Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Dota 2 is a free-to-play multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) video game developed and published by Valve Corporation. The game is the stand-alone sequel to Defense of the Ancients (DotA), which was a community-created mod for Blizzard Entertainment's Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and its expansion pack, The Frozen Throne. Dota 2 is played in matches between two teams of five players, with each team occupying and defending their own separate base on the map. Each of the ten players independently controls a powerful character, known as a "hero", who all have unique abilities and differing styles of play. During a match, players collect experience points and items for their heroes to successfully battle the opposing team's heroes in player versus player combat. A team wins by being the first to destroy a large structure located in the opposing team's base, called the "Ancient".

Dota 2
DotA2.jpg
Developer(s) Valve Corporation
Publisher(s) Valve Corporation
Producer(s) Erik Johnson
Designer(s) IceFrog
Writer(s)
Composer(s)
Engine Source 2
Platform(s)
Release
  • Microsoft Windows
  • July 9, 2013
  • Linux, OS X
  • July 18, 2013
Genre(s) Multiplayer online battle arena
Mode(s) Single-player, multiplayer

Development of Dota 2 began in 2009 when IceFrog, the pseudonymous lead designer of the original Defense of the Ancients mod, was hired by Valve to create a modernized sequel. Dota 2 was officially released for Microsoft Windows, OS X, and Linux-based personal computers via the digital distribution platform Steam in July 2013, following a Windows-only public beta phase that began two years prior. The game initially used the original Source game engine until it was ported to Source 2 in 2015, making it the first game to use it. The game has also been updated with various other features since release, such as support for virtual reality (VR) and a data-providing and achievement-based monthly subscription system.

Despite some criticism going towards its steep learning curve and complexity, the game was praised for its rewarding gameplay, production quality, and faithfulness to its predecessor, with multiple gaming publications later considering it to be one of the greatest video games of all time. Since its release, Dota 2 has been one of the most played games on Steam, with over a million concurrent players at its peak. The popularity of the game has led to official merchandise for it being produced, including apparel, accessories, and toys, as well as promotional tie-ins to other games and media. The game also allows for the community to create custom game modes, maps, and hero cosmetics, which are uploaded to the Steam Workshop and curated by Valve. A digital collectible card game spin-off by Valve, titled Artifact, will be released in 2018.

Dota 2 has a widespread and active competitive scene, with teams from across the world playing professionally in various leagues and tournaments. Premium Dota 2 tournaments often have prize pools totaling millions of U.S. dollars, the highest of any eSport. The largest of them is known as The International, which is produced annually by Valve and most commonly held at the KeyArena in Seattle. Valve also manages an event format known as the Dota Pro Circuit, which are a series of tournaments held annually that award qualification points based on results for getting directly invited to The International. For most tournaments, media coverage is done by a selection of on-site staff who provide commentary and analysis for the ongoing matches, similar to traditional sporting events. Broadcasts of professional Dota 2 matches are streamed live over the internet, and sometimes simulcast on television networks, with peak viewership numbers in the millions.

Contents

Gameplay

 
A game of Dota 2 in progress, showing the Radiant team inside of their base at the beginning of a match

Dota 2 is a multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) video game in which two teams of five players compete to collectively destroy a large structure defended by the opposing team known as the "Ancient", whilst defending their own.[1][2] As in Defense of the Ancients, the game is controlled using standard real-time strategy controls, and is presented on a single map in a three-dimensional isometric perspective.[1][3] Ten players each control one of the game's 115 playable characters, known as "heroes", with each having their own design, strengths, and weaknesses.[1][2][4] Heroes are divided into two primary roles, known as the "carry" and "support".[5] Carries, which are also called "cores", begin each match as weak and vulnerable, but are able to become more powerful later in the game, thus becoming able to "carry" their team to victory.[6][5] Supports generally lack abilities that deal heavy damage, instead having ones with more functionality and utility that provide assistance for their carries.[7][5] Players select their hero during a pre-game drafting phase, where they can also discuss potential strategies and hero matchups with their teammates.[2][5] Multiple game types in the game exist, which mainly alter the way hero selection is handled; such as "All Pick", which offer no restrictions on hero selection, "All Random", which randomly assigns a hero for each player, "Captain's Mode", where a single player on each team selects heroes for their entire team and is primarily used for professional play, and "Turbo", an expedited version of All Pick featuring increased gold and experience gain, weaker towers, and faster respawn times.[8][9][10]

All heroes have a basic damage-dealing attack, in addition to powerful abilities. Each hero has at least four abilities, all of which are unique, which are the primary method of fighting.[3][7] Heroes begin each game with an experience level of one, only having access to one of their abilities, but are able to level up and become more powerful during the course of the game, up to a maximum level of 25.[2][5] Whenever a hero gains an experience level, the player is able to unlock another of their abilities or improve one already learned.[2][5] The most powerful ability for each hero is known as their "ultimate", which requires them to have an experience level of six in order to use. In order to prevent abilities from being used without consequence, a magic system in the game exists. Activating an ability costs a hero some of their "mana points", which slowly regenerates over time.[3][11] Using an ability will also cause it to enter a cooldown phase, in which the ability can not be used again until a timer counts down to zero. All heroes have three attributes: strength, intelligence, and agility, which affect health points, mana points, and attack speed, respectively.[5] Each hero has one primary attribute out of the three, which adds to their non-ability basic damage output when increased.[12][5] Heroes also have an ability augmentation system known as "Talent Trees", which allow players further choices on how to develop their hero.[13][5] If a hero runs out of health points and dies, they are removed from active play until a respawn timer counts down to zero, where they are then respawned in their base.[14]

The two teams—known as the Radiant and Dire—occupy fortified bases in opposite corners of the map, which is divided in half by a crossable river and connected by three paths, which are referred to as "lanes".[1][2] The lanes are guarded by defensive towers that attack any opposing unit who gets within its line of sight.[2] A small group of weak computer-controlled creatures called "creeps" travel predefined paths along the lanes and attempt to attack any opposing heroes, creeps, and buildings in their way.[2][14] Creeps periodically spawn throughout the game in groups from two buildings, called the "barracks", that exist in each lane and are located within the team's bases.[2][15] The map is also permanently covered for both teams in fog of war, which prevents a team from seeing the opposing team's heroes and creeps if they are not directly in sight of themselves or an allied unit. The map also features a day-night cycle, with some hero abilities and other game mechanics being altered depending on the time of the cycle.[5] Also present on the map are "neutral creeps" that are hostile to both teams, and reside in marked locations on the map known as "camps". Camps are located in the area between the lanes known as the "jungle", which both sides of the map have.[16] Neutral creeps do not attack unless provoked, and will respawn over time if killed. The most powerful neutral creep is named "Roshan", who is a unique boss that may be defeated by either team to obtain a single-use item that allows near instant resurrection if the hero that holds it is killed.[2][17] Roshan will respawn around ten minutes after being killed, and becomes progressively harder to kill as the match progresses over time.[17] "Runes", which are special items that spawn in set positions on the map every two minutes, offer heroes various powerful, but temporary power-ups when collected.[5]

In addition to having abilities becoming stronger during the game, players are able to buy items that provide their own special abilities.[2][17][18] Items are not limited to specific heroes, and can be bought by anyone. In order to obtain an item, players must be able to afford it with gold at shops located on the map, which is primarily obtained by killing enemy heroes, destroying enemy structures, and killing creeps, with the latter being an act called "farming".[2][14][5] Only the hero that lands the killing blow on a creep obtains gold from it, an act called "last hitting", but all allies receive a share of gold when an enemy hero dies close to them.[3][14] Players are also able to "deny" allied units and structures by last hitting them, which then prevents their opponents from getting full experience from them.[14][17] Gold can not be shared between teammates, with each player having their own independent stash. Players also receive a continuous, but small stream of gold over the course of a match.[19][5] Matches usually last between 20 minutes to an hour, although they can theoretically last forever as long as both Ancients remain standing.[20] In Captain's Mode games, an additional "GG" forfeit feature is available.[21]

Dota 2 also occasionally features limited-time events that present players with alternative game modes that do not follow the game's standard rules.[22] Some of these included the Halloween-themed Diretide event,[23] the Christmas-themed Frostivus event,[24] and the New Bloom Festival, which celebrated the coming of spring.[25] The move to the Source 2 engine in 2015 also saw the addition of community-created custom game modes, known as the "Arcade", with the more popular ones having dedicated server hosting by Valve.[26][27] Various games in the Arcade have also been created by Valve themselves, including the Halloween-themed capture point mode "Colosseum", the combat arena mode "Overthrow", and a 10 versus 10 mode.[28][29][30] Starting in 2017, Valve began releasing special seasonal gamemodes as a part of each year's International Battle Pass, such as "Siltbreaker", a story-driven cooperative campaign mode, in 2017, and "The Underhollow", a battle royale mode, in 2018.[31][32]

Development

 
Defense of the Ancients, the original mod from Warcraft III that Dota 2 was created as a successor to

