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Video game live streaming

Twitch, a famous game streaming platform

People who live stream their video game play, either by hobby or profession, are known as streamers. The practice became popular in the mid-2010s on sites such as Twitch and later, YouTube, Facebook and other services. By 2014, Twitch streams had more traffic than HBO's online service. Professional streamers often combine high-level play and entertaining commentary, and earn income from sponsors, subscriptions, and donations.

OverviewEdit

The practice of livestreaming video games became popular in the mid-2010s on sites such as Twitch.[1] By 2014, Twitch streams had more traffic than HBO's online service and eventually hastened the closure of Justin.tv, which Twitch had originally spun out of.[2] In 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with Twitch.[3] Other video-game oriented streaming websites include Mixer, which is owned by Microsoft, Smashcast.tv, which was formed after the merging of Azubu and Hitbox.tv, and the South Korea-based afreecaTV.

Streamers and viewers register for free accounts with a service which lets them interact with each other by name and subscribe to, or "follow", specific streamers. Home video game consoles, such as the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, contain built-in streaming and optional camera integration. Home computers use software such as Open Broadcaster Software or XSplit to upload a livestream to Twitch's servers.[2]

With advancements in the technology, new gaming laptops are coming ready with online streaming for games. Manufacturers are using new graphics cards and better quality connectivity for online gaming experience.[4]

Building an audience, CNET advises, is more difficult than setting up the software. Among other advice, game streamers recommend selecting a popular game, which is more likely to interest viewers than a rare title without a following. Popular titles in the mid-2010s include League of Legends, Dota 2, first-person shooters such as Counter Strike: Global Offensive, and card games such as Hearthstone. Viewers are more interested in players who play and entertain well, offering jokes, pop culture, and current event commentary instead of repetitive gameplay. Streamers also recommend keeping a schedule so viewers know when to watch, self-promotion on social media, and giveaway contests to build a follower count.[2]

ProfessionEdit

Professional streamers often combine gameplay with highly knowledgeable or dextrous play and entertaining commentary. They can generate sufficient revenue from viewer subscriptions and donations, as well as platform advertisements and sponsorships from eSports organizations.[5] An October 2017 report from SuperData Research estimated that more people subscribed to video game streams and Let's Play videos on YouTube and Twitch.tv than for all of HBO, Netflix, ESPN, and Hulu, combined.[6]

RisksEdit

Streamers run the risk of being victim to stalking, as with other publicly known individuals. For example, a teenage viewer showed up uninvited to a streamer's house and requested to live with him after having saved up for a one-way transcontinental flight.[7] Another risk to streamers is swatting, where someone makes a false report to police of serious criminal activity taking place at the streamer's residence, resulting in a raid by police, which is often captured live by the streaming service.[8] Such activity can create serious risk to the streamer, and has even resulted in deaths. In December 2017, Wichita police officers killed a man named Andrew Finch at his Kansas home in a reported swatting. Based on a series of screenshotted Twitter posts, the Wichita Eagle suggests that Finch was the unintended victim of the swatting after two Call of Duty players on the same team got into a heated argument about a US$1.50 bet. That same month, the LAPD arrested 25-year-old serial-swatter Tyler Raj Barriss, known online as "SWAuTistic" and "GoredTutor36", in connection with the incident.[9][10][11][12]

Stream sniping is a common tactic to gain an advantage in a video game by watching the live stream of an enemy player.[13] Several video game developers have taken measures against stream sniping, and video games such as Rust and Fortnite now hide the names of popular streamers.[14][15] In November 2018, live streamer Ninja controversially threatened to report a player who he thought had killed him in Fortnite by stream sniping.[16] While stream sniping happens somewhat rarely for most streamers due to the restrictions set by the games, as well as tactics set up by the streamers themselves like covering up the ingame map or setting a delay for the stream, there are cases where stream sniping plays a part in a streamer's entertainment and therefore the streamer does not set any restrictions and instead allows it. This is the case for the popular Twitch streamer Forsen.[17]

Legal issuesEdit

Live streaming of video games has many of the same legal issues that Let's Play videos may have. First and foremost, such videos can be considered a copyright violation, though is argued to be protected by fair use defenses.

