Video game live streaming

Video game live streaming is an activity where people record themselves playing games to a live audience online. The practice became popular in the mid-2010s on US based sites such as Twitch and later, YouTube, Facebook and China based sites Huya Live, DouYu, Bilibili and other services. By 2014, Twitch streams had more traffic than HBO's online service, HBO Go. Professional streamers often combine high-level play and entertaining commentary, and earn income from sponsors, subscriptions, and donations.

Both AAA and indie developers have circumvented rising development costs by utilizing the free advertising live streaming provides. Independent titles such as Fall Guys, Rocket League, and Among Us are some examples of games that have experienced a huge increase in player base as a result of this. Esports have also gained significant traction and attention from the accessibility of live streaming, and streaming has even been used as a method to raise awareness to social issues and raise money for charity.

Live streaming offers the allure of transforming a hobby of playing a video game into a full career of streaming, but brings with it the risks associated with this added renown, whether they be inside the video game, like stream sniping, or in real life, like stalking and swatting. Additionally, the low bar of entry in terms of technology and audience allows for a wide variety of streamers and games to be broadcast.

One thing streamers should be wary of are possible copyright violations or other legal issues when streaming the game of their choice. Legal issues can differ depending on the platform and video game streamed, so streamers must do their research before they start streaming as to adhere to the rules.

OverviewEdit

HistoryEdit

The practice of livestreaming video games became popular in the mid-2010s on sites such as Twitch.[1] By 2014, Twitch streams had more traffic than HBO Go and eventually hastened the closure of Justin.tv, which Twitch had originally spun out of.[2][3] In 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with Twitch.[4] Other notable video-game oriented streaming websites include Microsoft's Mixer, which shut down in July 2020, Smashcast.tv, which was formed after the merging of Azubu and Hitbox.tv, the South Korea-based afreecaTV, and many China based sites like Huya Live, DouYu and Bilibili.

In August 2020, China based video sharing website and live streaming service Bilibil paid Riot Games $113 million for three years exclusive broadcast of League of Legends World Championship, Mid-Season Invitational and League of Legends All Star in China. It is the biggest deal in video game live streaming market, which also makes China's video game live streaming market bigger than Twitch, YouTube Gaming, and Facebook Gaming combined, according to journalist Rod “Slasher” Breslau.[5][6]

Impact on the video game industryEdit

Live streaming has brought attention to previously obscure video games such as Rocket League, Fall Guys, and Among Us. Rocket League, a vehicular soccer game developed by Psyonix, sold over 5 million copies after ascending to the top 5 most-watched games on Twitch when released in July 2015 . The game eventually accumulated over 12 million players and earned itself a Twitch Rocket League Championship Series.[7] In September 2020, Rocket League abandoned its traditional pricing scheme and became free-to-play.

This form of live streaming has become a popular form of advertising for video game developers, surpassing traditional mediums such as online magazines and traditional demos.[7] Potential consumers are able to experience newly-released video games without having to purchase them. Major multiplayer titles benefit from this free advertising, but more linear point-and-click titles, such as those from the now defunct Telltale Games, can suffer if the people watching the gameplay are satisfied without making a purchase.

The rise in large-scale “AAA” video game titles have resulted in increased price for consumers and a prevalence of microtransaction-laden free-to-play titles. Smaller developers have utilized crowdsourcing platforms such as GoFundMe alongside streaming services such as Twitch to advertise their product. In turn, digital storefronts such as Steam have become even more popular with features such as built-in streaming integration and Steam early access facilitating a growth in users. By developing games with live streaming in mind, developers can leverage these features and allocate their budget towards innovative gameplay rather than traditional advertising.

Older titles, such as Super Mario 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, have seen renewed popularity due to speedruns, or rapid completions, facilitated by live streaming.[7] This has been a key component in diversifying live streaming audiences.

