TransJakarta (stylised as transjakarta) is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Jakarta, Indonesia. It was the first BRT system in Asia. TransJakarta commenced operations on 15 January 2004 with the aim of providing a fast public transport system to help reduce rush hour traffic. The system is considered as the first revolutionary public transit mode in the capital city of Indonesia. The buses run in dedicated lanes and ticket prices are subsidized by the regional government. As of June 2019, TransJakarta has the world's longest BRT system (251.2 km in length), and serves on average 0.8 million passengers daily.
|Transit type||Bus Rapid Transit|
|Number of lines||13 BRT (2 planned)|
11 BRT express
25 city bus (integrated to BRT)
10 suburban bus
8 low cost apartment feeder
|Number of stations||241|
|Daily ridership||0.8 million/day (2019)|
|Annual ridership||189.77 million (2018)|
|Began operation||15 January 2004|
|Operator(s)||PT Transportasi Jakarta|
|System length||251.2 kilometres (156.1 mi)|
History and developmentEdit
TransJakarta was built to provide a fast, comfortable, and affordable mass transportation system. To accomplish those objectives, the buses were given lanes restricted to other traffic and separated by concrete blocks on the streets that became part of the busway routes.The first TransJakarta line opened to the public on 15 January 2004. It was free for the first two weeks, after which commercial operations started on 1 February 2004.
At present TransJakarta has 13 primary routes and 10 cross-corridor routes. In addition, there are 18 'feeder' routes that serve beyond the exclusive busway corridors to serve satellite cities in Greater Jakarta. TransJakarta has total 155 routes as of January, 2019 (corridor, cross route & feeder route) - a significant increase from 41 routes in 2015. The number of TransJakarta buses has also increased dramatically, from 605 buses in 2015 to 1500 buses in 2017, and plans to double that number to 3000. The fare has remained Rp 3,500 (27 US cents) per passenger since operations began. The service set a record in 2018 when it carried 730,000 passengers per day, a significant jump from 331,000 per day in 2015. About 189.8 million passengers used the service of TransJakarta in the year of 2018, and targeted to serve one million passengers daily.
Normal operating times are from 5:00am to 11:00pm. Seven routes have limited overnight services providing 24-hour operation.
- Closed Trunk System without a Feeder System
- Elevated Platform for Rapid Boarding and Alighting
- Public Sector Bus Procurement and Private Sector Bus Operation
- Operating at 450,000 passengers/day (2016)
When TransJakarta commenced in 2004, 15 corridors were planned and 13 are now operational. In 2017, the newest corridor opened. It is the first elevated corridor on the TransJakarta network. Two more corridors are in the planning stages. Corridors 14, and 15 are designed to be a grade-separated elevated BRT line. TransJakarta BRT network is connected with KRL Commuter Jabodetabek and Jakarta MRT in Corridor 13, which was set to be completed in 2016.
Other than main BRT routes, TransJakarta operates 11 BRT express routes (shortened version of the normal BRT routes), 25 city bus routes integrated to BRT stations, 10 suburban routes to satellite cities, and 8 routes serving low cost apartments.
|Corridor #||Origin-Destination||Opened||BRT Standard|
|Kota - Blok M||15 January 2004||Silver|
|Pulo Gadung - Harmoni||15 January 2006||Bronze|
|Kalideres - Pasar Baru||15 January 2006||Bronze|
|Pulo Gadung - Dukuh Atas 2||27 January 2007||Bronze|
|Ancol - Kampung Melayu||27 January 2007||Bronze|
|Dukuh Atas 2 - Ragunan||27 January 2007||Bronze|
|Kampung Melayu - Kampung Rambutan||27 January 2007||Basic BRT|
|Lebak Bulus - Harmoni||21 February 2009||Basic BRT|
|Pluit - Pinang Ranti||31 December 2010||Basic BRT|
|Tanjung Priok - PGC 2||31 December 2010||Basic BRT|
|Kampung Melayu - Pulo Gebang||28 December 2011||Basic BRT|
|Penjaringan - Tanjung Priok||14 February 2013||Basic BRT|
|Ciledug - Tendean - Blok M||14 August 2017||(TBC)|
|Blok M - Pondok Kelapa||(planned)||(TBC)|
|Manggarai - Depok||(planned)||(TBC)|
In addition to the 15 main corridors, TransJakarta, in cooperation with other public transportation companies, provides feeder buses to passengers from suburbs outside Jakarta to bus termini.