The Dota series began in 2003 with Defense of the Ancients (DotA)—a mod for Blizzard Entertainment's Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos—created by the pseudonymous designer "Eul".[33] An expansion pack for Warcraft III, entitled The Frozen Throne, was released later that year; a series of Defense of the Ancients clone mods for the new game competed for popularity. DotA: Allstars by Steve Feak was the most successful,[34] and Feak, with his friend Steve Mescon, created the official Defense of the Ancients community website and the holding company DotA-Allstars, LLC.[35] When Feak retired from DotA: Allstars in 2005, a friend, under the pseudonym "IceFrog", became its lead designer.[36] By the late 2000s, Defense of the Ancients became one of the most popular mods in the world, as well as a prominent eSports title.[37] IceFrog and Mescon later had a falling out in May 2009, which prompted the former to establish a new community website at playdota.com.[38]

Valve's interest in the Defense of the Ancients property began when several veteran employees, including Team Fortress 2 designer Robin Walker and producer Erik Johnson, became fans of the mod and wanted to build a modern sequel.[39] The company corresponded with IceFrog by email about his long-term plans for the project,[40] and he was subsequently hired to direct a sequel.[41] IceFrog first announced his new position through his blog in October 2009,[42] and Dota 2 was publicly announced by Game Informer in October 2010.[43]

Valve adopted the word "Dota", derived from the original mod's acronym, as the name for its newly acquired franchise. Johnson argued that the word referred to a concept, and was not an acronym.[41] Shortly after the announcement of Dota 2, Valve filed a trademark claim to the Dota name.[44] At Gamescom 2011, company president Gabe Newell explained that the trademark was needed to develop a sequel with the already-identifiable brand.[45] Holding the Dota name to be a community asset, Feak and Mescon filed an opposing trademark for "DOTA" on behalf of DotA-Allstars, LLC (then a subsidiary of Riot Games) in August 2010.[35] Rob Pardo, the executive vice president of Blizzard Entertainment at the time, similarly stated that the DotA name belonged to the mod's community. Blizzard acquired DotA-Allstars, LLC from Riot Games and filed an opposition against Valve in November 2011, citing Blizzard's ownership of both the Warcraft III World Editor and DotA-Allstars, LLC as proper claims to the franchise.[46] The dispute was settled in May 2012, with Valve retaining commercial franchising rights to the "Dota" intellectual property, while allowing non-commercial use of the name by third-parties.[47] In 2017, Valve's ownership of it was again challenged, after a 2004 internet forum post from Eul was brought to light by a studio known as uCool, which stated that the "Dota" brand was an open source project.[48] uCool, who was previously involved in a lawsuit with Blizzard in 2015 due to a mobile game they released that involved the use of characters and lore from the Dota universe,[49] argued that the forum post invalidated any ownership claims of the intellectual property.[48] Judge Charles R. Breyer denied uCool's motion for summary dismissal, but allowed the case to be moved forward to a jury.[48]

An early goal of the Dota 2 team was the adaptation of Defense of the Ancients's aesthetic style for the Source engine.[43] The Radiant and Dire factions replaced the Sentinel and Scourge from the mod, respectively. Character names, abilities, items and map design from the mod were largely retained, with some changes due to trademarks owned by Blizzard. In the first Q&A session regarding Dota 2, IceFrog explained that the game would build upon the mod without making significant changes to its core.[41] Valve contracted major contributors from the Defense of the Ancients community, including Eul and artist Kendrick Lim, to assist with the sequel.[50] Additional contributions from sources outside of Valve were also sought regularly for Dota 2, as to continue Defense of the Ancients's tradition of community-sourced development.[51] One of the composers of Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, Jason Hayes, was hired to collaborate with Tim Larkin to write the original score for the game, which was conducted by Timothy Williams and performed and recorded by the Northwest Sinfonia at Bastyr University.[52][53] Valve had Half-Life series writer Marc Laidlaw, science fiction author Ted Kosmatka, and Steam support employee Kris Katz write new dialog and background lore for the heroes.[54][55] Notable voice actors for the English version include Nolan North, Dave Fennoy, Jon St. John, Ellen McLain, Fred Tatasciore, Merle Dandridge, Jen Taylor, and John Patrick Lowrie.[56]

The Source engine itself was updated with new features to accommodate Dota 2, such as high-end cloth modeling and improved global lighting.[43] The game features Steam integration, which provides its social component and cloud storage for personal settings. In November 2013, Valve introduced a coaching system, which allows experienced players to tutor players with special in-game tools.[57] As with previous Valve multiplayer titles, players are able to spectate live matches of Dota 2 played by others,[57] and local area network (LAN) multiplayer support allows for local competitions.[58][59] Some of these events may be spectated via the purchase of tickets from the "Dota Store", which give players in-game access to matches. Ticket fees are apportioned in part to tournament organizers.[60] The game also features an in-game fantasy sports system, which is modeled after traditional fantasy sports and feature professional Dota 2 players and teams.[61] Players are also able to spectate games in virtual reality (VR) with up to 15 others, which was added in an update in July 2016.[62] The update also added a hero showcase mode, which allows players to see all of the heroes and their cosmetics full-size in virtual reality.[63]

Dota 2 includes a seasonal Elo rating-based matchmaking system, which is measured by a numerical value known as "matchmaking rating" (MMR) and separated into different tiers. MMR is updated based on if a player's team won or lost, which will then increase or decrease respectively.[64] The game's servers, known as the "Game Coordinator",[65] attempts to balance both teams based on each player's MMR, with each team having roughly a 50% chance to win in any given game.[64] Ranked game modes with a separately tracked MMR are also available, which primarily differ from unranked games by making MMR publicly visible, as well as requiring the registration of a phone number to their accounts, which help foster a more competitive environment.[64][66] To ensure that each player's ranking is up to date and accurate, MMR is recalibrated every six months.[67][68] Players with the highest possible ranked medal are listed by Valve on an online leaderboard, are separated into four distinct server regions.[69] The game also includes a report system, which allows players to punish player behavior that intentionally provides a negative experience.[70] Players who get reported enough or leave a number of games before they have finished, a practice known in-game as "abandoning", are then placed into "low priority" matchmaking, which remains on a player's account until they win a specific number of games, and only groups them with other players who also have the same punishment.[71] Other features include an improved replay system from Defense of the Ancients, in which a completed game can be downloaded in-client and viewed by anyone at a later time, and the "hero builds" feature, which provide integrated guides created by the community that highlight to the player on how to play their hero.[72]

As part of a plan to develop Dota 2 into a social network, Newell announced in April 2012 that the game would be free-to-play, and that community contributions would be a cornerstone feature.[73] Instead, revenue is generated through the "Dota Store", which offers for-purchase cosmetic virtual goods, such as custom armor and weapons for their heroes.[74] It was also announced that the full roster of heroes would be available at launch for free.[75] Until the game's official release in 2013, players were able to purchase an early access bundle, which included a digital copy of Dota 2 and several cosmetic items.[76] Included as optional downloadable content (DLC), the Dota 2 Workshop Tools are a set of Source 2 software development kit (SDK) tools that allow content creators to create new cosmetics for the heroes themselves, as well as custom game modes, maps, and bot scripts.[77][78][79] Highly rated cosmetics, through the Steam Workshop, are available in the in-game store if they are accepted by Valve. This model was fashioned after that of Valve's Team Fortress 2, which had earned Workshop designers of cosmetic items of that game over $3.5 million by June 2011.[75] In January 2014, Newell revealed that the average Steam Workshop contributor for Dota 2 and Team Fortess 2 made approximately $15,000 from their creations the previous year.[80] In 2015, sales of Dota 2 virtual goods had earned Valve over $238 million in revenue, according to the digital game market research group SuperData.[81] In 2016, Valve introduced the "Custom Game Pass" option for creators of custom game modes, which allows them to be funded by way of microtransactions by adding exclusive features, content, and other changes to their game mode for players who buy it.[82]

Port to the Source 2 engine

In June 2015, Valve announced that the entirety of Dota 2 would be ported over to their Source 2 game engine in an update called Dota 2 Reborn.[83] Reborn was first released to the public as an opt-in beta update that same month,[84] and officially replaced the original client in September 2015, making it the first game to use the engine.[85] Reborn included a new user interface framework design, ability for custom game modes created by the community, and the full replacement of the original Source engine with Source 2.[86] Largely attributed to technical difficulties players experienced with the update, the global player base experienced a sharp drop of approximately sixteen percent the month following the release of it.[87] However, after various updates and patches, over a million concurrent players were playing again by the beginning of 2016, with that number being the largest in nearly a year.[88] The move to Source 2 also allowed the use of the Vulkan graphics API, which was released as an optional feature in May 2016, making Dota 2 one of the first games to offer it.[89]

Release

 
Gamescom 2011 in Cologne, where the game was first made available to the public

Dota 2 was first made available to the public at Gamescom in 2011, coinciding with the inaugural International championship, the game's premier eSport tournament event. At the event, Valve began sending out closed beta invitations, with the first few being sent out shortly after Gamescom.[90] During the event, Newell speculated that Dota 2 would likely ship in 2012, despite original plans for a full release in late 2011.[91] In September 2011, Valve scrapped its previous development and release plans, which would have kept the game in its closed beta phase for over a year. IceFrog then announced plans to begin beta testing. Simultaneously, Valve announced that the non-disclosure agreement for the beta was being lifted, allowing testers to discuss the game and their experiences publicly.[92]

