Victoria's Secret Fashion Show

The Victoria's Secret Fashion Show was an annual promotional event sponsored by and featuring Victoria's Secret, a brand of lingerie. From 1995 to 2018, Victoria's Secret used the show to market its goods in high-profile settings. Models under contract to the company, known as Victoria's Secret Angels, were key participants at the event. The fashion show was cancelled in 2019, the same year its organizer, Edward Razek, resigned under public pressure.[1]

Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
20141202 Jasmine Tookes at the 2014 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.jpg
Jasmine Tookes with Hozier at the
2014 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show
StatusDefunct
GenreFashion show
FrequencyAnnually
Years active23 (1995–2018; not held in 2004)
InauguratedAugust 1, 1995 (1995-08-01)
FounderEdward Razek
Most recentNovember 8, 2018 (November 8, 2018)
Organized byVictoria's Secret
Websitevictoriassecret.com/fashion-show

The fashion show, at its peak viewership in 2001, had millions tuning in to watch and was known to be a lavish event with elaborate costumed lingerie, music by leading entertainers, and set design with changing themes.[2][3] With dozens of the world's top fashion models selected to perform in it each year, the fashion show attracted celebrities and entertainers, and regularly featured special performers and acts.

American network television broadcast the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show during prime time. The first few shows in the 1990s were held in the days preceding Valentine's Day, linking the brand to the holiday's romantic theme. In 1999 and 2000, the show was webcast. Beginning in 2001, the event was shifted to take place ahead of the Christmas holiday season. The show made its network television broadcast debut on ABC in 2001, with subsequent years (2002 - 2017) broadcast on CBS; the event returned to ABC for the final 2018 edition. The event was frequently held in New York City at the Plaza Hotel or the 69th Regiment Armory, in addition to special host cities including Miami, Los Angeles, Cannes, Paris, London, and Shanghai.

Cancellation, officially announced in November 2019 amid declining ratings and sales and growing criticism of Razek, was influenced by both the reckoning of the Me Too movement, fourth-wave feminism, and the association of L Brands' CEO Les Wexner with sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. Due to the immense amount of criticism, Victoria's Secret Fashion Show reconsidered its marketing strategy, which ultimately contributed to the end of the runway shows. The brand's focus changed to digital-platform marketing with the aim of restoring its reputation.[4] Critics of the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show considered it objectifying, lacking in diversity of body sizes,[5] and repeatedly inclined towards offensive cultural appropriation with its designs.[3]

HistoryEdit

1995–2005Edit

The first fashion show, introduced by Stephanie Seymour, was held at the Plaza Hotel in New York City in August 1995. The show also featured Beverly Peele and Frederique van der Wal.[6] The inaugural show occurred two months before The Limited, parent company of Victoria's Secret owner Intimate Brands, sold an initial public offering of a 16 percent stake in the company at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).[7] Supermodel Stephanie Seymour rang the closing bell at the NYSE as part of the publicity campaign after the event had been promoted by full page adds in the Wall Street Journal.[8][9] The subsequent three annual shows were also held at the Plaza Hotel.[10][11][12]

In 1999, during Super Bowl XXXIII, Victoria's Secret announced a 72-hour countdown to the webcast of their fashion show, which resulted in over 2 million viewers.[13] Parent company Intimate Brands bought a $1.5 million, 30-second television advertisement during the Super Bowl broadcast and spent an additional $4 million on international newspaper publicity.[14] The event, hosted by Broadcast.com,[14] featured Tyra Banks, Laetitia Casta, Heidi Klum, Karen Mulder, Daniela Peštová, Inés Rivero, and Seymour.[15] In 1999 and 2000,[16] the show was broadcast live on the internet.