TransJakarta will plan a new Corridor 9H Kranggan Permai - Pinang Ranti via Jalan Raya Hankam relation for scheduled services.
Timeline of routesEdit
The buses run along the following routes:
- January 15, 2004: Corridor 1, (Blok M to Kota) (soft launch)
- February 1, 2004: Corridor 1, (Blok M to Kota) (commercial service)
- January 15, 2006: Corridor 2, (Pulo Gadung to Harmoni) and Corridor 3, (Kalideres to Pasar Baru) opened
- January 27, 2007: Corridor 4, (Pulo Gadung to Dukuh Atas 2), Corridor 5, (Kp. Melayu to Ancol), Corridor 6, (Halimun to Ragunan) and Corridor 7, (Kampung Rambutan to Kampung Melayu) opened
- February 21, 2009: Corridor 8, (Lebak Bulus to Harmoni) opened
- December 31, 2010: Corridor 9, (Pluit to Pinang Ranti) and Corridor 10, (PGC Cililitan to Tanjung Priok) opened.
- March 18, 2011 Corridor 9 was the only corridor serving until 11.00 pm. Followed by Corridor 1, with transit point with Corridor 9 at Semanggi shelter. The night service however, only stops at a certain shelters only.
- May 20, 2011 Corridor 2 and Corridor 3 initialized to serve until 11.00pm, but only open 9 shelters out of 22 on Corridor 2 and 9 out of 13 shelters on Corridor 3 remain open during the extended hours.
- July 1, 2011 Corridors 4 to 7 began their late night service, so all corridors now has already deployed late night service except for Corridor 8.
- September 28, 2011 3 feeder bus routes launched with Route 1 from West Jakarta Municipal Office to Daan Mogot, Route 2 from Tanah Abang to Medan Merdeka Selatan and Route 3 from SCBD to Senayan. The fare will be Rp.6,500 ($0.72), which cover tickets for both the feeder service and TransJakarta buses. But the feeder routes eventually shut down because of low number of riders.
- December 13, 2011: Transjakarta began to separate male and female passengers, in which the commuter rail network has already done the separation earlier. The women only areas are located between middle door and driver cabins.
- December 28, 2011: Corridor 11, (Kp. Melayu to Pulo Gebang) opened.
- February 14, 2013: Corridor 12, (Pluit to Tanjung Priok) opened.
- May 19, 2014: The extension of Corridor 2, (Pulo Gadung to Harapan Indah) opened.
- August 16, 2017: Corridor 13, (Ciledug to Tendean) opened.
On June 1, 2014, 24-hour operation began on three corridors — the Blok M-Kota route (Corridor 1), Pinang Ranti-Pluit route (Corridor 9) and Kalideres-Pasar Baru route (Corridor 3). Service is provided by 18 buses with 2 buses in reserve and service frequency is between 30 minutes and an hour. On May 6, 2015, 24-hour operation began on four corridors - the Harmoni-Pulogadung route (Corridor 2), Cililitan-Ancol Route (Corridor 5), Harmoni-Lebak Bulus route (corridor 8) and Tanjung Priok-Cililitan route (corridor 10). Service is provided by 28 buses with 2 buses in reserve and frequency is between 30 minutes and 60 minute.
Each bus is constructed with passengers' safety in mind. For example, the body frame is constructed using Galvanyl (Zn - Fe Alloy), a strong and rust-resistant metal. There are also eight or ten glass-shattering hammers mounted on some of the window frames, and three emergency doors for fast evacuation during an emergency. There are also two fire extinguishers at the front and back of the buses.