After nearly two years of beta testing, Dota 2 was officially released on Steam for Microsoft Windows on July 9, 2013, and later for OS X and Linux on July 18, 2013.[93][94][95] The game did not launch with every hero from Defense of the Ancients. Instead, the missing ones were added in various post-release updates, with the final one, as well as the first Dota 2 original hero, being added in 2016.[96][97] Two months following the game's release, Newell claimed that updates to Dota 2 generated up to three percent of global internet traffic.[98] In December 2013, the final restrictions against unlimited global access to Dota 2 were lifted after the game's infrastructure and servers were substantially bolstered.[99] In order to abide by the standards set by the economic legislation of specific countries, Valve opted to contract with nationally based developers for publishing. In October 2012, the leading Beijing-based video game publisher, Perfect World, announced the acquisition of the exclusive rights of Dota 2 in China.[100] The Chinese version also has a region-specific "Low Violence" mode, which censors and changes most depictions of blood, gore, and skulls in order for the game to follow censorship policies of the country.[101][102] In November 2012, a similar publishing deal was made with the South Korea-based game company Nexon to distribute and market the game in the country, as well as in Japan.[103] Three years later, Nexon announced they would no longer be operating servers for Dota 2, with Valve taking over direct distribution and marketing of the game in those regions.[104]

In December 2016, Dota 2 was updated to gameplay version 7.00, known as "The New Journey" update.[105][106][107] Prior to the update, the Dota series had been in version 6.xx for over a decade, marking the first major revision since IceFrog originally took over development of the original mod in the mid 2000s.[107] The New Journey update added and changed numerous features and mechanics of the game, including adding the first original hero not ported over from Defense of the Ancients, a reworked map, a redesigned HUD, a pre-game phase that allows for players to discuss their team strategy, and a "Talent Tree" hero augmentation system.[106][107] In April 2017, Valve announced changes to the game's ranked matchmaking system, with the main one requiring the registration of a unique phone number to a player's account in order to play them, an anti-griefing and smurfing practice they had previously implemented in their first-person shooter game, Counter-Strike: Global Offensive.[66][108] Further changes to the game's matchmaking were brought in an update in November 2017, where the old numerical MMR system was replaced by a seasonal one based on seven tiered "medals" that are recalibrated every six months, a move that brought the game's ranked system closer to ones used in other competitive games such as Global Offensive, StarCraft, and League of Legends.[109][110] In early 2018, IceFrog announced that he and Valve would begin on a different way to handle gameplay balance updates for the game. Instead of releasing larger updates irregularly throughout the year, smaller ones would be released on a set schedule of every two weeks, a process that will be reevaluated after six months.[111][112] Around the same time, the game also introduced the "Dota Plus" paid montly subscription system, replacing the seasonal "Battle Pass". Dota Plus includes everything that Battle Passes did, such as milestone and hero-specific achievements that reward players with exclusive cosmetics, as well as introducing the "Plus Assistant" feature, a tool that provides match data gathered from thousands of recent games at each skill bracket for players, such as hero suggestions during a draft, and item and ability suggestions during a match.[113]

Professional competition

 
The grand finals of The International 2015 at the KeyArena, a Dota 2-only tournament which had a prize pool of over $18 million

To ensure that enough Defense of the Ancients players would take up Dota 2 and to showcase the game's capabilities, Valve sponsored sixteen accomplished Defense of the Ancients teams to compete at The International, a Dota 2 specific eSports tournament, for a one million dollar prize in 2011.[114] The International became an annual championship tournament in 2012, with the venue changing to Seattle.[115] In its third year, The International allowed crowdfunding to add to its prize pool through an interactive, in-game app called a "compendium".[116] Compendiums, which are optional and must be purchased separately, allow players who buy them to directly raise prize money for The International by spending money on unique compendium cosmetics and other in-game items, with 25% of all the revenue made going directly to the prize pool.[117] Sales from the 2013 compendium helped raise over $2.8 million, making The International 2013 reclaim its previous title as having the largest prize pool in eSports history from the League of Legends Season 2 World Championship.[118][119] Since then, each annual tournament of The International has broken the previous one's prize pool record, with the fourth iteration of the tournament raising nearly US$11 million, exceeding the prizes pools of the Super Bowl, Masters Tournament, and Tour de France.[120] At The International 2015, the prize pool exceeded $18.4 million, earning the champion team, Evil Geniuses, over $6 million.[121][122]

Following the inaugural event of The International, several other eSport events began to transition from Defense of the Ancients to Dota 2, including the Electronic Sports World Cup.[123] DreamHack would also support Dota 2 in 2011, following a year without support for the original, on account of other MOBA titles such as Heroes of Newerth and League of Legends.[124] By the end of its first year in its beta phase, Dota 2 was one of the highest-paying eSport titles of 2011, second only to StarCraft II.[125] In 2012, Dota 2 began as an official title for the World Cyber Games annual event at World Cyber Games 2012.[126] The Electronic Sports League (ESL) began a seasonal tournament for Dota 2 called the RaidCall EMS One in 2013, which was the largest independent tournament for Dota 2 by the beginning of 2013.[127] Beginning in September 2013, the Association for Chinese eSports began a league, called the WPC ACE Dota 2 League, which had the largest third-party prize pool in Dota 2 eSports history at the time.[128] At Electronic Entertainment Expo 2013, Nexon announced the investment of two billion South Korean won, (approximately $1.7 million), into amateur and professional leagues in South Korea for 2013, to coincide with the launch of their distribution agreement in the fall of that year.[129] Modeled after the interactive compendium for The International, Valve introduced a compendium third-party tournament organizers could sell, beginning with DreamLeague in February 2014.[130] In February 2015, the Valve-sponsored Dota 2 Asia Championships was held in Shanghai with a prize pool of over $3 million, raised through compendium sales.[131][132]

In total, professional Dota 2 tournaments had earned teams and players over $100 million in prize money by June 2017, with over half of that being awarded at the International tournaments, making it the highest earning eSport game by a margin of nearly $60 million.[133]

Dota Pro Circuit

Starting in 2015, Valve began sponsoring smaller, but seasonally held tournaments with a fixed $3 million prize pool, known officially as the Dota Major Championships.[134][135] The format for the tournaments are based on the series of the same name that Valve also sponsors for their first-person shooter game, Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. The first of which, hosted and produced by ESL, was the Frankfurt Major held in November 2015 at the Festhalle Frankfurt in Frankfurt, and was won by OG.[136][137] The next Major was hosted and produced by Perfect World, and was held in March 2016 at the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Shanghai, and was won by Team Secret.[138][139] The third and final Major of the 2015–2016 season was hosted and produced by PGL, and was held at the Mall of Asia Arena in Manila in June 2016.[140] The tournament was won by OG, becoming the first team to repeat as champions of a Dota 2 Major.[141]

Following the introduction of the Majors, The International championships were then considered to be the cumulative "Summer Major", with the 2016 iteration being the first one under the new format.[134][142] Still using the same crowdfunding system for the prize pool as previous Internationals, the tournament broke the record for the highest prize pool in eSports history at over $20 million, surpassing the record that the event had set the previous year, and was won by Wings Gaming.[143][144] At a player's meeting at the same event, Valve announced that due to scheduling issues they had prior to the International, they would be reducing the number of Majors from three to two for the following season, with the next tournament taking place in Boston at the Wang Theatre in December 2016, which was won again by OG.[145][146][147] The second and final Major of the season was held in Kiev at the National Palace of Arts in April 2017, which was won again by OG, their fourth Major championship victory.[148][149]

Following The International 2017, Valve replaced the Major Championship system, with the Dota Pro Circuit, an event structure that relies on more frequently held tournament events produced by third-party organizations.[150][151] In the Pro Circuit, any tournament that has at least one team from the North American, South American, Southeast Asian, Chinese, European, and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) regions, a minimum prize pool of $500,000, which Valve adds $500,000 of their own towards, and concludes with a LAN finals is classified as a Major.[150] In addition, a "Minor" championship tier exists and follows the same rules, but with a minimum prize pool of $150,000 instead.[150] For the Circuit, Valve awards "Qualifying Points" for individual players on a team that finishes in the top four of a tournament, which are publicly listed on a leaderboard and award direct invitations to The International for the eighth best ranking teams, a practice that was previously done manually by Valve and criticized for being non-transparent and unpredictable.[152][153][151][154] Teams' scores are determined by the total score of the top three point-earning players on them, with points being carried over if a player changes teams during the season.[151] Qualifying points are weighed more heavily towards Majors than Minors, with events that take place closer to The International generally awarding more.[153] To avoid conflicting dates, Valve directly manages the scheduling of the entire circuit.[153]

Media coverage

 
Similar to traditional sporting events, desk commentators are employed on-site for most major tournaments, providing analysis and predictions regarding the players and teams involved.

