This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Virtual reality (VR) is a computer technology that uses Virtual reality headsets, sometimes in combination with physical spaces or multi-projected environments, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulates a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, and with high quality VR move about in it and interact with virtual features or items. VR headsets are head-mounted goggles with a screen in front of the eyes. Programs may include audio and sounds through speakers or headphones.
VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a game controller or other devices are known as haptic systems. This tactile information is generally known as force feedback in medical, video gaming and military training applications. Virtual reality also refers to remote communication environments which provide a virtual presence of users with through telepresence and telexistence or the use of a virtual artifact (VA). The immersive environment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience grounded in reality or sci-fi. Augmented reality systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset, or through a smartphone or tablet device.
Etymology and terminologyEdit
In 1938, Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double. The English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s. The term "virtual reality" was used in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 science fiction novel by Damien Broderick. "Virtual" has had the meaning "being something in essence or effect, though not actually or in fact" since the mid-1400s, "...probably via sense of "capable of producing a certain effect" (early 1400s)". The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959.
Virtual reality shares some elements with "augmented reality" (or AR). AR is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software. The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene typically enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. Some AR systems use a camera to capture the user's surroundings or some type of display screen which the user looks at (e.g., Microsoft's HoloLens, Magic Leap).
The Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), first introduced in 1994, was intended for the development of "virtual worlds" without dependency on headsets. The Web3D consortium was subsequently founded in 1997 for the development of industry standards for web-based 3D graphics. The consortium subsequently developed X3D from the VRML framework as an archival, open-source standard for web-based distribution of VR content.
All modern VR displays are based on technology developed for smartphones including: gyroscopes and motion sensors for tracking head, hand, and body positions; small HD screens for stereoscopic displays; and small, lightweight and fast processors. These components led to relative affordability for independent VR developers, and lead to the 2012 Oculus Rift kickstarter offering the first independently developed VR headset.
Independent production of VR images and video has increased by the development of omnidirectional cameras, also known as 360-degree cameras or VR cameras, that have the ability to record in all directions, although at low-resolutions or in highly compressed formats for online streaming. In contrast, photogrammetry is increasingly used to combine several high-resolution photographs for the creation of detailed 3D objects and environments in VR applications.
Before the 1950sEdit
The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed, partly because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence. Elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality. The first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. Stanley G. Weinbaum's 1935 short story "Pygmalion's Spectacles" describes a goggle-based virtual reality system with holographic recording of fictional experiences, including smell and touch.
Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in 1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device. Heilig also developed what he referred to as the "Telesphere Mask" (patented in 1960). The patent application described the device as "a telescopic television apparatus for individual use...The spectator is given a complete sensation of reality, i.e. moving three dimensional images which may be in colour, with 100% peripheral vision, binaural sound, scents and air breezes".
Also notable among the earlier hypermedia and virtual reality systems was the Aspen Movie Map, which was created at MIT in 1978. The program was a crude virtual simulation of Aspen, Colorado in which users could wander the streets in one of the three modes: summer, winter, and polygons. The first two were based on photographs—the researchers actually photographed every possible movement through the city's street grid in both seasons—and the third was a basic 3-D model of the city. Atari founded a research lab for virtual reality in 1982, but the lab was closed after two years due to Atari Shock (North American video game crash of 1983). However, its hired employees, such as Tom Zimmerman, Scott Fisher, Jaron Lanier and Brenda Laurel, kept their research and development on VR-related technologies. By the 1980s the term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had founded the company VPL Research in 1985. VPL Research has developed several VR devices like the Data Glove, the Eye Phone, and the Audio Sphere. VPL licensed the Data Glove technology to Mattel, which used it to make an accessory known as the Power Glove. While the Power Glove was hard to use and not popular, at US$75, it was an early affordable VR device.
The VR industry mainly provided VR devices for medical, flight simulation, automobile industry design, and military training purposes from 1970 to 1990.
In 1991, Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin and Thomas A. DeFanti from the Electronic Visualization Laboratory created the first cubic immersive room, The Cave. Developed as Cruz-Neira's PhD thesis, it involved a multi-projected environment, similar to the holodeck, allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to others in the room.
In 1992 researcher Louis Rosenberg created the Virtual Fixtures system at the U.S. Air Force’s Armstrong Labs using a full upper-body exoskeleton, enabling a physically realistic virtual reality in 3D. The system enabled the overlay of physically real 3D virtual objects registered with a user's direct view of the real world, producing the first true augmented reality experience enabling sight, sound, and touch.
The 1990s saw the first widespread commercial releases of consumer headsets. In 1991, Sega announced the Sega VR headset for arcade games and the Mega Drive console. It used LCD screens in the visor, stereo headphones, and inertial sensors that allowed the system to track and react to the movements of the user's head. In the same year, Virtuality launched and went on to become the first mass-produced, networked, multiplayer VR entertainment system. It was released in many countries, including a dedicated VR arcade at Embarcadero Center in San Francisco. Costing up to $73,000 per multi-pod Virtuality system, they featured headsets and exoskeleton gloves that gave one of the first "immersive" VR experiences. Antonio Medina, a MIT graduate and NASA scientist, designed a virtual reality system to "drive" Mars rovers from Earth in apparent real time despite the substantial delay of Mars-Earth-Mars signals.