The Mercedes-Benz OH and Hino RG air-conditioned buses are painted red and yellow, with a picture of a young brahminy kite, which looks very similar to a bald eagle grasping a tree branch with three snakefruit on it. The buses use special fuel which is (a mix of diesel and biodiesel). For Corridor 2 (bus colors: blue and white) and 3 (bus colors: yellow and red), the buses are CNG-fueled Daewoo buses imported from South Korea. Due to various coachbuilders being involved and design tweaks applied over time, the exterior and interior appearance, quality, and comfort varies between buses operating in the same corridor. Currently these buses are no longer operational and replaced by newer buses. The newer buses are equipped with 2 doors on each side to improve passenger flow in and out of the bus. Aside from that, the driver and passengers are now divided by a bulkhead to give the driver more concentration while driving on the road.
The capacity of each bus varies from 85, 100 to 120 passengers. Single Mercedes-Benz and Hino buses can carry about 85 passengers. For the Scania and Mercedes-Benz Maxi buses can carry 100 passengers, and 120 can be carried by standard articulated buses. Ahead of 2018 Asian Games Transjakarta has added 116 Volvo buses and 300 Scania buses to its fleet.
The passenger doors are higher than on normal buses so that passengers can only board from designated shelters. The doors employ automated swing and slide mechanisms which is manually controlled by the driver. Currently, the slide mechanism is being phased out, with all new buses being equipped with swing doors. Protective full-height acrylic glass barriers are installed behind passenger seats close to the sliding door mechanism. Although, feeder routes uses low street-level doors. This is achieved with the driver's door at the front of the bus on big buses and a pair of designated hydraulic folding door on medium buses.
Seats in old buses face the aisle to optimize passengers' movement during rush hours. New Buses have their seats facing front, which is to reduce sexual harassment that usually happen in public transportation in rush hours.
Each bus is equipped with an electronic board and speakers that announce the name of shelters in Indonesian. Announcers with English voice in them are being phased out for the Indonesian only announcer Each bus is also equipped with a bi-directional radio transceiver to allow the driver to provide and receive updated information regarding traffic jams, road accidents or lost items.
To keep the air fresh, especially during rush hours each bus is equipped with automatic air freshener dispensers which periodically spray car fragrance.
In August 2011, TransJakarta operator has installed cameras on one bus for a trial period. The plan is to install four cameras on each bus gradually in efforts to improve services such as to inform passengers waiting for buses about how crowded approaching buses are, and to prevent sexual harassment on its service. Cameras are currently a mandatory facility for new buses.
In order to promote gender equity, TransJakarta is increasing the number of female driver recruits. The projected proportion is 30% of the total. Starting April 21, 2016, TransJakarta launched several new female-only buses for Corridor 1. The bus is crewed by female driver and female onboard officers, and is painted pink to distinguish it from regular buses. TransJakarta has disable-friendly buses on few routes. It will collect 300 more disable-friendly buses within 2017 to operate in 15-20 routes.
Current Operator and fleetEdit
- Perum DAMRI
Zhongtong Bus LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V
- PT Transportasi Jakarta (Self Managed)
Yutong ZK6180HGC Weichai CNG Euro III, Ankai HFF6180G02D Weichai CNG Euro IV, Hino RK8JSKA-NHJ R260, Zhongtong Bus LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V, Scania K340IA CNG Euro VI, Scania K320IA CNG Euro VI, Mercedes Benz OH1526 NG M/T, Mercedes Benz OC 500 RF 2542, Mercedes Benz OH1626 A/T, Mercedes Benz OH1626 M/T, Hino RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG Euro IV, Mercedes-Benz O500U 1726 and Scania K250UB 4x2 Euro III as Metro Trans, Mercedes-Benz OF 917 RF as Royal Trans
- Perum PPD (Pengangkutan Penumpang Djakarta)
Hino RK8JSKA-NHU R260
- Kopaja (Koperasi Angkutan Jakarta)
Toyota Dyna 110FT, Isuzu NQR 71, Isuzu FRR 90
- PT. Mayasari Bakti
Scania K320IA CNG Euro VI, Scania K310IB 6x2, Mercedes-Benz OH1626 A/T
- Trans Swadaya
Mitsubishi FE 84G BC as Mini Trans
- PT. Pahala Kencana (KSO)
Mercedes-Benz OH1626 M/T
- PT. Steady Safe Tbk
- PT. Transportasi Jakarta
Ankai HFF6180G02D Weichai CNG Euro IV, HFF6120D17D Weichai CNG Euro III, MAB MD12E Electric bus and BYD K9 Electric bus
- Perum PPD
Zhongtong LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V
- PT. Mayasari Bakti
Mercedes-Benz OH1626 A/T
Note :Ankai HFF6180G02D and HFF6120D17D of PT. Transportasi Jakarta are being repaired after one of it went up in flames at early December 2017.