The primary medium for professional Dota 2 coverage is through the video game live streaming platform, Twitch.tv. For most major events, tournament coverage is done by a selection of dedicated eSports organizations and personnel who provide on-site commentary, analysis, match predictions, and player interviews surrounding the event in progress, similar to traditional sporting events.[155][156] Live Dota 2 games and coverage have also been simulcast on television networks around the world, such as ESPN in the United States,[157][158] Sport1 in Germany,[159] TV 2 Zulu in Denmark,[160] Xinwen Lianbo in China,[161] Astro in Malaysia,[162] and TV5 in the Philippines.[163]

Reception

Reception
Aggregate score
Aggregator Score
Metacritic 90/100[164]
Review scores
Publication Score
Destructoid 9.5/10[165]
Edge 9/10[166]
Eurogamer 9/10[167]
Game Informer 9/10[19]
GameSpot 9/10[168]
IGN 9.4/10[169]
PC Gamer (US) 90/100[171]
Polygon 8.5/10[170]
VideoGamer.com 9/10[172]

Dota 2 received universal acclaim, according to review aggregator Metacritic.[164] In a preview of the game in 2012, Rich McCormick of PC Gamer thought that Dota 2 was "an unbelievably deep and complex game that offers the purest sequel to the original Defense of the Ancients. Rewarding like few others, but tough".[173] Adam Biessener, the editor who authored the announcement article for Dota 2 for Game Informer in 2010, praised Valve for maintaining the same mechanics and game balance that made Defense of the Ancients successful nearly a decade prior[19] and Quintin Smith of Eurogamer described Dota 2 as the "supreme form of the MOBA which everyone else working in the genre is trying to capture like lightning in a bottle".[167] The most frequently praised aspects of the game were its depth, delivery, and overall balance. Chris Thursten of PC Gamer described the gameplay as being "deep and rewarding".[171]

Martin Gaston of GameSpot complimented Valve for the artistic design and delivery of Dota 2, citing the execution of the user interface design, voice acting, and characterization as exceeding those of the game's competitors.[168] Phill Cameron of IGN and James Kozanitis of Hardcore Gamer both praised Dota 2 for its free-to-play business model that was not affected by cosmetic items, with Kozanitis stating that Dota 2 was "the only game to do free-to-play right".[169][174] Nick Kolan of IGN also agreed, comparing the game's business model to Valve's Team Fortress 2, which uses a nearly identical system.[175] Post-release additions to the game were also praised, such as the addition of virtual reality (VR) support in 2016. Ben Kuchera of Polygon thought that spectating games in VR was "amazing", comparing it to being able to watch an American football game on television with the ability to jump onto the field at any time to see the quarterback's point of view.[176] Chris Thursten of PC Gamer agreed, calling the experience "incredible" and unlike any other eSports spectating system that existed prior to it.[177] Sam Machkovech of Ars Technica also praised the addition, believing that the functionality could "attract serious attention from gamers and non-gamers alike".[178]

While the majority of reviewers gave Dota 2 highly positive reviews, a common criticism was that the game maintains a steep learning curve that requires exceptional commitment to overcome. While providing a moderately positive review that praised Valve's product stability, Fredrik Åslund from the Swedish division of Gamereactor described his first match of Dota 2 as one of the most humiliating and inhospitable experiences of his gaming career, citing the learning curve and players' attitudes as unwelcoming.[179] Benjamin Danneberg of GameStar alluded to the learning curve as a "learning cliff", calling the newcomer's experience to be painful, with the tutorial feature new to the Dota franchise only being partially successful.[180] In a review for the Metro newspaper, Dota 2 was criticized for not compensating for the flaws with the learning curve from Defense of the Ancients, as well as the sometimes hostile community, which is commonly criticized in multiplayer online battle arena games.[181] Peter Bright of Ars Technica also directed criticism at the ability for third-party websites to allow skin gambling and betting on match results, similar to controversies that also existed with Valve's Counter-Strike: Global Offensive.[182] Using Dota 2 as an example, Bright thought that Valve had built gambling elements directly into their games, and had issues with the unregulated practice, which he stated was often used by underage players and regions where gambling is illegal.[182] Australian senator Nick Xenophon had similar sentiment, stating that he wanted to introduce legislation in his country to minimize underage access to gambling within video games, including Dota 2.[183] In response to the controversy, Valve and Dota 2 project manager, Erik Johnson, stated that they would be taking action against the third-party sites, saying that the practice was not allowed by their API or their user agreements.[184]

Comparisons of Dota 2 to other MOBA games are commonplace, with the game's mechanics and business model often being directly compared with League of Legends and Heroes of the Storm.[175][185][186][187] Contrasting it with League of Legends, T.J. Hafer of PC Gamer called Dota 2 the "superior experience", stating that he thought the game was "all about counterplay", with most of the heroes being designed to directly counter another.[188] Hafer also preferred the way the game handled its hero selection pool, with all of them being unlocked right from the start, unlike in League of Legends.[188] Comparing Dota 2 to Heroes of the Storm, Jason Parker of CNET said that while Heroes of the Storm was easier to get into, the complexities and depth of Dota 2 would be appreciated more by those who put in the time to master it.[189] Further comparing it to Heroes of Newerth, players from the professional Dota 2 team OG said that most Heroes of Newerth players were able to transition over easily to the game, due to the strong similarities that both games share.[190]

Awards and accolades

Following its first public showing in 2011, Dota 2 won IGN's People's Choice Award.[191] In December 2012, PC Gamer listed Dota 2 as a nominee for their Game of the Year award, as well as the best eSports title of the year.[192] In 2013, the year the game officially released, Dota 2 won the eSport of the year awards from PC Gamer[193] and onGamers.[194] GameTrailers also awarded the game the award for Best PC Game of 2013,[195] with IGN also awarding it the Best PC Strategy & Tactics Game, Best PC Multiplayer Game, and People's Choice Award.[196][197] Similarly, Game Informer recognized Dota 2 for the categories of Best PC Exclusive, Best Competitive Multiplayer and Best Strategy of 2013.[198] The same year, Dota 2 was nominated for a number of Game of the Year awards by Destructoid, including the award for the best competitive game. While the staff selected StarCraft II: Heart of the Swarm, Dota 2 received the majority of the votes distributed between the nine nominees.[199] Dota 2 was later nominated for the best multiplayer game at the 10th British Academy Games Awards in 2014, but lost to Grand Theft Auto V,[200] and was nominated for eSports Game of the Year at The Game Awards at its 2015, 2016, and 2017 events,[201][202][203] while winning the award for best MOBA at the 2015 Global Game Awards.[204] The game was also nominated for the community created "Love/Hate Relationship" award at the inaugural Steam Awards in 2016.[205] Multiple publications have listed Dota 2 as one of the greatest video games of all time.[206][207][208][209][210][211][212] In 2017, the game was nominated for Choice Video Game at the 2017 Teen Choice Awards,[213] for eSports Game of the Year at the Golden Joystick Awards,[214] and as IGN's best spectator game.[215] It was nominated for best eSports Game at the National Academy of Video Game Trade Reviewers Awards.[216]

Legacy

 
A fan cosplaying as Juggernaut, one of the game's 115 playable characters

Two months before its official release, Dota 2 broke the all-time Steam record for most concurrent players with nearly 330,000.[217][218] Simultaneous with this benchmark, the concurrent number of Dota 2 players in May 2013 outweighed the number of players for the rest of Steam's top ten most-played games combined.[219] Dota 2 was the first game in Steam's history to have over a million concurrent players,[220][221] and remained as the most played game by concurrent players on the platform for four years, never dropping to second place for any extended period of time until being surpassed by PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds in 2017.[222][223][224] Viewership and followings of professional Dota 2 leagues and tournaments are also popular, with peak viewership numbers of some events reaching upwards in the millions.[225][226][227]

Promotional tie-ins to other video games and media have been added to Dota 2 since release, including custom Half-Life 2,[228] Bastion,[228] Portal,[229] Defense Grid: The Awakening,[228] Trine,[228] The Stanley Parable,[230] Rick and Morty,[231] Fallout 4,[232] and Deus Ex: Mankind Divided announcer packs,[233] which replace the game's default announcer with ones based on those franchises. In addition to announcer packs, well-known musical artists have written music packs that can replace the game's default soundtrack, such as electronic music artist deadmau5 and Singaporean songwriter JJ Lin.[234][235][236] To coincide with the Windows release of Square Enix's Final Fantasy Type-0 HD in August 2015, a bundle containing a custom loading screen, a Moogle ward, and a Chocobo courier were added the same month.[237] In April 2016, Valve announced a cross-promotional workshop contest for Sega's Total War: Warhammer, with the winning entries being included in the game later that year.[238] In 2017, a cosmetic set based on the Companion Cube from the Portal series was released as part of that year's International compendium for the hero known as "Io".[239] In December of the same year, the character Amaterasu from Capcom's Ōkami was included as a courier for those who had pre-ordered the PC release of the game.[240]

