Counter-Strike: Global Offensive
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (CS:GO) is a multiplayer first-person shooter video game developed by Hidden Path Entertainment and Valve Corporation. It is the fourth game in the Counter-Strike series and was released for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3 in August 2012, with the Linux version released in September 2014. The game pits two teams against each other: the Terrorists and the Counter-Terrorists. Both sides are tasked with eliminating the other while also completing separate objectives, the Terrorists, depending on the game mode, must either plant the bomb or defend the hostages, while the Counter-Terrorists must either prevent the bomb from being planted, defuse the bomb, or rescue the hostages. There are six game modes, all of which have distinct characteristics specific to that mode.
|Counter-Strike: Global Offensive|
Global Offensive has matchmaking support that allows players to play on dedicated Valve servers, as well as allowing members of the community to host their own servers with custom maps and game modes. Global Offensive has a competitive scene, with Valve-sponsored tournaments being the premier competitive events for the game. Global Offensive received positive reviews from critics. The game was praised for its overall gameplay and faithfulness to the previous iterations in the series. Some of the early features were criticized, and while the console versions received positive reviews, reviewers believed there were obvious differences between the console and PC versions of the game.
Global Offensive, like prior games in the Counter-Strike series, is an objective-based, multiplayer first-person shooter. Two opposing teams, known as the Terrorists and the Counter Terrorists, compete in game modes to complete objectives, such as securing a location to plant or defuse a bomb and rescuing or guarding hostages. At the end of each round, players are rewarded based on their individual performance with in-game currency to spend on more powerful weapons in subsequent rounds. Winning rounds results in more money than losing, and completing objectives such as killing enemy players gives cash bonuses. Uncooperative actions, such as killing teammates, results in a penalty.
There are five categories of purchasable weapons, four being guns and the final being utilities: rifles, sub-machine guns (SMGs), heavy, pistols, and grenades. All guns have different stats and all grenade types have different in-game effects. The hand grenade deals damage in a small radius, the smoke grenade temporarily places a smoke screen, the decoy grenade emulates the player's primary gun, the flashbang temporarily blinds players who look at it explode, and the Molotov cocktail and Incendiary Grenade set a small radius of the map on fire for a short period of time. Alongside all of these weapons, the Zeus x27, a taser, can also be purchased.
Global Offensive contains eight main game modes: Competitive, Casual, Deathmatch, Arms Race, Demolition, Wingman, Flying Scoutsman, and Weapons Course. Competitive mode pits competitive players against each other in two teams of five and roughly 45-minute matches. The Casual and Deathmatch modes are less serious than the Competitive modes, and do not register friendly fire against or collision with other players on the player's team. Both are primarily used for practice. Arms Race mode is similar to the "Gun Game" mod for other games in the series. It consists of players racing to upgrade their guns via killing enemies. Demolition mode is again like the "Gun Game" mod though players are able to plant and defuse the bomb too, and only receive a gun upgrade at the start of the round if they killed an enemy the last round. Wingman is a two-on-two bomb defusal game-mode taking place over fifteen rounds. It is similar to Competitive in the sense that players are paired based on their skill levels. Flying Scoutsman is a low-gravity mode in which players are equipped only with a SSG 08 and a knife. The Flying Scoutsman, Demolition, and Arms Race game modes are placed in the War Games tab. The Weapons Course is an offline practice mode designed to help new players learn how to use grenades and guns, and learning how to defuse and plant the bomb. Apart from the Weapons Course, all seven other game modes can be played online or offline.
Matchmaking is supported for all online game modes and is managed through the Steam software, and runs Valve Anti-Cheat to prevent cheating. In the competitive modes, players are encouraged to act more cautiously in Global Offensive than in most other multiplayer games due to the inability to respawn once killed. When playing competitively, each player has a specific rank based on their skill level and is paired up with players of around the same skill level. Another form of matchmaking, known as "Prime", permits matches to be played only with other users with the Prime feature which results in more equal matches as there are fewer "smurfs". The PC version of Global Offensive supports private dedicated servers that players may connect to through the community server menu in-game. These servers may be heavily modified and can drastically differ from the base game modes. There have been many community made mods for the game, one of the more popular ones being known as "kz", a mod which allows players to complete obstacle courses that require advanced strafing and jumping techniques.