The May 2000 fashion show, held in France in sync with the Cannes Film Festival, was made with production help from Harvey Weinstein.[17] The event raised $3.5 million for the Cinema Against AIDS charity.[18]

The 2001 show, hosted by Rupert Everett,[19] returned to New York City and was held at Bryant Park in the Valhalla structure, designed by Rudi Enos. All proceeds went towards the victims of the September 11 attacks. That year, the show made its broadcast debut on ABC, drawing millions of viewers as well as some controversy; the Federal Communications Commission received many complaints about the broadcast.[19][20]

From 2002 through 2005, it was held at the Lexington Avenue Armory in New York City.[21]

The 2004 show was canceled due to fallout from the Super Bowl halftime show controversy, an event known for accidental indecency with a "wardrobe malfunction".[22] In place of the fashion show, the company sent the Angels (Tyra Banks, Heidi Klum, Gisele Bündchen, Adriana Lima, and Alessandra Ambrosio) on an Angels Across America Tour in 2004 to promote the brand through visit to four major cities: New York City, Miami, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles.[23]

2006–2012Edit

Victoria's Secret sister brand PINK made its debut on the runway starting in 2006 and was regularly featured in a segment of the fashion show each year afterward.

In 2006 and 2007, the Victoria's Secret fashion shows were held at the Kodak Theatre in Los Angeles.[24][25] On November 13, 2007, the company's Angels were honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame outside the Kodak Theatre as part of a celebration to mark Victoria's Secret's 25th anniversary on Hollywood Boulevard.[26][27][28] Justin Timberlake opened the show with his song "Sexy Back". This fashion show included the final walk of Gisele Bündchen.

The 2007 show featured a performance by the Spice Girls, the first American TV debut of the band's comeback.[29] After Kanye West canceled his appearance, will.i.am was called to perform in his place.[30]

The 2008 show coincided with the grand re-opening of the Fontainebleau Miami Beach hotel and had Usher as a featured performer.[31] Unlike the other shows, the runway was designed parallel with the audience seats.

In 2009, the fashion show returned to the Lexington Avenue Armory and featured the “Victoria's Secret Model Search”, a competition to find a new runway Angel with the winner announced as Kylie Bisutti.[32]

The 2010 Victoria's Secret Fashion show aired on November 30, 2010, on CBS, and featured performances by Katy Perry and Akon.[33] A promotional ad featured a lipdub[34] for Katy Perry's "Firework".[35] As of 2010, 152 models have walked the show.[36]

In 2011, Kanye West started his song "Stronger" with a tribute to his mother who had died before his scheduled performance four years before, saying: "In 2007, I was supposed to perform this song on this show ...and I lost my superhero. Now she's my super-angel."[37]

In 2012, an outfit worn by model Karlie Kloss, which was reminiscent of Native American attire, sparked controversy due to its alleged stereotypical depiction of Native Americans, which amounted to cultural appropriation. Victoria's Secret released a statement of apology shortly after, saying that they will remove it from future advertisements and the broadcast. Kloss apologized on her Twitter account for the outfit and expressed her support for the outfit's removal in the broadcast.[38]

2013–2019Edit

 
Kelly Gale wearing lingerie along with traditional-styled Indian clothing at Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2014

The 2013 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show featured performances by Taylor Swift, A Great Big World, Neon Jungle, and Fall Out Boy.[39] Swift performed "I Knew You Were Trouble", A Great Big World performed "Say Something", UK's Neon Jungle made their US television debut with "Trouble", and Fall Out Boy performed with Taylor Swift in "My Songs Know What You Did In The Dark" and later performed "The Phoenix".[39]

In 2014, the Victoria's Secret Fashion show featured performances by Taylor Swift; Ed Sheeran, Ariana Grande, and Hozier.[40] Swift performed "Blank Space" and "Style". Ed Sheeran performed "Thinking Out Loud". Ariana Grande performed "Love Me Harder", "Bang Bang", "Break Free", and "Problem". Hozier performed "Take Me to Church". During the show, Ariana Grande was performing and was hit by accident by Elsa Hosk's wings.[41]

In 2015, the show featured performances by The Weeknd, Selena Gomez, and Ellie Goulding. The Weeknd performed "In the Night" and "Can't Feel My Face" for the show, while Gomez performed a medley of "Hands to Myself" and "Me & My Girls" for the PINK segment. Goulding was contracted as a replacement for Rihanna, who had canceled her appearance just one week before the show in order to focus on recording her album Anti. Goulding performed "Army" and "Love Me Like You Do" for the show.