In 1991, Computer Gaming World predicted "Affordable VR by 1994". By 1994, Sega released the Sega VR-1 motion simulator arcade attraction, in SegaWorld amusement arcades. It was able to track head movement and featured 3D polygon graphics in stereoscopic 3D, powered by the Sega Model 1 arcade system board. Also in 1994 Apple released QuickTime VR, which, despite using the term "VR", was unable to represent virtual reality, and instead displayed 360 photographic panoramas.
The Virtual Boy was created by Nintendo and was released in Japan on July 21, 1995 and in North America on August 15, 1995. Also in 1995, a group in Seattle created public demonstrations of a "CAVE-like" 270 degree immersive projection room called the Virtual Environment Theater, produced by entrepreneurs Chet Dagit and Bob Jacobson. The same system was shown in 1996 in tradeshow exhibits sponsored by Netscape Communications. Forte released the VFX1, a PC-powered virtual reality headset in 1995, which was supported by games including Descent, Star Wars: Dark Forces, System Shock and Quake.
In 1999, entrepreneur Philip Rosedale formed Linden Lab with an initial focus on the development of VR hardware. In its earliest form, the company struggled to produce a commercial version of "The Rig", which was realized in prototype form as a clunky steel contraption with several computer monitors that users could wear on their shoulders. The concept was later adapted into the personal computer-based, 3D virtual world Second Life.
In 2001, SAS3 or SAS Cube became the first PC based cubic room, developed by Z-A Production (Maurice Benayoun, David Nahon), Barco, Clarté, installed in Laval France in April 2001. The SAS library gave birth to Virtools VRPack. By 2007, Google introduced Street View, a service that shows panoramic views of an increasing number of worldwide positions such as roads, indoor buildings and rural areas. It also features a stereoscopic 3D mode, introduced in 2010.
In 2010, Palmer Luckey designed the first prototype of the Oculus Rift. This prototype, built on a shell of another virtual reality headset, was only capable of rotational tracking. However, it boasted a 90-degree field of vision that was previously unseen in the consumer market at the time. This initial design would later serve as a basis from which the later designs came.
In 2013, Valve discovered and freely shared the breakthrough of low-persistence displays which make lag-free and smear-free display of VR content possible. This was adopted by Oculus and was used in all their future headsets.
In early 2014, Valve showed off their SteamSight prototype, the precursor to both consumer headsets released in 2016. It shared major features with the consumer headsets including separate 1K displays per eye, low persistence, positional tracking over a large area, and fresnel lenses.
On March 25, 2014, Facebook purchased Oculus VR for $2 billion. This purchase occurred before any of the devices ordered through Oculus' 2012 Kickstarter had shipped. In that same month, Sony announced Project Morpheus (its code name for PlayStation VR), a virtual reality headset for the PlayStation 4 video game console. Google announces Cardboard, a do-it-yourself stereoscopic viewer for smartphones. The user places their smartphone in the cardboard holder, which they wear on their head. In 2015, the Kickstarter campaign for Gloveone, a pair of gloves providing motion tracking and haptic feedback, was successfully funded, with over $150,000 in contributions.
In February–March 2015, HTC and Valve Corporation announced the virtual reality headset HTC Vive and controllers. The set included tracking technology called Lighthouse, which utilized wall-mounted "base stations" for positional tracking using infrared light.
By 2016 there were at least 230 companies developing VR-related products. Facebook has 400 employees focused on VR development; Google, Apple, Amazon, Microsoft, Sony and Samsung all had dedicated AR and VR groups. Dynamic binaural audio was common to most headsets released that year. However, haptic interfaces were not well developed, and most hardware packages incorporated button-operated handsets for touch-based interactivity. Visually, displays were still of a low-enough resolution and frame-rate that images were still identifiable as virtual. On April 5, 2016, HTC shipped its first units of the HTC VIVE SteamVR headset. This marked the first major commercial release of sensor-based tracking, allowing for free movement of users within a defined space.
In early 2017, a patent filed by Sony showed they were developing a similar location tracking technology to the VIVE for PlayStation VR, with the potential for the development of a wireless headset.
||This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Several virtual reality head mounted displays (HMD) were released for gaming during the early-mid 1990s. These included the Virtual Boy developed by Nintendo, the iGlasses developed by Virtual I-O, the Cybermaxx developed by Victormaxx and the VFX1 Headgear developed by Forte Technologies. Other modern examples of narrow VR for gaming include the Wii Remote, the Kinect, and the PlayStation Move/PlayStation Eye, all of which track and send motion input of the players to the game console somewhat accurately.
Commercial tethered headsets released for VR gaming include the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive. Systems in development include Sony's PlayStation VR, requiring a PlayStation instead of a PC to run; the StarVR; FOVE; and the Magic Leap.