Impact on eSportsEdit

With easy accessibility for anyone able to watch from home on their devices, eSports viewership has reached 213 million in 2016 and continues to grow every year.[8] Popular eSports titles include Call of Duty, Counter Strike: Global Offensive, Dota 2, Fortnite, League of Legends, and Overwatch.[9] One of the biggest prize pools in eSports was for the Dota 2 tournament, The International, which totaled a pool of 25 million USD in 2017.[8]

Smaller video game communities, such as the Super Smash Bros Melee community, have benefited from the visibility it gained from video game live streaming.[10] In 2013, several members of the Super Smash Bros Melee community live streamed in order to raise money to become the 8th game featured at the prestigious tournament Evolution Championship Series and overturn a decision by Nintendo to ban the game from the event.[11]

Social ActivismEdit

In December of 2019, famous streamer, Dr. Lupo, hosted a 24 hour charity stream to have all donations and earnings go straight to St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Together, the video game live streaming community managed to raise $2.3 million, with Twitch itself donating $1 million of the total.[12] In 2020, American politician Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez live streamed herself playing the popular game Among Us with other streamers who have large followings in an effort to bring awareness to voting in America.[13]

ProfessionEdit

Professional streamers often combine gameplay with highly knowledgeable or dexterous play and entertaining commentary. They can generate sufficient revenue from viewer subscriptions and donations, as well as platform advertisements and sponsorships from eSports organizations.[14] An October 2017, a report from SuperData Research estimated that more people subscribed to video game streams and Let's Play videos on YouTube and Twitch than for all of HBO, Netflix, ESPN, and Hulu, combined.[15]

BenefitsEdit

As a profession, video game live streaming allows people to play the games they love while supporting their livelihood. As they gain bigger followings by streaming consistently and marketing, streamers are able to take advantage of the tools within most streaming platforms, such as subscriptions, donations, or advertisements, to support themselves.[16] Streamers can also become sponsored, or offer rewards in the form of competitions or games to the viewers in order to promote their channel and increase viewership and monetization. In addition, because streamers are their own bosses, their work schedule is very flexible and their success on their platform can give a strong sense of personal accomplishment.[17] Video game live streaming appeals to many for the ability to transform a hobby of playing video games into a profitable career of streaming them, in addition to the social benefits of being in a position of renown with a large viewership and semi-celebrity status.[17]

RisksEdit

Streamers run the risk of being victims of stalking, as is common with other public figures. For example, a teenage viewer showed up uninvited to a streamer's house and requested to live with him after having saved up for a one-way transcontinental flight.[18] Another risk to streamers is swatting, where someone makes a false report to police of serious criminal activity taking place at the streamer's residence, resulting in a raid by police, which is often captured live by the streaming service.[19] Such activity can create serious risk to the streamer, and has even resulted in deaths. In the 2017 Wichita swatting, police officers killed a man named Andrew Finch at his Kansas home. Finch was the unintended victim of the swatting after two Call of Duty players on the same team got into a heated argument about a US$1.50 bet. LAPD arrested 25-year-old serial-swatter Tyler Raj Barriss, known online as "SWAuTistic" and "GoredTutor36", in connection with the incident, who was later sentenced to 20 years in federal prison for the offense.[20][21][22][23]

Stream sniping is a common tactic to gain an advantage in a video game by watching the live stream of an enemy player.[24] Several video game developers have taken measures against stream sniping, and video games such as Rust and Fortnite now hide the names of popular streamers.[25][26] In November 2018, live streamer Ninja controversially threatened to report a player who he thought had killed him in Fortnite by stream sniping.[27] While stream sniping happens somewhat rarely for most streamers due to the countermeasures set by the games, as well as tactics set up by the streamers themselves like covering up the in-game map or setting a delay for the stream, there are cases, like for the popular Twitch streamer Forsen, where stream sniping plays a part in a streamer's entertainment and therefore the streamer allows it.[28]

EntryEdit

Players involved in eSports can get into streaming by using their popularity or by using their honed skills and in-depth game knowledge during their livestream.[17] People on YouTube or other social media platforms often become streamers as well to interact more with viewers. Other types of people that enter streaming include video game creators and people who write articles or blogs about video games.[17]

To build an audience, experienced streamers recommend that newer streamers stream a popular game because it is more likely to interest viewers.[3] Popular titles in the mid-2010s include League of Legends, Dota 2, first-person shooters such as Counter Strike: Global Offensive, and card games such as Hearthstone. Viewers are more interested in players who play and entertain well, offering jokes, pop culture, and current event commentary instead of repetitive gameplay. Streamers also recommend keeping a schedule so viewers know when to watch, self-promoting on social media, and holding giveaway contests to increase followers.[3]

