West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Barat – NTB) is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the western portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the exception of Bali which is its own province. The province's land area is 19,931.45 km2. The two largest islands by far in the province are the smaller but much more populated Lombok in the west and the much larger in area but much less densely populated Sumbawa island in the east. Mataram, on Lombok, is the capital and largest city of the province. It shares maritime borders with Bali to the west and East Nusa Tenggara to the east.

West Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara Barat
Province of West Nusa Tenggara
Coat of arms of West Nusa Tenggara
Location of West Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia
Location of West Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia
Coordinates: 8°35′S 116°7′E / 8.583°S 116.117°E / -8.583; 116.117
Country Indonesia
Established14 August 1958[1]
and largest city
 • BodyWest Nusa Tenggara Provincial Government
 • GovernorLalu Gita Ariadi (Acting)
 • Vice GovernorVacant
 • Total19,931.45 km2 (7,695.58 sq mi)
 • Rank29th in Indonesia
Highest elevation3,727 m (12,228 ft)
 (mid 2023 estimate)[2]
 • Total5,590,359
 • Rank13th in Indonesia
 • Density280/km2 (730/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups[3]56% Sasak
14% Bimanese
8% Sumbawa
12% Balinese
3% Dompuan
2% Javanese
 • Religion(2022)[4]96.88% Islam
2.38% Hinduism
0.74% other
 • LanguagesIndonesian (official)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-NB
GDP (nominal)2022
 - Total[5]Rp 156.9 trillion (25th)
US$ 10.6 billion
Int$ 33.0 billion (PPP)
 - Per capita[6]Rp 28.7 million (32nd)
US$ 1,931
Int$ 6,025 (PPP)
 - Growth[7]Increase 6.95%
HDIIncrease 0.702 (29th) – high

The 2010 census recorded the population at 4,500,212;[8] the total rose to 4,830,118 at the 2015 Intermediate Census and 5,320,092 at the 2020 census;[9] the official estimate as at mid 2023 was 5,590,359.[2]

Note that the area and mid-2023 population figures published by the Province are 19,675.89 km2 and 5,560,287 (comprising 2,786,443 males and 2,773,844 females), but the sums of the official figures for the individual regencies and cities are actually 19,931.45 km2 and 5,590,359.



Pre-Islamic period


Based on analysis of prehistoric objects found such as complex sarcophagi, decorated stoneware, machetes, and axes, West Nusa Tenggara was originally inhabited by people from Southeast Asia.

The most numerous of the indigenous people in this region are called the Sasak people, most of whom live on the island of Lombok, while on the island of Sumbawa the indigenous people are divided into two groups, ethnic Sumbawa (Samawa) and Bima. However, with the wave of migrants from Bali, Makassar, Java, Kalimantan, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and East Nusa Tenggara, the indigenous people now largely remain in the interior.

The region was part of the Majapahit Empire during its height in the 14th century, conquering all the kingdoms located on the islands of both Lombok and Sumbawa. In the book Negarakertagama by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it was written that West Lombok was named "Lombok Mirah" and East Lombok was named "Sasak Adi", Taliwang, Dompo (Dompu), Sape, Sanghyang Fire, Bhima (Bima), Seram (Seran) and Hutan Kedali (Utan).

Islamic period


In the early reign of the kings in West Nusa Tenggara, the influence of Hinduism was very strong, but with the collapse of the Majapahit Empire, the influence of Hinduism began to decrease with the onset of the influence of Islam in the coastal communities.

The creation of the Demak Sultanate in Central Java had a huge impact on the spread of Islam in West Nusa Tenggara. The influence of Islam in West Nusa Tenggara was generally brought by the Malays. The influence of Islam in Bima was supported by King I Maliingkaang Daeng-Mannyonriq of Makassar, who was then known as Karaeng Matoaya who played an important role in the spread of Islam in the region.

The influence of Islam in the Bima Sultanate emerged during the reign of King Manuru Salehi around 1605 and began to grow rapidly during the reign of King Abdul Kahir. King Abdul Kahir is also known as the Sultan of Bima because he was the king who first embraced Islam in Bima, beginning a new era, separate from the previous Bima kings who embraced Hinduism. Islam became the official religion of the kings in West Nusa Tenggara.[10]

Colonial period


The Europeans who first came to Nusa Tenggara were the Portuguese who landed on the islands of Solor and Timor in 1605. At the same time, the Dutch also came to the islands of Hitu and Ambon, in the Malukus. The first Dutch ship that entered the area was the Ter Ver which docked in Kupang in 1611. The arrival of the Dutch led to a long dispute between the Portuguese and the Dutch in Nusa Tenggara. The Dutch assisted the local kings who resisted the Portuguese. The Netherlands then expanded its influence in Nusa Tenggara, to make a variety of agreements with small kings around the island of Sumbawa.