The popularity of Dota 2 led Valve to produce apparel, accessories, posters, and a number of other products featuring the heroes and other elements from the game. In addition, Valve secured licensing contracts with third-party producers; the first of these deals concerned a Dota 2 themed SteelSeries mousepad, which was announced at Gamescom 2011.[241] In September 2012, Weta Workshop, the prop studio that creates the "Aegis of Champions" trophy for winners of The International,[242] announced a product line that would include statues, weapons, and armor based on Dota 2 characters and items.[243] In February 2013, the National Entertainment Collectibles Association announced a new toy line featuring hero-themed action figures at the American International Toy Fair.[244] At Gamescom 2015, an HTC Vive virtual reality (VR) tech demo based around the shopkeeper of the game's item shop was showcased, allowing participants to interact with various items and objects from the game in VR.[245] The demo, known as Secret Shop, was later included the following year on The Lab, Valve's virtual reality compilation game.[246] After the conclusion of The International 2015, Valve awarded the Collector's Aegis of Champions, which was a 1/5th scale brass replica of the Aegis of Champions trophy, to those with compendiums of 1,000 levels or more.[247] Valve awarded the Collector's Aegis again the following year for The International 2016, as well as selling a limited edition Dota 2 themed HTC Vive virtual reality headset during the event.[248][249] In July 2017, an 18-track official soundtrack was released by Ipecac Recordings, including a version on vinyl.[250] A digital collectible card game by Valve, titled Artifact, will be released for PC-platforms in 2018, and for iOS and Android devices the following year.[251][252] It was partially designed by Magic: The Gathering creator Richard Garfield, and will be developed alongside Dota 2, introducing new heroes and other content for both games in tandem.[253]

 
Physical props, based on items from the game, being sold as merchandise at The International 2012

A documentary on the game and its professional scene was produced by Valve and released in March 2014. Known as Free to Play, the film follows three players during their time at the first International in 2011.[254] American basketball player Jeremy Lin, who was a media sensation at the time, had a guest appearance in the film, where he called the game "a way of life".[255] Lin later compared the game and the professional gaming scene in general to basketball and other traditional sporting events, saying that there was not much of a difference between the two,[256] while also comparing various NBA all-stars, such as Stephen Curry, Kobe Bryant, and LeBron James, to different heroes in the game.[257] Starting in 2016, Valve began producing an episodic documentary series titled True Sight, a spiritual successor to Free to Play.[258] The first three episodes followed the professional teams Evil Geniuses and Fnatic during the Boston Major tournament in late 2016.[258] Two more episodes were released in 2017, focusing on the grand finals of the Kiev Major and The International 2017 tournaments.[259][260] Valve have also officially endorsed cosplay competitions featuring the game's heroes, which take place during downtime at professional Dota 2 tournaments and feature prize pools of their own.[261][262][263] Creation of Dota 2-themed animations and CGI videos, mostly created by the community with Source Filmmaker, also take place.[264] Similar to the cosplay competitions, Valve holds short film contests every year at The International, with winners of the competition also being awarded prize money.[265][266] In addition, Valve have created free webcomics featuring some of the heroes, further detailing their background lore.[267][268][269] A physical collection of the comics was released as Dota 2: The Comic Collection by Dark Horse Comics in August 2017.[270] Some Asian schools and universities, such as the Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation in Malaysia, have held courses on Dota 2, teaching students the fundamentals and core skills to use during the game.[271][272] Dota 2 has also been a part of traditional multi-sport events, such as under the eSports category of the Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games.[273]