During the Busworld South East Asia 2019, TransJakarta displayed 2 Electric buses, which are MAB MD12E and BYD K9 labeled as KalpaTrans.
- PT. Jakarta Express Trans
Hino RG J08C-TI and Mercedes-Benz OH1521 Intercooler OM366LA
- PT. Trans Batavia
Daewoo BH115E Doosan Infracore GE12TI and Hino RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG Euro IV
- PT. Jakarta Mega Trans
Daewoo BH115E Doosan Infracore GE12TI, Hyundai Aero-Hi Class C6AC, Huanghai DD6181S01 Cummins ISL G 320 and AAI Komodo Doosan Infracore GE12TI
- PT. Jakarta Trans Metropolitan
Daewoo BH115E Doosan Infracore GE12TI, Hyundai Aero-Hi Class C6AC and Hino RK8JSKA-NHU R260
- PT. Eka Sari Lorena
Hino RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG Euro IV and AAI Komodo Doosan Infracore GE12TI
- PT. Primajasa Perdanarayautama
Hino RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG Euro IV
- PT. Bianglala Metropolitan
Hyundai Aero Class C6AC, AAI Komodo Doosan Infracore GE12TI, INKA Inobus Cummins ATC 320 CNG Series Euro V, Ankai HFF6180G02D Weichai CNG Euro IV, Hino RG J08C-TI and Mercedes-Benz OH1521 Intercooler OM366LA
- PT. Trans Mayapada Busway
Hyundai Aero Class C6AC and AAI Komodo Doosan Infracore GE12TI
- Perum DAMRI
INKA Inobus Cummins ATC 320 CNG Series Euro V
Note : Hino RK8JSKA-NHU R260 of PT. Jakarta Trans Metropolitan are returned to its original owner, Perum PPD
Ankai HFF6180G02D and Inobus Cummins ATC 320 CNG Series that were operated under PT. Bianglala Metropolitan are going to be auctioned
TransJakarta shelters are different from ordinary bus stops. They are usually located in the middle of the road and are reached by elevated bridges. Some stops are equipped with escalator or lift and designed to be integrated to the nearby building in the vicinity. For example, Tosari ICBC stop is connected directly to the UOB Plaza and Blok M stop is connected directly into Mal Blok M via stair access.
The shelters are made from aluminum, steel, and glass. Air ventilation works through fins on the aluminum part of the shelters. Floors are made from tread plate, although newer shelters now use concrete. The shelters are equipped with platform screen doors. Some of the connecting elevated bridge ramps have gentle slopes (with some exceptions) to accommodate the disabled. One disadvantage of some of the ramps is that passengers need to walk a relatively long way up the ramps and then double back to reach the boarding shelters. The floors of the bridge are mostly tread plates although some are made from concrete. One problem with the tread plate is that considerable noise is generated by the movement of passengers across the tread plate surfaces. Another problem is that some of the tread plate surfaces can become very slippery during the rainy season. There are no sanitary facilities in most of the shelters.
