraul, Chris (August 7, 2012). "Optimism in Colombia Textiles". Women's Wear Daily (WWD).
- Trujillo, Daniel (May 29, 2012). "Roble inicia cambios en Multiplaza y Metrocentro". El Mundo. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Jannarone, John (October 20, 2011). "Victoria's Overseas Secret Remains Behind Closed Doors". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Sieczkowski, Cavan (November 17, 2011). "Victoria's Secret Puerto Rico Grand Opening Touched by Angels". International Business Times. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- "Agora Mall abre el 23 de Agosto 2012". ElMundoFemenino. August 9, 2012. Archived from the original on August 23, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
- "Sambil | Inicia comercializacion de Sambil Santo Domingo". Tusambil.com. Archived from the original on October 16, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Victoria's Secret Beauty & Accessories | Złote Tarasy". Zlotetarasy.pl. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "Аеродром Никола Тесла".
- Monllos, Kristina (May 24, 2016). "Why Victoria's Secret Won't Be Mailing Out Any More Catalogs". adwekk. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Silva, Belisa (October 10, 2012). "Susie Coulter to Take Helm at Victoria's Secret Beauty". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Workman, Nancy. "From Victorian to Victoria's Secret: The Foundations of Modern Erotic Wear". Journal of Popular Culture; Fall96, Vol. 30 Issue 2, p61-73, 13p. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- Sanders, Tim (July 22, 2003). Love Is the Killer App: How to Win Business and Influence Friends. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 34–37. ISBN 978-1-4000-4683-6. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "All or nothing' for Victoria's Secret brand". Toronto Star. July 10, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Limited Sells Majority Stake in Namesake Brand". New York Times. July 10, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Merrick, Amy (July 10, 2007). "Advancing Its Sharper Focus, Limited Sells Namesake Chain at Loss". Wall Street Journal.
- "Net sales of Victoria's Secret worldwide 2010-2017 | Statistic".
- "People". Los Angeles Times. January 9, 1991. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Chipello, Christopher J (October 14, 2004). "As the Catalogs Pile Up, Environmental Activists Take on Attractive Target". Wall Street Journal.
- Merrick, Amy (December 7, 2006). "Victoria's Secret Goes Green on Paper for Catalogs". Wall Street Journal.
- Naughton, Julie (April 3, 2009). "Victoria's Secret Beauty Takes Cue From 'Project'". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved December 4, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret Catalog No Longer in Pulp Friction". CBC News. December 6, 2006. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Andrew J. DuBrin (January 1, 2012). Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills. Cengage Learning. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-1-133-43522-8. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Africa Research Bulletin: Economic, Financial, and Technical Series. Blackwell. 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Packard, Ashley (June 25, 2012). Digital Media Law. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-1-118-33686-1. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Savage, David (March 5, 2003). "Court says Victor's Secret safe – Lingerie giant fails to sway justices". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Bullock, Max (October 4, 2006). "Fans of offshoring drift away from economic reality". Financial Times. Nikkei. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Ramakrishnan, L (July 4, 2012). "A new direction". The Indian Express.
- Bhalla, Nita (May 22, 2012). "Victoria's Secret bras a boost for rural Indian women". Reuters.
- Tasini, Jonathan (May 25, 2011). "Victoria's Secret, Slave Labor And So-Called "Free Trade"". Huffington Post.
Workers are allowed just 3.3 minutes to sew each $14 Victoria’s Secret women’s bikini, for which they are paid four cents. The workers’ wages amount to less than 3/10ths of one percent of the $14 retail price of the Victoria’s Secret bikini
- Holmes, Elizabeth (November 29, 2011). "Heard & Scene: Show Time on Victoria's Runway". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- Leonard M. Lodish; Howard L. Morgan; Shellye Archambeau (March 21, 2007). Marketing That Works: How Entrepreneurial Marketing Can Add Sustainable Value to Any Sized Company. Pearson Education. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-13-271632-1. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Goldman, Abigail (February 3, 1999). "Victoria's Secret Ad a Hit for Web Site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Stevenson, Seth (April 12, 2004). "Tangled Up in Boobs – What's Bob Dylan doing in a Victoria's Secret ad?". Slate. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Winters, Rebecca (April 12, 2004). "Hey, Mr. Lingerie Man". Time. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Smith, Lynn (April 13, 2004). "Lingerie is back in the drawer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Peterson, Hayley. "Victoria's Secret Sparks Outrage With 'Perfect Body' Campaign". Business Insider. Business Insider. Business Insider Inc. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Bernd Schmitt; David L. Rogers; Karen Vrotsos (2004). There's No Business That's Not Show Business: Marketing in an Experience Culture. FT Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-13-047119-2. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Givhan, Robin (April 2, 2012). "Ob-la-di, Ob-la-da, Bras Go On". Newsweek. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
- "It's No Secret: A Bust-See Web Site". Newsweek. February 15, 1999. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Flood of Viewers Jams Lingerie Webcast". Los Angeles Times. February 5, 1999. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- Quick, Rebecca (February 5, 1999). "Victoria's Secret Has Lesson for the Web: Lingerie Exerts Pull—'Cybercast' of Underwear Was Such a Smash That Many Were Left Out in Cold". Wall Street Journal.