Over time, the community developed strategies for competitive play. When trying to capture a site, a common strategy used is called "rushing". Rushing is when a player or group of players move into a choke-point on the map as fast as possible. This strategy is used commonly when one of the teams has a lack of money to buy weapons, or if there is a lack of time on the clock and the bomb needs to be planted or defused. Another common strategy for taking a site is using predetermined smoke grenades and flash bangs to hinder enemies' sight.
Global Offensive saw the introduction of new weapons and equipment not seen in previous installments, most notably the firebomb for each side (referred to as a Molotov on the Terrorist side and as an Incendiary Grenade on the Counter-Terrorist side). These temporarily cover a small area in fire, dealing damage to anyone passing through. Global Offensive also saw the introduction of a range of new guns, including shotguns, pistols and sub-machine guns, along with a taser. Two new game modes, Arms Race and Demolition, both based on mods for previous iterations in the series, were added alongside a total of eight new maps for said game modes. Global Offensive saw the removal of features seen in previous iterations of the series. The ability to freely explore the map when dead was removed from many modes, though server hosts are able to change this setting. The unsilenced USP and the MP5 were replaced by other guns. The tactical shield was also removed. The concept of sprays were not present in the game until the addition of consumable items called graffiti.
Development and release
|Counter-Strike: A Brief History, a YouTube video published by Valve Corporation on January 23, 2017|
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive is the sequel to the popular first-person shooter Counter-Strike: Source, developed by Valve Corporation. Global Offensive's development began when Hidden Path Entertainment attempted to port Counter-Strike: Source onto video game consoles, prior to the end of their lifespan. During the development, Valve saw the opportunity to turn the port into a full game and expand on the predecessor's gameplay. Global Offensive began development in March 2010, and was revealed to the public on August 12, 2011. The closed beta started on November 30, 2011, and was initially restricted to around ten thousand people who attended received a key at events intended to showcase Global Offensive. After issues such as client and server stability were addressed, the beta was opened up to progressively more people, and at E3 2012, Valve announced that Global Offensive would be released on August 21, 2012, with the open beta starting roughly a month before that. Before the public beta, Valve invited professional Counter-Strike players to play-test the game and give feedback.
There were plans for cross-platform multiplayer between Windows, OS X, Linux, and PlayStation 3 players, but was ultimately limited to include only the PC versions because of the difference in update frequency between the systems. On August 21, 2012, the official version was released on all platforms besides Linux, which would not be released until September 23.
Since the official release of Global Offensive, Valve has continued to update the game in multiple ways, including introducing new maps and weapons, and releasing balancing changes. One of the major additions to the game post-release was the "Arms Deal" update. Released on August 13, 2013, it added cosmetic weapon finishes, dubbed as skins. These items were then obtainable by unboxing cases using in-game keys, of which were only accessible through in-game microtransactions. They can also be obtained in similar ways to the items in Team Fortress 2 and Dota 2 in the sense that they are dropped randomly. Global Offensive has Steam Workshop support, allowing users to upload user-created content, such as maps, weapon finishes and custom gameplay scenarios. Popular skins are added to the game and are obtainable by unboxing them from in-game cases. The creators of the skins are paid when their item is added to a case. These skins helped form a virtual economy for Global Offensive.
Events called "Operations" are held occasionally and can be accessed through purchasable expansion packs in the form of "operation passes." These passes grant access to operation objectives which are spread over different game modes, such as Arms Race and Deathmatch, or in operation-specific game modes, first seen in Operation Hydra, released in May 2017. Completing these challenges rewards the player with XP and the ability to upgrade the operation "coin." The maps in the operations are community made, meaning some of the revenue made goes towards the map designers.