Bus stops are open from 05:00 – 22:00 although opening hours can be extended if there are passengers still waiting at closing time. Shelters often become extremely overcrowded because of long and sometimes unpredictable intervals between buses. According to a report from the Indonesian Consumers Protection Foundation in 2011, the most common complaint from passengers about the service offered by Transjakarta was the lengthy waiting time for buses at some of the main shelters.
A free daily internal bulletin, 'Trans Kota', is occasionally available at selected shelters. The content includes sport, showbusiness, crime, health, various tips and tricks, consumer information and TransJakarta news.
The large Harmoni Central Busway (HCB) shelter on Jalan Gadjah Mada, Central Jakarta, is built over the Ciliwung River. It is a transit point between Corridors 1, 2, 3, 7A, and 8. This 500-person shelter has 14 bus bays. Although many trees had to be sacrificed during the construction of it, an old banyan tree was not chopped down because it was considered rich in historical value. However, in October 2006 this tree was vandalized by people from the Pemuda Persatuan Islam religious group. Their motive was to show that the tree does not possess supernatural qualities.
Ticketing and faresEdit
The cost of a TransJakarta ticket since its opening has been a flat rate of Rp 2.000,- at concessional times (05.00a.m. to 07.00a.m.) and Rp 3.500,- (about 24 US cents) at all other times. Passengers who wish to change direction or transit to other corridors do not need to pay again, provided they do not exit the shelter. An exception is in effect at the line terminus.
Passengers can purchase a single-journey paper ticket at the ticket booth in the shelter. In 2013, TransJakarta introduced the use of prepaid cards or e-tickets for passenger use. The prepaid cards that are eligible as ticket are bank-issued cards of BRI BRizzi, BCA Flazz, BNI Tapcash, Mandiri e-money, Bank DKI JakCard, and Bank Mega MegaCash. The prepaid cards can be purchased and topped-up at any ticket booth in the shelter throughout the system, or at the ATM of the issuing bank. The e-ticket is priced at Rp 40,000, Rp 20,000 for the card itself and a balance of Rp 20,000. The prepaid cards, except for Bank DKI JakCard and Bank Mega MegaCash, are also valid as ticket in the Jabodetabek Commuter Train system as of June 2014, easing the integration plan between the BRT and the commuter train system. In April and May 2014, the TransJakarta management started the compulsory use of the e-tickets at several terminus in the system, based on news said that the BCA Flazz Card can also be used in Jabodetabek Commuter Train. In mid-October 2014, 56 percent passengers have used e-tickets. Now, all TransJakarta corridors and shelters applied the compulsory use of the e-tickets, since February 21, 2015. August 17, 2016 marks the start of tap-out system trial in Corridor 1 (Blok M - Kota), while similar trial was started on September 9, 2016 in Corridor 2. The system is meant to control the flow of people going in and out of the shelters, discourage illegal entrance to and exit from the shelters, and to encourage sales and usage of the "e-tickets". In October 2016, the system had been implemented in all corridors of TransJakarta.
Starting on August 24, 2015 students who have the Jakarta Smart Card (Kartu Jakarta Pintar) can use the card as e-ticket for free bus ride. The TJ Card, introduced in January 2018, provides free fares for their holders, and is available for seniors above 60, residents of the Thousand Islands Regency, disabled people, low-income households, teachers, mosquito controllers and mosque caretakers in addition to members of the Indonesian Army and Police.
During rush hours, people from upper or middle classes (one of the main targets of TransJakarta) usually prefer to use private cars or taxis to avoid inconvenience of the overcrowded TransJakarta buses even though they have to bear with traffic jams instead. Many passengers are thus lower-middle-class people who are ex-users of other less comfortable and/or more expensive commercial buses.
This situation is at odds with one of the objectives of TransJakarta which was to reduce traffic jam during rush hours by persuading private car owners to use comfortable public transport.
There is a special program for the student groups called TransJakarta goes to school. Participants in program there are assigned a dedicated bus. The aim is to train students to stand in line, be decent, and prefer public transport than personal vehicles.
Municipal government has been trying to encourage the population to shift from their private cars or motorcycles to public transportation, especially TransJakarta. Thus several regulations are put in place to restrict private cars on the street. By August 2018, the odd-even traffic policy increases TransJakarta passengers by 30,000.