- Monget, Karyn (November 8, 2011). "A Look Behind The Curtain". Women's Wear Daily (WWD). Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "Yasmeen Ghauri". nymag.com. New York Media. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "New York Magazine".
- "Victoria's Secret "Old School" Models (March 2006 - July 2013) - the Fashion Spot". Archived from the original on December 6, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- "Veronica Webb Reveals the 6 Secrets to Supermodel Style Over 50". Vogue. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- "Herb Ritts Commercials Chronology". HerbRitts.com. 1996. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Victoria's Secret Video – Where do Angels Come From?". CBS. October 10, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Victoria's Secret Special, E!TV, 1998
- Calaway, Libby (May 18, 2000). "Model Behavior - Secret Gals Smile For Pre-Show Audience". New York Post.
- "Victoria's Secret Supermodels Hit the Road in a Cross-Country Tour". September 22, 2004.
- "The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show".
- "The Models of Victoria's Secret". People. 1998. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
- "Victoria's Secret Angels :: The Hollywood Walk of Fame". hwof.com.
- CRITCHELL, SAMANTHA. "Victoria's Secret models bare all - StAugustine.com". staugustine.com. Archived from the original on December 11, 2014.
- Amy Odell. "Five Models Just Got a Lot More Famous". The Cut.
- VSFS 2009 Credits. June 4, 2010 – via YouTube.
- "Kylie Bisutti Responds to Victoria's Secret Slam: "Truth Is in the Book"". US Weekly.
- "Victorias Secret Show London 2014 Pictures and Report (Vogue.co.uk)". Vogue UK. Condé Nast.
- Bailey, Alyssa (February 23, 2015). "Karlie Kloss and Doutzen Kroes Are Leaving Victoria's Secret". elle. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Toomey, Alyssa (April 28, 2015). "Heavenly News! 2015 Victoria's Secret Angels Announced: Martha Hunt, Stella Maxwell and More!". eonline.com. E!. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Scarlett Kilcooley-O'Halloran (April 28, 2015). "Victoria's Secret Announces 10 New Angels". vogue.co.uk. Vogue UK. Condé Nast. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- Steff Yotka. "Victoria's Secret Names Josephine Skriver an Angel". Vogue. Condé Nast.
- Talarico, Brittany (November 21, 2017). "Alessandra Ambrosio Confirms the Rumors She's Leaving Victoria's Secret". People Magazine. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- "Adriana Lima's Fans Freak Out Over Her Final Victoria's Secret Show". Entertainment Tonight. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
- "Barbara Palvin is the Newest Victoria's Secret Angel". Harper's Bazaar. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Newis-Smith, Josh (March 21, 2019). "'This is for my bullies!' We exclusively meet Victoria's Secret's first red-haired angel, Alexina Graham". Glamour Magazine.
- "Leomie Anderson announced as newest Victoria's Secret Angel". AOL. April 4, 2019.
- Rutherford, Chrissy (April 10, 2019). "Exclusive: Grace Elizabeth Is Now a Victoria's Secret Angel". Harper's Bazaar.
- "Valentina Sampaio Becomes First Transgender Model for Victoria's Secret". Georgia Voice. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
- "Victoria's Secret CMO Ed Razek quits days after first trans model is hired". Retail Gazette. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
- Palmeri, Christopher (August 24, 1998). "Forbes Thought Of The Day". Forbes.
- Marsh, Lisa (February 11, 2004). "Show Buzz". New York Post. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012.
- "No hiding it". New York Post. December 12, 2010.
- Jones, Toni (January 12, 2011). "Meet the girl who everyone wants in their pants". London: The Sun. Retrieved June 30, 2013.
- "PHOTOS: Who Is Bregje Heinen?". Huffington Post. July 31, 2012.
- "Taylor Momsen Joins Victoria's Secret to Launch Love Rocks". PEOPLE.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013.
- "Which Countries Are All 295 Victoria's Secret Models From?". Huffington Post. March 14, 2014.
- "Helena Christensen's Career Highlights". New York. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Karen Mulder's Career Highlights". New York. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Daniela Pestova's Career Highlights". New York. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "CBS Specials: Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2005". CBS. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- 90's Supermodels for Victoria's Secret. March 23, 2009 – via YouTube.
- "Diablo VS Victoria Secret Special – the STORY". Lambocars.com. April 18, 2007. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Heidi Hangs Up Her Secret Wings". New York Post. September 30, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "Gisele Bundchen Bids Adieu". Dailyfrontrow.com. May 1, 2007. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Fleming, Kirsten (December 6, 2014). "What it really takes to become a Victoria's Secret Angel". nypost.com. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Adriana Lima's Career Highlights". New York. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Moraski, Lauren (October 3, 2012). "Rihanna, Justin Bieber to play Victoria's Secret Fashion Show". CBS News. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Parket, Eloise (August 12, 2007). "It's a Beautiful Day in the Secret City". Daily News (New York). Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Streib, Lauren (May 27, 2009). "The World's Top-Earning Models". Forbes. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Newman, Eric (January 14, 2008). "Victoria's Secret Super Bowl Ad Kicks Off Valentine's Marketing". Brandweek.