References

  1. ^ a b c d McDonald, Tim. "A Beginner's Guide to Dota 2: Part One – The Basics". PC Invasion. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l This Is Dota (Video). YouTube. dota2. August 4, 2015. Event occurs at 2:15. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d Kim, Ben. "A comprehensive comparison of Dota 2 and League of Legends". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016. 
  4. ^ "Heroes". dota2.com. Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gies, Arthur. "The Normal Person's Guide to Watching Competitive Dota 2 (2017 Edition)". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017. 
  6. ^ Dota Roles - Hard Carry (Video). YouTube. dota2. August 6, 2015. Event occurs at 2:53. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b McDonald, Tim. "A Beginner's Guide to Dota 2: Part Two – The Heroes". PC Invasion. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Game Modes". IGN. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017. 
  9. ^ Thursten, Chris. "Why Dota 2's All Random mode is good for the soul". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017. 
  10. ^ Warr, Philippa. "Dota 2 Turbo mode is the best thing Valve has added to the game in years". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2018. 
  11. ^ McDonald, Tim. "A Beginner's Guide to Dota 2: Part 2.5 – The Heroes (Continued)". PC Invasion. Archived from the original on July 20, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016. 
  12. ^ Kolan, Nick (September 16, 2011). "The Heroes of Dota 2". IGN. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. 
  13. ^ "7.00 Update – The New Journey Begins". blog.dota2.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Bartel, Joe. "The unique strategy of Dota 2". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 11, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  15. ^ Yin-Poole, Wesley (August 19, 2011). "Dota 2 – Preview". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. 
  16. ^ Dator, James. "What are The International Dota 2 Championships?". SB Nation. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. 
  17. ^ a b c d Leahy, Brian (November 8, 2012). "Surviving the basics of DOTA 2". Joystiq. Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Items". dota2.com. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c Biessener, Adam (July 16, 2013). "Dota 2". Game Informer. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. 
  20. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "Dota Match Turns Into Five-Hour Melodrama". Kotaku. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017. 
  21. ^ Gies, Arthur. "The Normal Person's Guide to Watching Competitive Dota 2 (2017 Edition)". Polygon. Archived from the original on December 12, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2018. 
  22. ^ Savage, Phil (January 27, 2014). "Dota 2's New Bloom heralds the arrival of the Year Beast, also Terrorblade". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  23. ^ Albert, Brian (November 8, 2013). "Dota 2 'Diretide' Event Coming in Next Update". IGN. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Dota 2's Frostivus 2013 event unveiled for the holidays". GameSpot. December 10, 2013. Archived from the original on March 20, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  25. ^ Savage, Phil (December 20, 2013). "Dota 2's next update will be the Year of the Horse, Valve request Workshop submissions". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Dota 2 - Reborn: Custom Games". Dota 2. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015. 
  27. ^ "The best Dota 2 custom games". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017. 
  28. ^ "Enter the Haunted Colosseum". Dota 2 Blog. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015. 
  29. ^ "The best Dota 2 custom games". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on December 20, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2018. 
  30. ^ Dyer, Mitch. "20-Player Dota 2 Mode Revealed". IGN. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018. 
  31. ^ Plunkett, Luke. "DOTA 2 Is Getting A Co-op Campaign With A Story". Kotaku. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017. 
  32. ^ Stewart, Sam. "Dota 2 Is Getting a Battle Royale Game Mode". IGN. Retrieved May 9, 2018. 
  33. ^ Tok, Kevin (January 25, 2006). "Defense of the Ancients 101". GotFrag. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Vida: El top 5". El Universo (in Spanish). February 18, 2008. Archived from the original on June 14, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  35. ^ a b Augustine, Josh (August 17, 2010). "Riot Games' dev counter-files "DotA" trademark". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. 
  36. ^ Feak, Steve; Mescon, Steve (March 19, 2009). "Postmortem: Defense of the Ancients". Gamasutra. pp. 1–5. Archived from the original on December 7, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  37. ^ Walbridge, Michael (June 12, 2008). "Analysis: Defense of the Ancients – An Underground Revolution". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. 
  38. ^ IceFrog (May 14, 2009). "IceFrog.com: DotA Website News". PlayDotA.com. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  39. ^ Nutt, Christian (August 29, 2011). "The Valve Way: Gabe Newell And Erik Johnson Speak". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on October 26, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016. 
  40. ^ DOTA 2 – Gamescom 2011 Interview (PC) (Video). YouTube. August 19, 2011. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b c Onyett, Charles (January 8, 2011). "Valve's Next Game". IGN. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. 
  42. ^ IceFrog (October 5, 2009). "Great News For DotA Fans". PlayDotA.com. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. 
  43. ^ a b c Biessener, Adam (October 13, 2010). "Valve's New Game Announced, Detailed: Dota 2". Game Informer. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. 
  44. ^ Funk, John (October 13, 2010). "Valve Files Trademark for ... DotA?". The Escapist. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. 
  45. ^ Yin-Poole, Wesley (August 22, 2011). "Dota trademark: Blizzard, Valve respond". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. 
  46. ^ Plunkett, Luke (February 10, 2012). "Blizzard and Valve go to War Over DOTA Name". Kotaku. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. 
  47. ^ Reilly, Jim (May 11, 2012). "Valve, Blizzard Reach DOTA Trademark Agreement". Game Informer. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. 
  48. ^ a b c McAloon, Alissa. "Valve's ownership of Dota 2 is set to be decided by a jury". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017. 
  49. ^ Nutt, Christian. "Blizzard sues a studio that's suing a studio". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017. 
  50. ^ Dagostino, Francesco (August 31, 2011). "DOTA 2: How Valve Turned From Fanboys Into Developers For This Game". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  51. ^ IceFrog (November 1, 2010). "Dota 2 Q&A". Dota 2 Official Blog. Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. 
  52. ^ Napolitano, Jayson (August 23, 2011). "Composer Jason Hayes joins audio team at Valve". Destructoid. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. 
  53. ^ Dota 2 recording session (Video). YouTube. Archived from the original on March 21, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  54. ^ "Interview: Marc Laidlaw, writer of Half-Life and DOTA2". showmethegames.com. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  55. ^ England, Jason. "Interview With Marc Laidlaw: The Writer Of Half-Life". New Rising Media. Archived from the original on July 10, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  56. ^ Valve Corporation (July 9, 2013). Dota 2. Microsoft Windows. Valve Corporation. Scene: Acknowledgements. 
  57. ^ a b Gaston, Martin (November 14, 2013). "Huge Dota 2 patch brings two new heroes and Diretide". GameSpot. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  58. ^ Carlson, Patrick (September 20, 2013). "Dota 2 First Blood update adds local network play and new mode, goes live September 23". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  59. ^ Senior, Tom (February 15, 2012). "Dota 2 will support LAN play, next International tournament prize pool to be "at least" $1.6m". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. 
  60. ^ Wilkinson, Jeremy (June 21, 2012). "Valve to reinforce competitive play". The Escapist. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  61. ^ "The International Compendium Evolves". Dota 2. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  62. ^ "Dota 2 fans now able to watch games via VR". BBC. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2016. 
  63. ^ Kuchera, Ben. "Spectating Dota 2 in VR is amazing, watch it in action". Polygon. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  64. ^ a b c "Matchmaking". Dota 2. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  65. ^ "Transitioning Into Launch Mode". Dota 2. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  66. ^ a b Bratt, Chris. "Dota 2 players must now register a phone number to play ranked matches". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on April 24, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017. 
  67. ^ Rose, Victoria. "Dota 2's Dueling Fates patch notes forecast avalanche of massive changes". The Flying Courier. Polygon. Archived from the original on October 31, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  68. ^ Stewart, Sam. "Dota 2: The Dueling Fates Patch Notes Released". IGN. Archived from the original on October 31, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  69. ^ "World Leaderboards". Dota 2. Archived from the original on November 27, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2016. 
  70. ^ "Communication Reports". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 19, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Dota - Low Priority Matchmaking". support.steampowered.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2017. 
  72. ^ "Hero Builds". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  73. ^ Sharkey, Mike (April 20, 2012). "Valve Confirms Dota 2 Will Be Free, With Twists". GameSpy. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. 
  74. ^ Stapleton, Dan (June 1, 2012). "Valve: We Won't Charge for Dota 2 Heroes". GameSpy. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. 
  75. ^ a b Dota Team (June 1, 2012). "Introducing the Dota Store". Dota 2 Official Blog. Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. 
  76. ^ Senior, Tom (June 1, 2012). "Get Dota 2 now using paid-for Early Access Pass". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. 
  77. ^ Sykes, Tom. "Dota 2 modding tools now in alpha, upload custom maps/modes to Steam Workshop". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  78. ^ "Dota 2 items - the best from the Steam workshop". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017. 
  79. ^ Benson, Julian. "Dota 2 Players Can Now Code Their Own AI". Kotaku. Archived from the original on December 15, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  80. ^ Hollister, Sean (January 16, 2014). "On average, 'Team Fortress 2' and 'DOTA 2' item creators made $15,000 last year". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. 
  81. ^ Walker, Alex. "League Of Legends Made More Revenue In 2015 Than CSGO, Dota 2 And World Of Warcraft Combined". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016. 
  82. ^ "Valve to add paid Custom Game Pass to Dota 2". PCGamer. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016. 
  83. ^ Martin, Michael. "Valve Announces Dota 2 Reborn". IGN. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  84. ^ Livingston, Christopher (June 12, 2015). "Valve announces Dota 2 Reborn, new engine coming". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  85. ^ Macy, Seth. "Dota 2 Now Valve's First Ever Source 2 Game". IGN. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved September 9, 2015. 
  86. ^ Hussain, Tamoor. "Dota 2 Officially Reborn on Source 2, Numerous Changes Introduced". GameSpot. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016. 
  87. ^ LeJacq, Yannick (September 30, 2015). "Dota 2 Lost A Ton Of Players In September". Kotaku. Archived from the original on October 13, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015. 
  88. ^ Whittaker, Matt. "Dota 2 Hits One Million Concurrent Users on New Engine". Hardcore Gamer. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. 
  89. ^ Paul, Ian. "Steam's most popular game just added support for Vulkan, DirectX 12's more open rival". PC World. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  90. ^ Onyett, Charles (August 17, 2011). "Gamescom: When Do We Get to Play Dota 2?". IGN. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. 
  91. ^ Yin-Poole, Wesley (August 18, 2011). "Newell: Dota 2 won't ship until 2012". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on December 25, 2012. 
  92. ^ Devore, Jordan (September 22, 2011). "A change of plans at Valve means we'll get Dota 2 sooner". Destructoid. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. 
  93. ^ Hernandez, Patricia (July 9, 2013). "Valve Finally "Releases" DOTA 2". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 15, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 
  94. ^ McDonald, Tim. "Dota 2 patch adds Linux and Mac support, plus customisable chat wheel". incgamers.com. IncGamers. Archived from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  95. ^ Sliwinski, Alexander (July 10, 2013). "Dota 2 launching now, officially". Joystiq. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. 
  96. ^ Thursten, Chris. "New Dota 2 hero Underlord revealed at The International". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2016. 