In 2016, the Victoria's Secret Fashion show featured performances by The Weeknd (performed "Starboy"), Lady Gaga (performed "Million Reasons", plus a medley of "A-Yo" and "John Wayne"), and Bruno Mars (performed "Chunky" for the Pink brand and "24k Magic" for the VS brand).[42] The executive producer of Victoria's Secret, Ed Razek, chose Grand Palais in Paris, France, as the show's location. A major challenge faced with the show was the size of the building and how the show could be showcased on a small TV, as well as the natural lighting in the building, which would get in the way of the tradition of the show being held at night.[43][44]

The 2017 show was held in Shanghai, China and was the first Victoria's Secret Fashion Show to be held in Asia.[45] The show featured the first-ever segment in collaboration with another brand, French fashion house Balmain. The theme and designs were co-steered by Victoria's Secret and Balmain creative director Olivier Rousteing.[46] Performers included Harry Styles (performed Kiwi and Only Angel), Miguel (performed Pineapple Skies and Told You So), Jane Zhang (performed a medley of Work For It, 808, and Dust My Shoulders Off), and Leslie Odom Jr. (performed Winter Song). A performance by Katy Perry was canceled due to her visa to travel to China being revoked.[47] A week before the show was due to be filmed, model Gigi Hadid stated that she had been denied access to the show. Russian models were also reportedly denied visas for entry to China.[48]

In November 2018, the company's chief of marketing Ed Razek was criticized for comments he made in an interview with Vogue, suggesting that the fashion show did not cast trans women—whom he referred to using the now-rejected term "transsexuals"—because "the show is a fantasy". Razek apologized for the "insensitive" comments, noting that trans women have attempted to audition for the show in the past, but that "it was never about gender. I admire and respect their journey to embrace who they really are." Razek also faced criticism for similar comments regarding plus-size models, stating they had not attempted to do a show for them since 2000 since there was no viewer interest.[49][50] Criticism of Razek for anachronistic and misogynistic business practices intensified, from both inside and outside the company, and he resigned in August 2019.[1]

CancellationEdit

In May 2019, it was reported that L Brands CEO Les Wexner had issued a memo questioning the future of the show, stating that network television was no longer the "right fit", and that the company planned to focus on "developing exciting and dynamic content and a new kind of event."[51] Viewership of the show had fallen from 9.2 million viewers in 2014 to 3.2 million in 2018. Victoria's Secret had also been experiencing an overall decline due to increasing competition, as well as changing perceptions to the company's marketing—which a retail analyst described as encouraging women to objectify themselves to "impress men".[52][53]

On November 21, 2019, L Brands CFO Stuart Burgdoerfer officially confirmed that the 2019 fashion show had been canceled, citing its declining viewership and lack of immediate "material impact" on Victoria's Secret sales post-broadcast. He re-affirmed that Victoria's Secret was "figuring out how to advance the positioning of the brand and best communicate that to customers".[52][54] The New York Times reported that the company was seeking to distance itself from the controversy following fallout from the Jeffrey Epstein sexual abuse scandal and Wexner's ties to Epstein.[4] The last official broadcast of the Victoria's Secret Fashion show was in December 2018.[55]

Wings as a design elementEdit

The wings were first introduced in the 1998 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.[2] A consistent feature of each year's collection, wings were included as a part of some outfits. The idea to feature wings as part of the collection came in the wake of the immense success of the "Angels"-bra line, which was advertised with the models Tyra Banks, Helena Christensen, Karen Mulder, Daniela Pestova, and Stephanie Seymour wearing wings. The same models who were featured in the campaigns for the "Angel"-bra line, with the exception of Chandra North filling in the spot for Christensen, walked the runway with Angel wings on..[citation needed] Over the years, the show featured various forms and sizes of wings, such as butterfly, peacock, or devil wings, which have become emblematic of the Victoria's Secret brand. The wings were, at times, ornamental back pieces worn by the models on the runway, with limited resemblance to traditional wings. Some models considered it an honor to wear the wings.[citation needed]