The arrival of the Dutch colonial administration greatly impacted Indonesian society, with the decline of the Sultanate of Gowa in the 17th century. Gowa nobility who did not submit to the colonial government fled from Makassar and built pockets of resistance in West Nusa Tenggara. To combat the resistance, the colonial government began to concentrate power in West Nusa Tenggara. This was reinforced by the emergence of Lombok for international trade, so the desire of the Dutch to rule West Nusa Tenggara became stronger.

The Dutch colonial government sent Stephen van Hegen for a close look at the Bima Sultanate in 1660. The arrival of the Dutch-influenced the political and economic situation in the area. In 1669, the Government of the Bima Sultanate led by Sultan Ambela Abdul Khair Sirajuddin, made peace and friendship ties with the colonial government with the agreement that:

  • The Sultanate of Bima and Dompu will not attack Makassar
  • To keep the peace, only members of the Dutch East India Company may visit the Bima area
  • Bima and Makassar will not make any contact at all.
  • Foreign traders from Europe, India, Java, Malaya, Arab lands, Aceh, and Champa must not engage in trade with Bima, except by special permit from the Dutch East India Company.

The agreement with the Sultan of Bima and Dompu recognized the existence of the Dutch colonial power. The Netherlands sought to consolidate its control by blocking the Bima port to prevent the arrival of aid from Makassar or other foreign countries. The effort was made so that the existing ports in Bima and Lombok would not fall into British hands.

Because of Dutch supremacy in the region, the king and the people in the region could not move freely. This situation became worse with the eruption of Mount Tambora on April 5, 1815, which shook the entire region, and the consequences could be felt throughout the Moluccas, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra, and Kalimantan. Mount Tambora's eruption resulted in the disappearance of the two kingdoms of Tambora and Papekat. More than 10,000 people were killed.



West Nusa Tenggara province previously had been part of the State of East Indonesia with the creation of the United States of Indonesia and had been part of the province of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara) after the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty.

The province of West Nusa Tenggara was created with the enactment of Law No. 64 of 1958 dated 14 August 1958, on the Establishment of the new provinces of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara, with its first governor being AR. Moh. Ruslan Djakraningrat.


Rhee Loka in Sumbawa Regency



West Nusa Tenggara has two kinds of landscape. The first is the island of Lombok, which has a fairly straight coastline, with the central to northern part in the form of mountains, and coastal lowlands in the south. The second is the island of Sumbawa, which has a jagged (heavily indented) coastline because of the many headlands and bays, while the central part is covered with hills and limestone mountains.

Selong (the capital of East Lombok Regency) is the town that has the highest altitude, which is 148 m above sea level, while the lowest is Raba at 13 m above sea level. Of the seven mountains on the island of Lombok, Mount Rinjani is the highest mountain with an altitude of 3,775 m, while Mount Tambora is the highest mountain on Sumbawa with an altitude of 2,851 m.



Like the rest of Indonesia, NTB has a tropical climate. Based on statistics from the Meteorological Institute, the maximum temperature in 2001 ranged from 30.9 to 32.1 °C, and the minimum temperature ranged between 20.6 and 24.5 °C. The highest temperatures occur in September and the lowest is in November. Being tropical, NTB has a high average relative humidity, which is between 48 and 95%.

West Nusa Tenggara has relatively little rainfall compared to the western region of Indonesia. Maximum rainfall in the province occurs in January and minimum rainfall occurs in August.



The area of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) has very beautiful natural scenery, be it the mountains or the beach. This has caused many tourists from other parts of Indonesia and other countries to flock to the province due to its stunning scenery.

In addition to the panorama of beautiful tourist attractions, food crops, and horticulture developed and cultivated by the community that is profitable for farmers, among others, are soybeans, peanuts, corn, green beans, peppers, onions, mangoes, bananas, and pineapples. In addition to the nine kinds of commodities in the regions, other horticultural commodities that can be developed are potatoes, carrots, apples, and grapes.

As for fisheries, NTB has 3 areas of fisheries development:

  • The island of Lombok, with a priority on the development of marine aquaculture and freshwater fisheries, brackish water aquaculture (ponds), and catching public waters;
  • The western part of Sumbawa Island, priority on the development of brackishwater aquaculture (ponds), mariculture, arrest, public waters, and freshwater aquaculture;
  • The eastern part of Sumbawa Island with a priority on the development of catching, mariculture, public waters, and freshwater aquaculture.

West Nusa Tenggara is one of the major manufacturers and suppliers of livestock and seeds for the needs of various regions in Indonesia. The carrying capacity of livestock-based agribusiness development, among others, the potential availability of cattle in quality and quantity, land resources, and fodder, support all production, pet patterns as a group, are non-communicable diseases as well as the bank still has domestic and export markets.[clarification needed] The NTB cow is a kind of Bali cattle, which is a leading NTB commodity and has domestic and export markets. In addition to cows and buffaloes, other supporting commodities are pigs, goats and horses, chickens, and ducks.