Streaming equipmentEdit

Microphones are critical to live streaming because they allow streamers to vocally communicate with their audience.[29] Webcams are also useful because they allow the audience to see streamers and recognize them.[29] If using a webcam, many streamers have additional lighting to brighten up their faces when streaming to allow viewers to see them clearly.[29] An ethernet cable is highly recommended for streamers because it minimizes stuttering while streaming.[29]

Home video game consoles, such as the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, contain built-in streaming and optional camera integration for streamers to use. Streamers using computers use software such as Open Broadcaster Software or XSplit to upload a livestream to Twitch's servers.[3] For streamers using laptops, many gaming laptops are coming with new graphics cards and better connectivity to help streamers to stream their gaming experiences.[30]

List of video game live streaming websitesEdit

ActiveEdit

The following is a list of sites that primarily focuses on video game live streaming, including broadcasts of eSports competitions, in addition to other types of content.

Website Domain Launch Owner Note
Twitch twitch.tv June 6, 2011 Amazon
YouTube youtube.com/gaming Google
Facebook fb.gg Facebook
Steam Broadcast steamcommunity.com 2015 Valve
DLive dlive.tv September 2018
Trovo Live trovo.live March, 2020 Tencent[31]
Huya Live[32] huya.com November 24, 2014 Tencent (50.1%), JOYY (43%)[13]
Nimo TV nimo.tv May 3, 2018 Huya Live 's global site
DouYu[32] douyu.com 2014 Tencent (37%%)[33]
Bilibili[34] live.bilibili.com Tencent (Minority ownership)[8]
Kuaishou live.kuaishou.com Tencent (Minority ownership)[8]
YY[32] yy.com 2012 JOYY[13]
Caffeine caffeine.tv January 31, 2018
afreecaTV afreecatv.com May 11, 2005

DefunctEdit

Website Domain Launch Owner Note
Mixer mixer.com January 5, 2016 Microsoft Mixer has shut down on July 22, 2020. (Microsoft currently partners with Facebook)[35]
Smashcast smashcast.tv May, 2017 Defunct as of 2020
Azubu azubu.tv 2012 Shut down and was succeeded by Smashcast
Hitbox hitbox.tv October 2013 Acquired by Azubu and then succeeded by Smashcast

Legal issuesEdit

Live streaming of video games has many of the same legal issues that Let's Play videos may have. First and foremost, such videos can be considered a copyright violation, though is argued to be protected by fair use defenses. Streamers with larger audiences can also promote the game before its release by receiving a copy of the game from the developer to play on their platform, which runs the risk of violating ethical business practices if they stand to make a substantial amount of income from this promotion.[36]

Nintendo has generally taken a strong stance compared to other publishers for allowing their games to be streamed or recorded. Initially, they have used YouTube's Content ID system to register their games such that they can generate ad revenue from streaming videos and Let's Play videos.[37] By about 2014, Nintendo crafted its Nintendo Creators Program, which would allow players providing live streams and Let's Plays of Nintendo games that sign onto the program to receive some monetization of these videos through YouTube.[38][39] However, in September 2017, Nintendo changed the program specifically preventing affiliates from streaming video of Nintendo games, monetized or not, though non-affiliated accounts, and Let's Plays with commentary, remain unaffected.[40] However, on November 28, 2018, Nintendo announced that the program was shutting down.[41][42]

The playing of copyrighted music without proper permission may cause archived streams to be removed or muted, or streamers to be suspended, due to complaints under laws such as the U.S. Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, or automated content matching. More than 10 popular Twitch streamers, including Félix "xQc" Lengyel and Zachary "Sneaky" Scuderi, were banned for 24 hours for allegedly playing a song by Juice WRLD in June 2018. Some of the bans were lifted, with the artist's record label Interscope claiming that the ban was accidental.[43][44] Even public backlash from streamers after Twitch sent a letter to them in October 2020, threatening to remove videos or channels that had copyrighted music on them, did not stop streamers from facing punishments due to Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) violations.[45]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Further readingEdit