- "Marisa Miller out at Victoria's Secret". New York Post. January 20, 2010.
- "Marisa Miller Hangs Up Wings, Focuses on the Troops". Fox News. November 11, 2011.
- Moss, Hilary (November 11, 2011). "Marisa Miller Splits". The Huffington Post.
- Critchell, Samantha (November 20, 2009). "Heidi Klum wows crowd at Victoria's Secret show". Associated Press. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Miranda Kerr Stripped Of Her Angel Wings! Victoria's Secret Will NOT Renew Her Contract!. perezhilton.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- Cardace, Sara (November 26, 2008). "Supermodel Miranda Kerr". New York Post. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012.
- Bertoni, Steven; Blankfeld, Keren (May 13, 2010). "World's Top-Earning Models". Forbes.
- "Doutzen Kroes has left Victoria's Secret". Vogue. Condé Nast. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Instagram post". Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Daniel Barna. "Behati Prinsloo". askmen.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Rosie Huntington's Career Highlights. nymag.com. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- "Chanel Iman's Career Highlights". New York. October 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Lily Aldridge". Tatler. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- "Victoria's Secret Fashion Show: Three Newest "Angels" Stretch Their Wings on the Runway". CBS News. November 30, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Karlie Kloss is a Victoria's Secret Angel". ElleUK. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- "Karlie Kloss Is Leaving Victoria's Secret! (PEOPLE Exclusive)". People. Archived from the original on February 28, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "VS All Access - Get the Inside Scoop - Victoria's Secret". Victoria's Secret. Archived from the original on December 6, 2015.
- "Victoria's Secret Targets College Women". MSNBC. July 29, 2004. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- "Miranda Kerr Launches Victoria's Secret New Pink Bdy Organic and Natural Body Care Collection". Zimbio.com. March 10, 2009. Archived from the original on October 6, 2012.
- Barnett, Leisa (May 27, 2008). "Victoria's Pick". Vogue. UK. Condé Nast. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Kaunitz, Kate (March 15, 2010). "Behati Prinsloo Opens PINK". Fashionista. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Lewis, Casey (November 3, 2012). "Supermodel Elsa Hosk on Her Favorite Sports, Style Essentials, and Advice For Breaking Into The Business". Teen Vogue. United States. Condé Nast.
- "Rachel Hilbert Is the New Face of Victoria's Secret Pink—See the Pics!". United States: E! Online. June 10, 2015.
- Scharf, Lindzi (August 24, 2016). "Victoria's Secret's Newest Model, Zuri Tibby, Was Discovered at a Mall". United States: Yahoo! Style.
- "Look of Show 2016 - VSPRESSROOM". vspressroom.com.
- Strahan, E.J.; Lafrance, A.; Wilson, A.E.; Ethier, N.; Spencer, S.J.; Zanna, M.P. (2008). "Victoria's dirty secret: How sociocultural norms influence adolescent girls and women". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 34 (2): 288–301. doi:10.1177/0146167207310457. PMID 18212336.
- Heller, Matthew (June 21, 2009). "Toxic Bras Update: Suits Won't Be Combined in Ohio". onpoint.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- "Victoria's Secret Bras May Contain Formaldehyde, Cause Blisters". New York. November 11, 2008.
- Canning, Andrea. "Victoria's Secret: Formaldehyde in Bras?". Jen Pereira, Mariecar Frias and Imaeyen Ibanga. Good Morning America.
- Schuster, Mike. "Victoria's real secrets: A brand that needs a walk-in closet for its skeletons Date=3 April 2010". Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- Canning, Andrea (November 11, 2008). "Victoria's Secret: Formaldehyde in Bras?". ABC News.
- Simpson, Cam (December 15, 2011). "Victoria's Secret Revealed in Child Picking Burkina Faso Cotton". Bloomberg Markets Magazine. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Simpson, Cam (January 13, 2012). "Child Labor for Victoria's Secret Cotton Examined by U.S". Bloomberg. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Green, Matthew (September 17, 2007). "Tapping into social conscience". Financial Times. Nikkei. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella (August 28, 2012). "Victoria's Secret Sued". Vogue. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Victoria's Secret 'Sexy Little Geisha' Outfit Sparks Backlash". The Huffington Post. September 24, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Yang, Jeff (September 17, 2012). "Why the Rise of Asia In Fashion Isn't As Beautiful As It Seems". Wall Street Journal (SpeakEasy). United States. Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Sauers, Jenna (September 26, 2012). "And Here We Have a 'Sexy Little Geisha' Outfit From Victoria's Secret". Jezebel. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Alexander, Ella (September 25, 2012). "Victoria's Secret Geisha Outfit Faces Criticism". Vogue. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Matera, Avery. "Some Chinese Viewers Are REALLY Upset About the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show".
- ""We're Nobody's Third Love, We're Their First Love"—The Architects of the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show Are Still Banking on Bombshells". Vogue. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- "Victoria's Secret Faces Backlash After Exec's Comments About Trans and Plus-Size Models". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 13, 2018.