Nintendo has generally taken a strong stance compared to other publishers for allowing their games to be streamed or recorded. Initially, they have used YouTube's Content ID system to register their games such that they can generate ad revenue from streaming videos and Let's Play videos.[18] By about 2014, Nintendo crafted its Nintendo Creators Program, which would allow players providing live streams and Let's Plays of Nintendo games that sign onto the program to receive some monetization of these videos through YouTube.[19][20] However, in September 2017, Nintendo changed the program specifically preventing affiliates from using streaming video of Nintendo games, monetized or not, though non-affiliated accounts, and Let's Plays with commentary, remain unaffected.[21] However, on November 28, 2018, Nintendo announced that the program was shutting down.[22][23]

The playing of copyrighted music without proper permission may cause archived streams to be removed or muted, or streamers to be suspended, due to complaints under laws such as the U.S. Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, or automated content matching. More than 10 popular Twitch streamers, including Félix "xQc" Lengyel and Zachary "Sneaky" Scuderi, were banned for 24 hours for allegedly playing a song by Juice WRLD in June 2018. Some of the bans were lifted, with the artist's record label Interscope claiming that the ban was accidental.[24][25]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Slotnik, Daniel E. (March 15, 2017). "Gamer's Death Pushes Risks of Live Streaming Into View". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  2. ^ a b c Graziano, Dan (September 4, 2014). "The complete guide to streaming games on Twitch". CNET. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  3. ^ Dredge, Stuart (August 26, 2015). "Google launches YouTube Gaming to challenge Amazon-owned Twitch". The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  4. ^ "Best Gaming Laptops 2019 Reviews by What Laptops". What Laptops Reviews. November 30, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  5. ^ Leslie, Callum (December 31, 2014). "Hearthstone players won more than $1 million in the game's first year". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016.
  6. ^ Bailey, Dustin (October 19, 2017). "Gaming videos are bigger than HBO, Netflix, and Hulu combined". PCGamesN. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  7. ^ D'Anastasio, Cecilia (May 2, 2017). "When Fans Take Their Love For Twitch Streamers Too Far". Kotaku. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  8. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/05/gaming-streamer-gets-swatted-as-online-griefing-enters-real-world
  9. ^ Manna, Nicole (December 29, 2017). "Call of Duty gaming community points to 'swatting' in deadly Wichita police shooting". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  10. ^ Darrah, Nicole (December 29, 2017). "Kansas police investigate whether fatal shooting was result of prank called 'swatting'". Fox News. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  11. ^ Sommerfeldt, Chris (December 29, 2017). "Kansas man shot to death by police was reportedly unintended victim of 'Call of Duty' 'swatting' prank". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 29, 2017.Sommerfeldt, Chris (December 29, 2017). "Kan. man killed by cops was victim of 'swatting' prank". NY Daily News.
  12. ^ "Kansas Man Killed In 'SWATting' Attack — Krebs on Security". krebsonsecurity.com. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  13. ^ Livingston, Christopher (August 9, 2017). "Streamers vs. stream-snipers: why cheaters will always prosper on Twitch". PC Gamer. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  14. ^ Grayson, Nathan (September 21, 2015). "Rust's Anti-Stream Sniping Mode Exists Because of Cheaters". Kotaku. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  15. ^ Grayson, Nathan (June 1, 2018). "Fortnite Players Blame Stream Snipers For Update That Hides Streamers' Names". Kotaku. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  16. ^ Asarch, Steven (November 11, 2018). "Streamer Ninja is in hot water for calling player IcyFive a stream sniper". Newsweek. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  17. ^ Grayson, Nathan. "Battlegrounds Streamer's Audience Loves His Loud, Obnoxious Stream Snipers". Kotaku. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  18. ^ Gera, Emily (May 16, 2013). "Nintendo claims ad revenue on user-generated YouTube videos". Polygon. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
  19. ^ Tolito, Stephan (June 24, 2013). "Nintendo's Turn For a 180? 'Let's Play' Drama Might Have Happy Ending". Kotaku. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  20. ^ Williams, Katie (May 27, 2014). "Nintendo Announces Affiliate Program for YouTube Let's Play Creators". IGN. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  21. ^ Alexander, Julia (September 29, 2017). "Nintendo restricts livestreaming games for YouTubers in Nintendo's partners program". Polygon. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  22. ^ Bankhurst, Adam (November 28, 2018). "Nintendo to End Its Creators Program in December". IGN. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  23. ^ Marshall, Cass (November 28, 2018). "The Nintendo Creators Program draws to a close this December". Polygon. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  24. ^ Grayson, Nathan (June 22, 2018). "Popular Twitch Streamers Temporarily Banned For Playing Copyrighted Music". Kotaku. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  25. ^ Goslin, Austen (June 22, 2018). "Popular Twitch streamers temporarily banned thanks to DMCA takedowns". Polygon. Retrieved June 29, 2018.

Further readingEdit