  97. ^ Thursten, Chris. "Valve announce Monkey King, the first Dota 2 hero that isn't a port from DotA". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016. 
  98. ^ Warr, Philippa (September 17, 2013). "Gabe Newell: Dota 2 updates generate three percent of global internet traffic". Wired UK. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. 
  99. ^ Savage, Phil (December 17, 2013). "Dota 2 scraps sign-ups, boasts 6.5 million active monthly users". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on December 18, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013. 
  100. ^ "Perfect World and Valve Announce Exclusive Rights for Perfect World to Operate Dota 2 in Mainland China". PR Newswire. October 18, 2012. Archived from the original on June 1, 2014. 
  101. ^ Strom, Steven. "'Low Violence' Mode Highlights Dota's Smart Design". Red Bull. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016. 
  102. ^ "Weekend time-waster: original Dota 2 icons vs. censored Chinese versions". Techinasia. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016. 
  103. ^ "Nexon and Valve Partner to Launch Dota 2 in Korea and Japan" (Press release). Business Wire. November 8, 2012. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
  104. ^ Walker, Alex. "Nexon Shutting Down South Korean Dota 2 Servers, Steam Taking Over". Kotaku. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015. 
  105. ^ "7.00 Update – The New Journey Begins". Dota 2 Blog. Archived from the original on December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  106. ^ a b Pereira, Chris. "Massive Dota 2 Patch Revamps the Game and Adds New Character". GameSpot. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  107. ^ a b c Thursten, Chris. "Why Dota 2's 7.00 update is such a big deal". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  108. ^ Orland, Kyle. "Valve asks for phone numbers to confirm Dota 2 player identities". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017. 
  109. ^ Donnelly, Joe. "Dota 2 gets multi-tiered Rank Medal system". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017. 
  110. ^ Rose, Victoria. "Dota 2's new Ranked MMR system released for all players". The Flying Courier. Polygon. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017. 
  111. ^ Rose, Victoria. "Icefrog: Minor Dota 2 gameplay patches to occur every two weeks". The Flying Courier. Polygon. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018. 
  112. ^ Chalk, Andy. "Dota 2 is moving to a bi-weekly update schedule". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018. 
  113. ^ Pereira, Chris. "Valve Overhauls Dota 2 Battle Pass With Subscription-Based Dota Plus". GameSpot. Retrieved March 12, 2018. 
  114. ^ Reilly, Jim (August 1, 2011). "Valve Goes Big with Dota 2 Tournament". IGN. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. 
  115. ^ Hafer, TJ (April 25, 2013). "Dota 2: The International 3 announced". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 13, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  116. ^ "Introducing the Interactive Compendium". Dota 2. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2016. 
  117. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "How Exactly Does Dota 2 Come Up With Over $20 Million In Prizes For Its Biggest Event?". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2017. 
  118. ^ Gaston, Martin (May 16, 2013). "Dota 2's The International 3 reaches $2m prize pool". GameSpot. Archived from the original on November 18, 2013. 
  119. ^ Schulenberg, Thomas (August 4, 2013). "The International 3 begins, Prize pool of over $2.8 million". Joystiq. Archived from the original on August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  120. ^ Newhouse, Alex (June 27, 2014). "$10 Million Dota 2 International Exceeds Super Bowl, Masters, and Tour de France Prizes". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015. 
  121. ^ Phil Savage (July 21, 2015). "The International 2015 prize distribution announced". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  122. ^ Daultrey, Stephen. "Pakistani teenager becomes youngest gamer to surpass $1million in eSports earnings as Dota 2 tournament sets major records". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2015. 
  123. ^ Strisland, Jonas (October 25, 2011). "ESWC: DotA 2 Final". Cadred. Archived from the original on June 5, 2012. 
  124. ^ "DreamHack Corsair Vengeance Dota 2 Championship". DreamHack. November 2, 2011. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. 
  125. ^ Macdonald, Stuart (January 7, 2012). "PGT outlines best paying games of 2011". SK Gaming. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. 
  126. ^ Hanten, Ulrich (December 2012). "WCG 2012: DotA and Dota 2 groups drawn". Gosu Gamers. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  127. ^ Savage, Phil (January 28, 2013). "ESL announce the largest independent Dota 2 competition so far". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 
  128. ^ Nordmark, Sam (January 1, 2014). "DK win WPC-ACE League!". onGamers. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  129. ^ Horton, Samuel (June 13, 2012). "Nexon to invest $1.7 million in Dota 2". SK Gaming. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. 
  130. ^ Bailey, Matthew (February 26, 2014). "The ASUS ROG DreamLeague will be the first tournament supported by a third party Compendium". onGamers. Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2015. 
  131. ^ Strom, Steven. "The Eastern International". Red Bull. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  132. ^ Bester, Alan. "The Great Chinese Collapse of the Shanghai Major". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  133. ^ Stubbs, Mike. "Dota 2's $100 million milestone, visualised". redbull.com. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved June 27, 2017. 
  134. ^ a b Sykes, Tom. "Dota 2 Major Championships announced". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016. 
  135. ^ Dyer, Mitch (April 24, 2015). "Valve Announces The Dota 2 Major Championships". IGN. Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2015. 
  136. ^ Porter, Matt. "Dota 2 Major Announced for Frankfurt". IGN. Archived from the original on September 6, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016. 
  137. ^ Strom, Steven. "$3 Million Dota 2 Tournament Ends With an Upset and an Announcement". IGN. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016. 
  138. ^ Thursten, Chris. "Valve have announced the Dota 2 Shanghai Major". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2015. 
  139. ^ Lee, Timothy. "Team Secret defeats Team Liquid to win the Dota 2 Shanghai Major 2016". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2016. 
  140. ^ Campbell, Evan. "Dota 2: Manila Major Announced for June 2016". IGN.com. Archived from the original on January 17, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016. 
  141. ^ Cocke, Taylor. "OG wins Manila, becomes first team to win two Dota 2 majors". esports.yahoo.com. Yahoo. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016. 
  142. ^ Sutterlin, Alan. "The postive impact of Valve's Majors format on the Dota 2 esports scene". ESPN. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  143. ^ Albert, Brian. "Dota 2's $20 Million International Starts Today". IGN. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  144. ^ Erzberger, Tyler. "Teenage captain leads esports team to $9.1 million prize". ESPN. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 14, 2016. 
  145. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "Valve plans to reduce number of majors in 2017". ESPN. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016. 
  146. ^ Good, Owen. "Dota 2's second championship season begins with The Boston Major". Polygon. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2016. 
  147. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "OG defeats Ad Finem at Boston Major for its third Major title". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 11, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2016. 
  148. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "Valve announces dates for 2017 Dota 2 season". ESPN. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2016. 
  149. ^ Ballenger, Jack. "OG cements its dynasty at the Kiev Major". ESPN. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017. 
  150. ^ a b c Savov, Vlad. "Valve is rebooting its Dota 2 tournaments for a more democratic and 'organic' approach". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 5, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  151. ^ a b c "The Dota Pro Circuit". blog.dota2.com. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  152. ^ Chalk, Andy. "Valve is eliminating the Dota 2 Majors for the 2017-18 season". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  153. ^ a b c Gach, Ethan. "Valve Announces Big Changes To Dota 2's Tournament Structure Going Forward". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017. 
  154. ^ "Dota Pro Circuit". dota2.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017. 
  155. ^ Makuch, Eddie (August 13, 2013). "The International hits 1 million concurrent viewers". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  156. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "TobiWan: The voice of Dota 2". ESPN. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved August 6, 2016. 
  157. ^ Schwartz, Nick. "ESPN embraces eSports, broadcasts Dota 2 championship 'The International'". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  158. ^ Lewis, Richard. "ESPN 'delighted' with 'Dota 2' numbers, looking to expand deeper into esports". Daily Dot. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  159. ^ Lund-Hansen, Rasmus. "German TV to broadcast ESL One Dota tournament". gamereactor.eu. Archived from the original on June 20, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  160. ^ "The Defense: joinDOTA's Flagship Dota 2 Tournament Returns and Hits Danish Television". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  161. ^ "电竞产业或迎春天 DOTA2上今日新闻联播". fight.pcgames.com.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  162. ^ "Astro offers The International 2015 DOTA 2 Championships LIVE". astro.com.my. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  163. ^ Banusing, Justin. "Catch The Manila Major Finals Live Philippine Coverage on TV". esports.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on July 13, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016. 
  164. ^ a b "Dota 2 for PC Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  165. ^ Patrick, Hancock (July 24, 2013). "Dota 2". Destructoid. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013. 
  166. ^ Edge Staff. "Dota 2 review". Edge Magazine UK. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  167. ^ a b Smith, Quintin (July 16, 2013). "Dota 2 review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. 
  168. ^ a b Gaston, Martin (July 19, 2013). "Dota 2 Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. 
  169. ^ a b Cameron, Phill (July 24, 2013). "Dota 2 Review". IGN. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. 
  170. ^ Gies, Arthur. "Dota 2 review". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  171. ^ a b Thursten, Chris (August 7, 2013). "Dota 2 review". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 10, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  172. ^ McCormick, Rich (July 26, 2013). "Dota 2 Review". VideoGamer.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013. 
  173. ^ McCormick, Rich (September 22, 2012). "Dota 2 Review". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. 
  174. ^ Kozanitis, James. "Why Dota 2 is the Only Game that Does Free-To-Play Right". Hardcore Gamer. Archived from the original on July 24, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016. 
  175. ^ a b Kolan, Nick. "League of Legends Versus Dota 2". IGN. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  176. ^ Kuchera, Ben. "Spectating Dota 2 in VR is amazing, watch it in action". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  177. ^ Thursten, Chris. "Dota 2 Battle Pass update adds crazy new VR spectator mode". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  178. ^ Machkovech, Sam. "Dota 2 releases full VR spectator suite—just in time for the International". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  179. ^ Åslund, Fredrik (July 18, 2013). "Dota 2 Recension". Gamereactor. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  180. ^ Danneberg, Benjamin (July 18, 2013). "Dota 2 im Test". GameStar (in German). Archived from the original on August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  181. ^ "Dota 2 review – eSport of kings". Metro. July 19, 2013. Archived from the original on November 25, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2013. Nowadays games like Dota and League Of Legends are described as MOBAs, which stands for multiplayer online battle arena – a laughably unhelpful term which is strangely fitting given how infamously difficult the games are to get into. And how notoriously unpleasant and elitist their online community tends to be. 
  182. ^ a b Bright, Peter. "Valve can't pass buck to third parties for teaching CS:GO kids to gamble". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016. 
  183. ^ Armitage, Catherine. "Nick Xenophon calls for curbs on teen gambling in eSports video games". smh.com.au. The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Retrieved August 5, 2016. 
  184. ^ Wolf, Jacob. "Valve prohibits online gambling through Steam for Counter-Strike and Dota 2". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 14, 2016. 