Adriana Lima has worn the most winged costumes in the history of the show. With her count of 24 sets of wings, she is followed by Candice Swanepoel who has worn 20 pair of wings.[citation needed]

Critical reviewEdit

The early webcasts were criticized for poor connection, and users that could connect were subjected to low video quality.[14] One critic from The New York Times described the initial 20th-century webcast experience as having felt like he was "watching a striptease through a keyhole".[8]

Some critics have described the 21st-century televised editions of the show as pornographic,[56][57] while others have described it as both "outright commercialism" and indistinguishable from an infomercial.[19] The Federal Communications Commission has received complaints regarding the broadcast, but no fines have been imposed, with the FCC, following the 2001 airing, citing the First Amendment and stating that "sexual or excretory activities or organs in a patently offensive manner as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium" were not broadcast.[58] In the initial 2001 airing ABC blurred the screen on particularly sheer lingerie.[57] This enabled the show to pass muster with its internal Broadcast Standards and Practices department and to achieve a TV Parental Guidelines rating of TV-14 (a rating maintained for each broadcast presentation over the years), as a TV-MA rating is virtually unmarketable for advertisers on broadcast television.[59] In 2002, the National Organization for Women protested the show calling it a "soft-core porn infomercial."[56] They were joined in protest by the Parents Television Council and other watchdog organizations.[57] Despite the program's timeslot and parental ratings, some affiliates have chosen not to air the program, including Fisher Communications' CBS stations in Boise and Idaho Falls, Idaho in the past.[57] In 2009, the American Decency Association organized email letters of protests to sponsors of the show including AT&T, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Netflix, Nikon, and Reebok.[60] CBS described the event as "the Super Bowl of fashion" in 2014.[61]