A number of design and operational problems have been identified. Despite having an 'exclusive' bus lane, unauthorised vehicles illegally using the lanes in an attempt to more quickly navigate through the traffic jams are a common problem. Depot maintenance shops and special gas stations (most buses use compressed natural gas (CNG)) often have long lines of buses, restricting the availability of buses for service. The CNG powered buses also have suffered from higher fuel consumption than expected (1 litre for 1.3 km vs. 2.1 km as specified) and high oil and moisture content requiring extra maintenance. Other problems identified were: a lack of feeder bus services, a lack of adequate transfer information and transfer facilities and a lack of articulated buses. A 2010 survey showed 75% of passengers transferred from medium or micro buses to the TransJakarta buses and it was estimated if 'direct service' operations were implemented (i.e., multiple stopping points at some stations with bypass lanes and some services continuing beyond the trunk corridors) patronage would increase by 50%. A feeder bus service called APTB was introduced in 2012.
In May 2013 it was reported the system was losing passengers due to unpredictable service frequency, worsening travel times and poor maintenance of the infrastructure and vehicles. The problem of excluding private vehicles from busway was ongoing. By November 2013, after a campaign to 'sterilize' the lanes improved travel times, reports indicate patronage had increased by 20,000 per day up to between 330,000 and 355,000.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
From January to July 2010 there were 237 accidents involving TransJakarta buses, resulting in 57 injuries and eight deaths. Accidents occurred due to pedestrians crossing the busway and cars making u-turns. In 2011, in an effort to stop non-TransJakarta vehicles using the bus lanes, the Jakarta Police Chief suggested that TransJakarta buses should run against the direction of traffic flow. Usually non-TransJakarta vehicles used busway lanes during peak hours between 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. to 7 p.m.
On January 12, 2012, a policeman from Indonesian Police Headquarters, who was hired by Securicor, fired his gun near the ear of a TransJakarta officer, after threatening to kill him. The policeman was angry after the TransJakarta officer stopped the Securicor car from entering the busway lane which only allows TransJakarta buses, ambulances and firefighter to enter. The police spokesman said that the policeman will be charged by criminal law or disciplinary sanction.
On March 12, 2012, four TransJakarta buses were hijacked by alleged university students at the Medan Merdeka Selatan street. The buses were then driven to the front of the Universitas Kristen Indonesia (Christian University of Indonesia) campus. Three drivers were able to escape from their buses, but one driver was prevented from leaving and forced to drive the hijackers to their destination. Fire extinguishers, glass-breaking hammers and drivers' jackets were also stolen from the buses.
Bus Stop BombEdit
On May 24, 2017, a twin bomb attack struck the Kampung Melayu Transjakarta bus terminal. The first explosion happened at 9 sharp, near the terminal's toilet, and the second explosion happened 5 minutes after at the bus stop. In total, 5 were killed including 2 suspects.
A number of sexual harassment cases have been reported on board crammed TransJakarta buses and their overcrowded stations over the past few years, as the number of passengers has continued to rise. TransJakarta responded by providing a women-only area at the front of its buses and launching women-only buses.
Transit Oriented DevelopmentEdit
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is the integration of multiple transport systems, so passengers can transit easily and conveniently between systems. Up to July 2017, the only TOD is in Tebet, which integrates TransJakarta and the Commuter Line, among the 17 planned. The others unfinished TOD locations will be finished at the end of 2017.
On April 30, 2019, Jakarta's governor, Anies Baswedan, inaugurates the Dukuh Atas Integrated Area (Indonesian: Kawasan Integrasi Dukuh Atas or KIDA). The aim of KIDA is to prioritize walking and the use of public transport as a commuting solution, rather than using private vehicles. It is known that KIDA will integrate 7 transport systems in total, which are the Jakarta MRT, Jabodebek LRT, Jakarta LRT, Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link, Commuter Line, TransJakarta, and Regular bus services.
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