Administrative divisions

Mount Rinjani

The province is administratively divided into eight regencies (kabupaten) and two municipalities (kotamadya). When created, the province consisted of just six regencies (West Lombok, Central Lombok, East Lombok, Sumbawa, Dompu and Bima); the city of Mataram was separated from West Lombok Regency on 26 July 1993, and the city of Bima was separated from Bima Regency on 10 April 2002. Two additional regencies were created - West Sumbawa from part of Sumbawa Regency on 18 December 2003, and North Lombok from part of West Lombok Regency on 24 June 2008. The regencies and cities are listed below with their administrative capitals, their areas, and their populations at the 2010 census[8] and the 2020 census,[9] together with the official estimates as of mid-2023.[2]

Name of
City or
Capital Area
mid 2023
2014 estimates
52.01 West Lombok Regency
(Lombok Barat)
Gerung 922.91 599,986 721,481 753,641 0.635 (Medium)
52.02 Central Lombok Regency
(Lombok Tengah)
Praya 1,208.39 860,209 1,034,859 1,099,201 0.618 (Medium)
52.03 East Lombok Regency
(Lombok Timur)
Selong 1,605.55 1,105,582 1,325,240 1,404,343 0.620 (Medium)
52.08 North Lombok Regency
(Lombok Utara)
Tanjung 809.53 200,072 247,400 265,500 0.601 (Medium)
52.71 Mataram City 61.30 402,843 429,651 441,147 0.759 (High)
Total Lombok 4,607.68 3,168,692 3,758,631 3,963,842
52.04 Sumbawa Regency Sumbawa Besar 6,643.99 415,789 509,753 529,487 0.628 (Medium)
52.05 Dompu Regency Dompu 2,324.55 218,973 236,665 247,188 0.635 (Medium)
52.06 Bima Regency Woha 4,389.40 439,228 514,105 535,530 0.626 (Medium)
52.07 West Sumbawa Regency
(Sumbawa Barat)
Taliwang 1,743.58 114,951 145,798 152,950 0.671 (Medium)
52.72 Bima City Bima 222.25 142,579 155,140 161,362 0.722 (High)
Total Sumbawa 15,323.77 1,331,520 1,561,461 1,626,517

The Indonesian government has since 2013 been considering the division of Nusa Tenggara Barat Province to create a separate Sumbawa Island province, although in the following decade, all creations of new provinces have been held in abeyance[12] There is no information as to whether the remaining part of the present province (i.e. the districts comprising Lombok Island) would then be renamed.


Historical population
1971 2,203,465—    
1980 2,724,664+23.7%
1990 3,369,649+23.7%
1995 3,645,713+8.2%
2000 4,009,261+10.0%
2005 4,184,411+4.4%
2010 4,500,212+7.5%
2015 4,830,118+7.3%
2020 5,320,092+10.1%
2023 5,590,359+5.1%
Source: Statistics Indonesia 2024 and previous.

Lombok is mainly inhabited by the Sasak ethnic group, with a minority Balinese population, and Sumbawa is inhabited by Sumbawa and Bimanese ethnic groups. Each of these groups has a local language associated with it as well. The population of the province was 4.5 million at the 2010 census, 5.32 million at the 2020 census, and 5.59 million according to the official estimates for mid-2023.[2] A total of 70.9% of the province's population lives on Lombok (in mid-2023), which has only 23.1% of the area. The province is considered to be one of the least developed of Indonesia's 34 provinces. In 2005, West Nusa Tenggara was reported as the most affected area by malnutrition and kwashiorkor.[13] Life expectancy in West Nusa Tenggara amounted to only 54 years, the lowest in Indonesia (69 years) and the highest infant mortality rate.[14]



Religion in West Nusa Tenggara (2022)[4]

  Islam (96.88%)
  Hinduism (2.38%)
  Buddhism (0.31%)
  Protestantism (0.25%)
  Roman Catholic (0.18%)


  1. ^ "J.D.I.H. - Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat".
  2. ^ a b c d Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 28 February 2024, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat Dalam Angka 2024 (Katalog-BPS 1102001.52)
  3. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
  4. ^ a b "Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Agama" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Religious Affairs. 31 August 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2023. Muslim 241 Million (87), Christianity 29.1 Million (10.5), Hindu 4.69 million (1.7), Buddhist 2.02 million (0.7), Folk, Confucianism, and others 192.311 (0.1), Total 277.749.673 Million
  5. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2023). "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto (Milyar Rupiah), 2022" (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  6. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (2023). "Produk Domestik Regional Bruto Per Kapita (Ribu Rupiah), 2022" (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
  7. ^ Badan Pembangunan Nasional (2023). "Capaian Indikator Utama Pembangunan" (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Badan Pembangunan Nasional.
  8. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  10. ^ Sejarah Nusa Tenggara Barat Periode Awal Perkembangan Islam
  11. ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014
  12. ^ Nugraha, Panca (March 1, 2011). "Officials support new province for Sumbawa". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2023-06-03.
  13. ^ Ragil Suwito: Geography 2, p.151. Jakarta Timur 2010. ISBN 978-979-019-896-8
  14. ^ Ragil Suwito: Geography 2, p.149. Jakarta Timur 2010. ISBN 978-979-019-896-8