An update in October 2014 added "music kits", which replace the default in-game music with music from soundtrack artists commissioned by Valve. If a player with a music kit equipped becomes the round's most valuable player, their music will play for others at the end of the round. There is a feature that allows kits to be borrowed, and kits can be sold and exchanged through the Community Market.
2016 saw the redevelopment of two original Counter-Strike maps, as well as the introduction of Prime matchmaking and additional items. As a part of the Operation Wildfire promotion, Nuke was remake and re-released in February with the primary goals being to balance the map and make it more aesthetically pleasing. In April, Prime matchmaking was added to the game. To partake in this mode, the user had to have a verified phone number connected to their account. It was introduced in an attempt to prevent legitimate players from playing with cheaters or high-skilled players playing on alternative, lower ranked accounts, a practice colloquially known as "smurfing". Inferno, another original map, was re-released in October. Valve said they had three reasons behind the remake: "to improve visibility; to make it easier to move around in groups; and to tune it with player feedback." Also in October, consumable items called graffiti were added to the game. These items replaced a feature present in the previous iterations of the series called sprays. Previously, players could customize their sprays. Graffiti ideas can be uploaded to the Steam Workshop in the similar manner as gun skins and players can buy and trade the existing graffiti in game. One month later, glove skins were added.
October 2017 saw the redesign of Dust II, one of the most iconic maps in the game. Placed into the "beta depot" in early October, it was released for testing a few days later, In November, an update to Competitive matchmaking was announced. Dubbed the "Trust Factor", it meant a player's "Trust Factor" would be calculated through both in-game and Steam-wide actions. Factors such as playtime on Global Offensive, times a user has been reported for cheating, playtime on other Steam games, and other behaviors hidden by Valve are taken into consideration when a user's "Trust Factor" is developed. This was done in an attempt to let the community bond back together in matchmaking, as Prime matchmaking separated Prime and non-Prime players from each other. Valve will not let users view their "Trust Factor" or reveal all of the factors deciding one's "Trust".
Since the game's release, Global Offensive influenced accessories have been released. An official store is available which sells collectible products, including a real-life version of the "Five Year Veteran Coin". Companies such as SteelSeries have partnered with Valve to promote real life peripherals, including headsets, mice and mouse pads.
Gambling and third-party betting
Following the introduction of the Arms Deal update in August 2013, skins formed a virtual economy due to their rarity and other high-value factors that influenced their desirability. Due to this, the creation of a number of skin trading sites enabled by the Steamworks API were created. Some of these sites began to offer gambling functionality, allowing users to bet on the outcome of professional matches with skins. In June and July 2016, two formal lawsuits were filed against these gambling sites and Valve, stating that these encourage underage gambling and undisclosed promotion by some streamers. Valve in turn began to take steps to prevent these sites from using Steamworks for gambling purposes, and several of these sites ceased operating as a result.
|Current season, competition or edition:
ELEAGUE Major: Boston 2018
|No. of teams||24|
|Most titles||Fnatic (3)|
|TV partner(s)||Twitch.tv, ESL, MLG.tv, TBS|
The Global Offensive professional scene consists tournaments hosted by third-party organisations and Valve-organised or co-sponsored tournaments, referred to as majors. Majors have larger prize pools; originally set at $250,000, the prize pools for majors have risen, with MLG Columbus 2016 having the first pool of $1,000,000. As the game and the scene has grown in popularity, companies, including WME/IMG and Turner Broadcasting, began to televise Global Offensive professional games, with the first being ELEAGUE Major 2017, held in the Fox Theatre and broadcast on US cable television network TBS in 2016.