Summary tableEdit

# Event Dates Locations Broadcaster Viewers (millions) Models Performers
List Ref.
1 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 1995 August 1, 1995 Plaza Hotel, New York City
  USA
no broadcast no broadcast [6] None
2 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 1996 February 6, 1996 Plaza Hotel, New York City
  USA
no broadcast no broadcast [10][62][63][64]
3 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 1997 February 4, 1997 Plaza Hotel, New York City
  USA
no broadcast no broadcast [11][65][66]
4 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 1998 February 3, 1998 Plaza Hotel, New York City
  USA
no broadcast no broadcast [67][12][68]
5 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 1999 February 3, 1999 Cipriani Wall Street restaurant, New York City
  USA
webcast by Broadcast.com 2.0+[13] [16][68][69][70][71][72]
6 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2000 May 18, 2000 Cannes
  France
webcast [67][73][74][75]
7 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2001 November 13, 2001[76]
aired: November 15, 2001[76]
Bryant Park, New York City
  USA
ABC 12.4 [77][78][79] Mary J. Blige and Andrea Bocelli
8 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2002 November 14, 2002[80]
aired: November 20, 2002[81]
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS 10.5 [78][81][82][83] Destiny's Child, Marc Anthony, and Phil Collins
9 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2003 November 13, 2003[84]
aired: November 19, 2003[85]
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
UPN repeat
9.44[86]
3.5
[84][87][88][89] Sting, Mary J. Blige, and Eve
Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2004 2004 (Angels Across America Tour instead of annual fashion show) New York City, Miami, Las Vegas and Los Angeles[23]
  USA
None N/A N/A None
10 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2005 November 9, 2005[21]
aired: December 6, 2005[90]
re-aired: December 13, 2005[91]
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
UPN repeat
8.9[92]
3.33[93]
[21][90][94][95] Chris Botti, Ricky Martin, Seal, and Rutgers University Drumline[96]
11 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2006 November 16, 2006[24]
aired: December 5, 2006[97]
re-aired: December 19, 2006[98]
Kodak Theatre, Los Angeles
  USA
CBS
The CW
6.78[99] [22][24][97][100] Justin Timberlake
12 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2007 November 16, 2007[101]
aired: December 4, 2007[25]
re-aired: December 11, 2007
Kodak Theatre, Los Angeles
  USA
CBS
The CW
7.4[102]
2.94[103]
[25][104][105] Spice Girls, will.i.am, Seal and Heidi Klum
13 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2008 November 15, 2008[106]
aired: December 3, 2008[31]
re-aired: December 17, 2008
Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami
  USA
CBS
The CW
8.7[107]
2.43[108]
[31][109][110][111] Usher and Jorge Moreno
14 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2009 November 19, 2009[112]
aired: December 1, 2009[112]
re-aired: December 9, 2009
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
The CW
8.3[113]
1.7[114]
[116] The Black Eyed Peas[117]
15 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2010 November 10, 2010
aired: November 30, 2010
re-aired: December 8, 2010
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
The CW
10.4[118]
2.4[119]
[120][121][122] Katy Perry and Akon
16 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2011 November 9, 2011
aired: November 29, 2011
aired: December 14, 2011
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
The CW
10.3[123]
1.6[124]
[125] Maroon 5, Kanye West, Jay-Z, and Nicki Minaj[126]
17 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2012 November 7, 2012
aired: December 4, 2012
re-aired: December 12, 2012
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
The CW
9.48[127]
1.52[128]
[129][130] Rihanna, Justin Bieber, and Bruno Mars
18 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2013 November 13, 2013
aired: December 10, 2013
re-aired: December 16, 2013
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City
  USA
CBS
The CW repeat
9.72[131]
1.11[132]
Taylor Swift, Fall Out Boy, Neon Jungle, A Great Big World, and Rutgers University Drumline[133]
19 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2014 December 2, 2014
airing: December 9, 2014
re-aired: December 16, 2014
Earls Court, London[134]
  United Kingdom
CBS
The CW repeat
9.29[135]
1.24[136]
[137][138] Taylor Swift, Ed Sheeran, Ariana Grande, and Hozier
20 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2015 November 10, 2015
airing: December 8, 2015
re-aired: December 15, 2015
Lexington Avenue Armory,
New York City,
  USA
CBS
The CW repeat
6.59[139]
1.20[140]
[141] Ellie Goulding, Selena Gomez, and The Weeknd
21 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2016 November 30, 2016
airing: December 5, 2016
re-aired: December 14, 2016
Grand Palais,
Paris,[142]
  France
CBS
The CW repeat
6.67[143] [141] Lady Gaga, Bruno Mars, and The Weeknd[144]
22 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2017 November 20, 2017
airing: November 28, 2017
re-aired: 2017
Mercedes Benz Arena,
Shanghai,
  China
CBS
The CW repeat
4.98[145] [146] Harry Styles, Miguel, Li Yundi, Leslie Odom Jr., and Jane Zhang
23 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show 2018 November 8, 2018

airing: December 2, 2018

re-aired: December 7, 2018

Pier 94, New York City,
  USA
ABC 3.27 Shawn Mendes, Rita Ora, The Chainsmokers, Bebe Rexha, Halsey, Leela James, Kelsea Ballerini, and The Struts

Fantasy BraEdit

 
Adriana Lima with the 2010 Fantasy Bra

Typically, one model is chosen among the Angels to wear a bejeweled bra dubbed the "Fantasy Bra". It was first advertised in the Victoria's Secret catalog, but since 2001 has been worn in the fashion shows. Prior to each fashion show, Victoria's Secret contracts a renowned jewelry designer to craft the bra to be used as a focal point for promoting the fashion show and as a centerpiece within it. However, only the centerpiece from the 2004 Heavenly "70" Fantasy Bra and the 2012 Floral Fantasy Bra and Gift Set have found a buyer.[147][148] If not bought, the bras are usually dismantled after a year.[149][150]

Heidi Klum and Adriana Lima have worn the Fantasy Bra in three different years.[151] Gisele Bündchen, Tyra Banks, Karolína Kurková, and Alessandra Ambrosio have each worn two Fantasy Bras.[152] Tyra Banks also wore the 1996 Million Dollar Miracle Bra during the 1999 fashion show.[153] As of 2018, the fantasy bra has been worn 8 times by a Brazilian model, 5 times by an American model, 4 times by a German model, and 3 times by a Czech model.