  185. ^ LeJacq, Yannick. "League And Dota 2 Are Both Becoming A Bit More Like Heroes Of The Storm". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  186. ^ Chalk, Andy. "League of Legends set to dominate MOBA market in 2016". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  187. ^ Gaston, Martin. "How Heroes of the Storm Is Different From--and the Same as--League of Legends and Dota 2". GameSpot. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  188. ^ a b "Face Off: Is League of Legends a better game than Dota 2?". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016. 
  189. ^ Parker, Jason. "Dota 2 vs. Heroes of the Storm: Which MOBA is right for you?". CNET. Archived from the original on July 24, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  190. ^ Sillis, Ben; Partridge, Joe. "How Heroes of Newerth led OG to Dota 2". Red Bull. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  191. ^ MacDonald, Keza (August 23, 2011). "IGN People's Choice Award: And The Winner Is..." IGN. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. 
  192. ^ PC Gamer staff (December 11, 2011). "The PC Gamer 2012 Game of the Year nominees". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. 
  193. ^ PC Gamer staff (December 29, 2013). "E-Sport of the year: Dota 2". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on July 31, 2014. 
  194. ^ Connors, Cody; Rom, Kim (January 5, 2014). "2013 onGamers Esports Industry Awards". onGamers. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. 
  195. ^ GameTrailers (January 8, 2014). "Game of the Year Awards 2013 - Best PC Game". YouTube. Archived from the original on June 15, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2018. 
  196. ^ "Best of 2013 Awards: Best PC Strategy & Tactics Game". IGN. January 9, 2014. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. 
  197. ^ "Best of 2013 Awards: Best PC Multiplayer Game". IGN. January 9, 2014. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. 
  198. ^ Bertz, Matt (January 7, 2014). "Game Informer Best Of 2013 Awards". Game Informer. Archived from the original on January 20, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2014. 
  199. ^ Carter, Chris (December 24, 2013). "The winner of Destructoid's best of 2013 competitive game". Destructoid. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2014. 
  200. ^ Karmali, Luke (March 13, 2014). "BAFTA Games Awards 2014 Winners Announced". IGN. Archived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  201. ^ "Nominees". The Game Awards. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015. 
  202. ^ Sarkar, Samit (November 16, 2016). "Here are the nominees for The Game Awards 2016". Polygon. Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016. 
  203. ^ Hester, Blake (November 14, 2017). "'Horizon Zero Dawn,' 'Zelda,' 'Mario' Top List of Game Award Nominees". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 14, 2017. Retrieved November 14, 2017. 
  204. ^ "DOTA 2 Global Game Awards Nominee 2015". Game Debate. Archived from the original on December 2, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015. 
  205. ^ Good, Owen S. (December 20, 2016). "2016 Steam Awards finalists go all the way back to 2006". Polygon. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016. 
  206. ^ Peckham, Matt; Eadicicco, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Alex; Vella, Matt; Patrick Pullen, John; Raab, Josh; Grossman, Lev (August 23, 2016). "The 50 Best Video Games of All Time". Time. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2016. 
  207. ^ PC Gamer staff (December 3, 2016). "The PC Gamer Top 100 (Page 9)". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  208. ^ Edge staff (September 2015). "Edge Special List: The 100 Greatest Video Games". Edge. No. 283. 
  209. ^ Edge staff (August 2017). "Edge Presents: The 100 Greatest Video Games of All Time". Edge. No. 308. 
  210. ^ Warr, Philippa; O’Connor, Alice (November 24, 2017). "Best PC games of all time". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Archived from the original on December 3, 2017. Retrieved December 2, 2017. 
  211. ^ Polygon staff (December 1, 2017). "The 500 best games of all time: 100-1". Polygon. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017. 
  212. ^ "The Top 300 Games of All Time". Game Informer (300). April 2018. 
  213. ^ Rubin, Rebecca; Knapp, JD (August 13, 2017). "Teen Choice Awards 2017: 'Riverdale,' Fifth Harmony Shut Out Competition". Variety. Retrieved March 25, 2018. 
  214. ^ Gaito, Eri (November 13, 2017). "Golden Joystick Awards 2017 Nominees". Best in Slot. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018. 
  215. ^ "Best of 2017 Awards: Best Spectator Game". IGN. December 20, 2017. Archived from the original on December 26, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2018. 
  216. ^ "Horizon wins 7; Mario GOTY". National Academy of Video Game Trade Reviewers. March 13, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2018. 
  217. ^ Lahti, Evan (May 20, 2013). "Dota 2 breaks concurrent Steam players record (again)". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2013. 
  218. ^ Pitcher, Jenna (May 21, 2013). "Dota 2 breaks own record for most concurrent users on Steam". Polygon. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2013. 
  219. ^ Peel, Jeremy (May 24, 2013). "Dota 2 had more players yesterday than the rest of the Steam top ten put together". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  220. ^ Good, Owen. "Dota 2 is Steam's first game with 1 million users playing at the same time". Polygon. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. Retrieved October 28, 2015. 
  221. ^ Maiberg, Emanuel. "Dota 2 Hits 1 million Concurrent Players, Still Far Smaller Than League of Legends". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved October 28, 2015. 
  222. ^ McCormick, Rich. "Steam rises to 65 million active users, eclipsing Xbox Live". The Verge. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  223. ^ Orland, Kyle. "Introducing Steam Gauge: Ars reveals Steam's most popular games". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on November 26, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2017. 
  224. ^ Brown, Fraser. "PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds beats Dota 2's highest concurrent player record". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  225. ^ McWhertor, Michael. "The International Dota 2 tournament watched by more than 20M viewers, Valve says". Polygon. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  226. ^ Thean Eu, Goh. "Astro gets into e-sports, Dota 2 broadcast pulls in 1.5mil viewers". Digital News Asia. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  227. ^ Aitchison, Kaci. "Millions of people from around the world are watching THIS game". q13fox.com. Fox. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016. 
  228. ^ a b c d Cameron, Phill. "Getting to know the business of Dota 2's indie Announcer Packs". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on April 7, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  229. ^ Gaston, Martin. "Dota 2 First Blood update debuts GLaDOS announcer on September 23". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  230. ^ Zorine, Te. "Dota 2 gets The Stanley Parable announcer pack". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 25, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  231. ^ Zorine, Te. "Dota 2 Gets Rick and Morty Announcer Pack". GameSpot. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  232. ^ Frank, Allegra. "Fallout 4 meets Dota 2 with Mister Handy announcer pack". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  233. ^ Gies, Arthur. "Deus Ex's Adam Jensen is a strange, great fit in Dota 2". Polygon. Archived from the original on September 2, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2016. 
  234. ^ Middleton, Ryan. "Deadmau5 Releases 35 Minutes Of New Music For 'Dota 2'". Music Times. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016. 
  235. ^ Greening, Chris. "DOTA 2 adds epic orchestral music pack from Chance Thomas". Video Game Music Online. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016. 
  236. ^ Nguyen, Patrick. "Bristleback announcer pack and Compendium music by Jeremy Soule is out now". gamespresso. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016. 
  237. ^ Carter, Chris. "Final Fantasy Type-0 HD will have DOTA 2 bonuses, 'exclusive loading screen' on PC". Destructoid. Archived from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016. 
  238. ^ "Warhammer Comes to the Dota 2 Workshop". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016. 
  239. ^ Stewart, Sam. "Valve Reveals Companion Cube Cosmetic For Dota 2 Hero". IGN. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  240. ^ Moyse, Chris. "Capcom submit Okami's Amaterasu as a potential DOTA 2 courier". Destructoid. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 
  241. ^ "SteelSeries and Valve® Corporation Introduce the SteelSeries QcK+ DotA 2 Edition". Business Wire. August 16, 2011. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  242. ^ "Dota 2 - Aegis of Champions". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016. 
  243. ^ Plunkett, Luke (September 24, 2012). "DOTA 2's Official Replica Weapons Are Blowing My Mind". Kotaku. Archived from the original on June 1, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  244. ^ "NECA/WizKids Unveils New Dota 2 And Team Fortress 2 Collectibles, Games, With Valve". PR Newswire. February 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013. 
  245. ^ Hayden, Scott. "Valve's 'Secret Shop' HTC Vive Demo Introduces You to DotA 2's Fantastic World Full of Magic". roadtovr.com. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017. 
  246. ^ Pearce, Alanah; Dyer, Mitch. "The Lab: Valve's Free and Fun VR Mini-Game Collection". IGN. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017. 
  247. ^ "The Collector's Aegis of Champions". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 10, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  248. ^ "Level 1000 Collector's Aegis of Champions". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2016. 
  249. ^ Martindale, Jon. "Virtual reality and DotA 2 fan? We have the VR headset for you". Yahoo. Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016. 
  250. ^ "DOTA 2 (The Official Soundtrack)". releases.red. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  251. ^ Gies, Arthur (August 8, 2017). "Valve announces Artifact, a Dota 2 card game". Polygon. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2017. 
  252. ^ Stewart, Sam (March 8, 2018). "Valve Releases First Details About Artifact". IGN. Retrieved March 8, 2018. 
  253. ^ Scott-Jones, Richard (March 8, 2018). "The creator of Magic: The Gathering is working on Artifact". PCGamesN. Retrieved March 8, 2018. 
  254. ^ Devore, Jordan (March 19, 2014). "Dota 2 documentary Free to Play: The Movie released". Destructoid. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014. 
  255. ^ "NBA star Jeremy Lin says DOTA 2 is "more than just a game"". GameSpot. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  256. ^ Markazi, Arash. "Jeremy Lin on esports: "It's the unique talent of the players that is the draw"". ESPN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2016. 
  257. ^ Kelly, Christina. "Jeremy Lin compares NBA All-Stars to Dota heroes". ESPN. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 15, 2016. 
  258. ^ a b Thursten, Chris. "Valve's latest Dota 2 documentary series starts today". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016. 
  259. ^ "True Sight: The Kiev Major Grand Finals". Dota 2 blog. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017. 
  260. ^ Rose, Victoria. "True Sight mini-documentary, this time featuring TI7's Grand Finals, is now available to watch". The Flying Courier. Polygon. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017. 
  261. ^ Dyer, Mitch. "See the Dota 2 Cosplay, Merch, and Spectacle at The International 5". IGN. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  262. ^ Stubbs, Mike. "$15,000 cosplay competition to take place at The International 6". MCV. Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  263. ^ Van Allen, Eric. "Why Moscow deserves a Dota 2 major". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 7, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016. 
  264. ^ Plunkett, Luke. "2015's Best Cartoons Made Using Valve's Games". Kotaku. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  265. ^ Wilson, Nick. "Enter the Dota 2 Short Film Contest and bag yourself a cool $20,000 at the International". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on August 7, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  266. ^ "Dota 2 Short Film Contest". Dota 2. Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  267. ^ Albert, Brian. "New Dota 2 Comic Hints at Release of 'Oracle' Dota 1 Hero". IGN. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  268. ^ Strom, Steven. "Valve Launches Long-Form Dota 2 Comic 'The Last Castle'". IGN. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  269. ^ Savage, Phil. "Dota 2 comic heralds New Bloom update". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  270. ^ "DOTA 2: The Comic Collection HC". darkhorse.com. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2017. 
  271. ^ "Dota 2 is Now Being Learned in Schools Around China". gametribute.com. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved May 11, 2017. 
  272. ^ "APU eSports Malaysia Academy Skills Certificate in Defense of the Ancients 2". apu.edu.my. Archived from the original on March 21, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2017. 
  273. ^ Kim, Andrew. "Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games choose Dota 2 over League of Legends for MOBA category". slingshotesports.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017. 

External links