In 2014, the "first large match fixing scandal" in the Global Offensive community took place, where team iBuyPower purposefully lost a match against NetCodeGuides.com. The team was later banned by Valve, though ESL unbanned the team from their tournaments in 2017. They are still unable to play in Majors.
In October 2015, a number of professional eSports organization with Counter-Strike teams announced the formation of a trade union that set several demands for future tournament attendance. The announcement was a publicly posted email written by Natus Vincere CEO Alexander Kokhanovsky that was sent to organizers of major esports events. Among these demands was notice that teams part of the union would not attend a tournament with a prize pool of less than $75,000 for Counter-Strike: Global Offensive and $100,000 for Dota 2. Among the teams that were announced were Natus Vincere, Team Liquid, Counter Logic Gaming, Cloud9, Virtus.pro, Team SoloMid, Fnatic, Ninjas in Pyjamas, Titan, and Team EnVyUs. In 2016, the World eSports Association (WESA) was founded by ESL and many eSports teams, including Fnatic, Natus Vincere, Team EnVyUs, and FaZe Clan, though the latter-most left soon after its formation. In the announcement statement, WESA said they would "further professionalize eSports by introducing elements of player representation, standardized regulations, and revenue sharing for teams". Alongside this, they also plan to help the fans and organizers by "seeking to create predictable schedules".
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive received generally positive reception from critics, according to review aggregator Metacritic. Since the game's release, Global Offensive has been steadily at the top of the Steam charts in terms of most concurrent players. The game won the fan's choice "eSports Game of the Year" award at The Game Awards 2015.
Reviewers praised Global Offensive's faithfulness to the previous game, Counter-Strike: Source, with Allistair Pinsof of Destructoid rating the game very highly and saying that Global Offensive is a "polished and better looking" version of the game. GameSpot writer Eric Neigher said in their review that this game stays true to its predecessors by adding lots of content, but tweaking small amounts and retaining their best features. The reviewers at gamesTM wrote in their review that the game stood "as a glowing reminder that quality game design is rewarded in longevity and variety." They also continued onto congratulate Valve that they had not only updated the popular game, but "had completely outclassed its contemporaries." Martin Gaston of Videogamer.com wrote that although he was too old to truly enjoy the game, he believed that it was a "fine installment of one of the best games ever made," and that some people will experience "what will become the definitive moments of their gaming lives." Xav de Matos for Engadget wrote that for the price, "Global Offensive is a great extension to that legacy." Mitch Dyer from IGN said that "Global Offensive is definitely a Counter-Strike sequel – it looks and feels familiar, with minor tweaks here and there to help balance old issues and surprise longtime players."
Some of the features in the early releases of the game were criticized by reviewers. GameSpy's Mike Sharkey did not believe that the new content added was good, pointing out that the game provides very little in the way of new content; and that the Elo rating system seems ineffective, having many players of various skill levels all playing at once throughout the early days of release. Evan Lahti from PC Gamer noted that the majority of new official maps in Global Offensive were only for Arms Race or Demolition game modes; while Classic maps were only given "smart adjustments" to minor details. Pinsof thought that in its release state, it would not be the final version of the game to be released. Paul Goodman said that long-time fans of the series, Global Offensive will start to show the game's age, saying that he "couldn't help but feel that I had been there and done that a dozen times before."
Although reviewers liked the console versions of the game, they believed there were obvious differences between the PC and console versions. Neigher believed that due playing with thumbsticks and shoulder buttons "you definitely won't be getting the ultimate CS:GO experience." Ron Vorstermans for Gamer.nl said that the PC version is there to play at a higher competitive level, though he went on to say that the console versions are not inferior because of the PC's superiority for competition. Dyer wrote that the PlayStation 3 version was at an advantage to the Xbox version because of the ability to connect a keyboard and mouse to the system. He continued on to say that the user-interface on both of the consoles was as good as the PC one. Mark Langshaw of Digital Spy opined that although the game has support for the PlayStation Move, using it only makes the "already unforgiving game all the more challenging."
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