The $15 million price tag for the 2000 bra worn by Gisele Bündchen earned a place in the Guinness World Records as the most expensive item of lingerie ever created.[154] The $3 million 2009 Harlequin Fantasy Bra and the $2 million 2010 Bombshell Fantasy Bra were designed by Damiani.[155] Listed below are the prices per set (including accessories for the 2007 and 2013 editions, the 2013 bra alone is worth $10,000,000.00.[156] The 2012 Floral Fantasy Bra was accompanied by a $500,000 perfume bottle.

In 2014, for the first time, two fantasy bras were created. They were worn by Alessandra Ambrosio and Adriana Lima and were valued at $2,000,000 each.

Year Name Model Value Appeared in
fashion show
Refs
1996 Million Dollar Miracle Bra   Claudia Schiffer $1,000,000 [153][157]
1997 Diamond Dream Bra   Tyra Banks $3,000,000
1998 Dream Angel Bra   Daniela Peštová $5,000,000
1999 Millennium Bra   Heidi Klum $10,000,000 [151]
2000 Red Hot Fantasy Bra/Panties   Gisele Bündchen $15,000,000 [154]
2001 Heavenly Star Bra   Heidi Klum $12,500,000   [158]
2002 Star of Victoria Fantasy Bra   Karolína Kurková $10,000,000   [159]
2003 Very Sexy Fantasy Bra   Heidi Klum $11,000,000   [160]
2004 Heavenly "70" Fantasy Bra   Tyra Banks $10,000,000 [161]
2005 Sexy Splendor Fantasy Bra   Gisele Bündchen $12,500,000   [162]
2006 Hearts On Fire Diamond Fantasy Bra   Karolína Kurková $6,500,000   [159]
2007 Holiday Fantasy Bra Set   Selita Ebanks $4,500,000   [163]
2008 Black Diamond Fantasy Miracle Bra   Adriana Lima $5,000,000   [164]
2009 Harlequin Fantasy Bra   Marisa Miller $3,000,000   [165]
2010 Bombshell Fantasy Bra   Adriana Lima $2,000,000   [166]
2011 Fantasy Treasure Bra   Miranda Kerr $2,500,000   [167]
2012 Floral Fantasy Bra & Gift Set   Alessandra Ambrosio $2,500,000   [168]
2013 Royal Fantasy Bra   Candice Swanepoel $10,000,000   [169]
2014 Dream Angels Fantasy Bras   Alessandra Ambrosio
  Adriana Lima
$2,000,000
$2,000,000
  [170]
2015 Fireworks Fantasy Bra   Lily Aldridge $2,000,000   [171]
2016 Bright Night Fantasy Bra   Jasmine Tookes $3,000,000   [172]
2017 Champagne Nights Fantasy Bra   Lais Ribeiro $2,000,000   [173]
2018 Dream Angels Fantasy Bra   Elsa Hosk $1,000,000   [174]

Fantasy Bra countEdit

# Model Count Year
1   Adriana Lima 3 2008, 2010, 2014
  Heidi Klum 1999, 2001, 2003
2   Alessandra Ambrosio 2 2012, 2014
  Karolína Kurková 2002, 2006
  Gisele Bündchen 2000, 2005
  Tyra Banks 1997, 2004
3   Elsa Hosk 1 2018
  Lais Ribeiro 2017
  Jasmine Tookes 2016
  Lily Aldridge 2015
  Candice Swanepoel 2013
  Miranda Kerr 2011
  Marisa Miller 2009
  Selita Ebanks 2007
  Daniela Peštová 1998
  Claudia Schiffer 1996

SwarovskiEdit

Since 2003, similar to the Fantasy Bra, one or more models are chosen to wear the "Swarovski Outfit" and the "Swarovski Wings" every year. The first Swarovski items that were shown on the runway were given to Alessandra Ambrosio. Victoria's Secret had worked with Swarovski for 9 years prior to the Swarovski items worn on the runway in 2011.[175]

Alessandra Ambrosio's Swarovski outfit, worn in 2011, included a 60-pound wing which was made out of 105,000 Swarovski crystals. The base of her wing was made out of 23-carat gold. Cameron Russell was given the "10th Anniversary" Swarovski outfit, worn in 2012, celebrating Victoria's Secret's 10th year working with Swarovski.

The 2013 Swarovski outfit was a 3D printed piece given to Lindsay Ellingson, which included mini-micro Swarovski crystals. In 2017, Elsa Hosk was chosen to wear the 15th Anniversary Swarovski outfit, which came out to a total value of $1,000,000.

Year Model Runway Shows Segment Worn Notes
2011   Alessandra Ambrosio 2000-2017 Segment 3: Passion Play Heaviest Wings (40 pounds)
2012   Cameron Russell 2011–2012 Segment 5: Silver Screen Angels 10th Anniversary Swarovski Outfit
2013   Lindsay Ellingson 2007–2014 Segment 6: Snow Angels 3D Printed Swarovski Outfit
2014   Lily Donaldson 2010–2016 Segment 5: Fairy Tale "The Swarovski Look"
2015   Martha Hunt 2013–2018 Segment 6: Fireworks Includes Swarovski, Light Up Wings
2016   Josephine Skriver 2013–2018 Segment 6: Bright Night Angel Silver Fringe Swarovski Outfit
2017   Elsa Hosk 2011–2018 Segment 5: Nomadic Adventure $1,000,000 Swarovski Outfit and Wing
2018   Romee Strijd 2014-2018 Segment 7: Celestial Angel Shooting Star Swarovski Outfit and Wing

Show Opening & Closing modelsEdit

# Year Opening model Opening count Closing count Angel status Runway shows Notes Closing model Opening count Closing count Angel status Runway shows Notes
1 1995   Ingrid Seynhaeve 1 1995 • 1997 • 2000 Non-Angel Opening [176]   Stephanie Seymour 1 1997-2000 1995-2000
2 1996   Naomi Campbell 1 1996–1998 • 2002–2003 • 2005 Non-Angel Opening   Stephanie Seymour 2 1997-2000 1995–2000
3 1997   Claudia Schiffer 1 1997 Non-Angel Opening [177]   Naomi Campbell 1 1 1996–1998 • 2002–2003 • 2005 Non-Angel Closing
4 1998   Karen Mulder 1 1996–2000 1996–2000 [178]   Naomi Campbell 1 2 1996–1998 • 2002–2003 • 2005 Non-Angel Closing
5 1999   Carmen Kass 1 1 1999–2000 • 2002–2003 • 2008 Non-Angel Opening & Closing [179]   Carmen Kass 1 1 1999–2000 • 2002–2003 • 2008 Non-Angel Opening & Closing [179]
6 2000   Gisele Bündchen 1 2000–2007 1999–2003 • 2005-2006   Laetitia Casta 1 1998–2000 1997–2000
7 2001   Karolína Kurková 1 2005–2009 2000–2003 • 2005-2008 • 2010 Non-Angel Opening   Adriana Lima 1 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018
8 2002   Gisele Bündchen 2 2000–2007 1999–2003 • 2005-2006   Adriana Lima 2 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018
9 2003   Adriana Lima 1 2 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018   Heidi Klum 1 1999–2010 1997–2003 • 2005 • 2007–2009
10 2005   Gisele Bündchen 3 2000–2007 1999–2003 • 2005-2006 Wearing "Sexy Splendor Fantasy Bra" ($12,500,000)   Tyra Banks 1 1997–2005 1996–2003 • 2005 Last Walk
11 2006   Gisele Bündchen 4 2000–2007 1999–2003 • 2005-2006   Ana Beatriz Barros 1 2002–2003 • 2005–2006 • 2008–2009 Non-Angel Closing
12 2007   Adriana Lima 2 2 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018   Heidi Klum 2 1999–2010 1997–2003 • 2005 • 2007–2009 Tied with Adriana Lima for most shows closed, with 2.
13 2008   Adriana Lima 3 2 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010-2018   Heidi Klum 3 1999–2010 1997–2003 • 2005 • 2007–2009
14 2009   Alessandra Ambrosio 1 2004–2017 2000–2003 • 2005–2017   Doutzen Kroes 1 2008–2014 2005–2006 • 2008–2009 • 2011–2014
15 2010   Adriana Lima 4 2 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005–2008 • 2010–2018 Tied with Gisele Bündchen for most shows opened, with 4.   Chanel Iman 1 2010–2012 2009–2011
16 2011   Candice Swanepoel 1 2010–present 2007–2015 • 2017–2018   Karlie Kloss 1 2013–2015 2011–2014 • 2017 Non-Angel Closing
17 2012   Adriana Lima 5 2 2000–2018 1999–2003 • 2005-2008 • 2010–2018 Currently holds the record for most shows opened, with 5.   Rihanna 1 2012 Non-Model Closing
18 2013   Candice Swanepoel 2 2010–present 2007–2015 • 2017–2018 Wearing "Royal Fantasy Bra" ($10,000,000)   Magdalena Frackowiak 1 2010 • 2012–2015 Non-Angel Closing
19 2014   Behati Prinsloo 1 2009–present 2007–2015 • 2018   Candice Swanepoel 2 1 2010–present 2007–2015 • 2017–2018
20 2015   Behati Prinsloo 2 2009–present 2007–2015 • 2018   Martha Hunt 1 2015–present 2013–2018 Wearing Swarovski Outfit
21 2016   Elsa Hosk 1 2015–present 2011–2018   Lily Aldridge 1 2010–present 2009–2017
22 2017   Candice Swanepoel 3 1 2010–present 2007–2015 • 2017–2018   Alessandra Ambrosio 1 1 2004-2017 2000–2003 • 2005–2017 Last Walk.
23 2018   Taylor Hill 1 2015–present 2014-2018   Adriana Lima 5 3 2000-2018 1999-2003 • 2005-2008 • 2010-2018 Tied with Heidi Klum for most shows closed, with 3.

Last Walk.

Opening countEdit

In 23 editions (1995–2003; 2005–18), 13 models have opened the show.

# Opening model Opening count Year
1   Adriana Lima 5 2003, 2007–2008, 2010, 2012
2   Gisele Bündchen 4 2000, 2002, 2005-2006
3   Candice Swanepoel 3 2011, 2013, 2017
4   Behati Prinsloo 2 2014-2015
5   Taylor Hill 1 2018
  Elsa Hosk 2016
  Alessandra Ambrosio 2009
  Karolína Kurková 2001
  Carmen Kass 1999
  Karen Mulder 1998
  Claudia Schiffer 1997
  Naomi Campbell 1996
  Ingrid Seynhaeve 1995

Closing countEdit

In 23 editions (1995–2003; 2005–18), 17 models have closed the show.

# Closing model Closing count Year
1   Adriana Lima 3 2001, 2002, 2018
  Heidi Klum 2003, 2007, 2008
2   Naomi Campbell 2 1997, 1998
  Stephanie Seymour 1995, 1996
3   Alessandra Ambrosio 1 2017
  Lily Aldridge 2016
  Martha Hunt 2015
  Candice Swanepoel 2014
  Magdalena Frackowiak 2013
  Toni Garrn 2012
  Karlie Kloss 2011
  Chanel Iman 2010
  Doutzen Kroes 2009
  Ana Beatriz Barros 2006
  Tyra Banks 2005
  Laetitia Casta 2000
  Carmen Kass 1999

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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