Following the widespread release of commercial VR headsets in the mid-2010s, several VR-specific and VR versions of popular videogames have been released. Guild Software's Vendetta Online was widely reported as the first MMORPG to support the Oculus Rift, making it potentially the first persistent online world with native support for a consumer virtual reality headset. Since 2013, there have been several virtual reality devices that seek to enter the market to complement Oculus Rift to enhance the game experience. One, Virtuix Omni, is based on the ability to move in a three dimensional environment through an omnidirectional treadmill. On April 27, 2016, Mojang announced that the popular children's video game Minecraft was playable on the Gear VR. A separate version was released to the Oculus Store for use with the Gear VR, similar to the Pocket Edition of Minecraft.
Cinema and entertainmentEdit
Films produced for VR permit the audience to view a 360 degree environment in every scene. Production companies, such as Fox Searchlight Pictures and Skybound, utilize VR cameras to produce films and series that are interactive in VR. Pornographic studios such as Naughty America, BaDoinkVR and Kink have applied VR into their products since late 2015 or early 2016. The clips and videos are shot from an angle that resembles POV-style porn.
In September 2016, two announcements were made for broadcast of sporting events in VR. Agon announced that the upcoming World Chess Championship match between Magnus Carlsen and Sergey Karjakin, scheduled for that November, would be "the first in any sport to be broadcast in 360-degree virtual reality." This title was taken by Fox Sports' Fox Sports VR, a series of virtual reality broadcasts consisting mainly of Fox College Football broadcasts. The telecasts (which use roughly 180 degrees of rotation) were made available through smartphone apps and head-mounted displays, through a TV Everywhere paywall. The first VR telecast, which featured Oklahoma hosting Ohio State, took place September 17.
Since 2015, virtual reality has been installed onto a number of roller coasters and theme parks, including Galactica at Alton Towers, The New Revolution at Six Flags Magic Mountain and Alpenexpress at Europapark, amongst others. The Void is a virtual reality theme park in Pleasant Grove, Utah that has attractions where, by using virtual reality, AR and customized mechanical rooms, an illusion of tangible reality is created by the use of multiple senses.
Healthcare and clinical therapiesEdit
According to a recent report from Goldman Sachs, healthcare could be one of the next markets that VR/AR disrupts. Already, VR devices are being used in clinical therapy, and the results are significant.
Anxiety disorder treatmentEdit
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is a form of exposure therapy for treating anxiety disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias. Studies have indicated that when VRET is combined with other forms of behavioral therapy, patients experience a reduction of symptoms. In some cases, patients no longer meet the DSM-V criteria for PTSD after a series of treatments with VRET.
Immersive VR has been studied for acute pain management, on the theory that it may distract people, reducing their experience of pain. Researchers theorize that immersive VR helps with pain reduction by distracting the mind and flooding sensories with a positive experience.
Education and trainingEdit
VR is used to provide learners with a virtual environment where they can develop their skills without the real-world consequences of failing.
Thomas A. Furness III was one of the first to develop the use of VR for military training when, in 1982, he presented the Air Force with a working model of his virtual flight simulator the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator (VCASS). The second phase of his project, which he called the "Super Cockpit", was even more advanced, with high resolution graphics (for the time) and a responsive display. Furness III is often credited as a pioneer in virtual reality for this research. The Ministry of Defense in the United Kingdom has been using VR in military training since the 1980s. The United States military announced the Dismounted Soldier Training System in 2012. It was cited as the first fully immersive military VR training system.
NASA has used VR technology for twenty years. Most notable is their use of immersive VR to train astronauts while they are still on Earth. Such applications of VR simulations include exposure to zero-gravity work environments and training on how to spacewalk. Astronauts can even simulate what it is like to work with tools in space while using low cost 3D printed mock up tools.
Flight and vehicular applicationsEdit
Flight simulators are a form of VR pilot training. They can range from a fully enclosed module to a series of computer monitors providing the pilot's point of view. By the same token, virtual driving simulations are used to train tank drivers on the basics before allowing them to operate the real vehicle. Similar principles are applied in truck driving simulators for specialized vehicles such as firetrucks. As these drivers often have less opportunity for real-world experience, VR training provides additional training time.
VR technology has many useful applications in the medical field. Simulated surgeries allow surgeons to practice their technical skills without any risk to patients. Numerous studies have shown that physicians who receive surgical training via VR simulations improve dexterity and performance in the operating room significantly more than control groups. Through VR, medical students and novice surgeons have the ability to view and experience complex surgeries without stepping into the operating room. On April 14, 2016, Shafi Ahmed was the first surgeon to broadcast an operation in virtual reality; viewers followed the surgery in real time from the surgeon's perspective. The VR technology allowed viewers to explore the full range of activities in the operating room as it was streamed by a 4K 360fly camera.
David Em was the first fine artist to create navigable virtual worlds in the 1970s. His early work was done on mainframes at Information International, Inc., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology. Jeffrey Shaw explored the potential of VR in fine arts with early works like Legible City (1989), Virtual Museum (1991), and Golden Calf (1994).
Virtopia was the first VR Artwork to be premièred at a film festival. Created by artist/researcher Jacquelyn Ford Morie with researcher Mike Goslin, it debuted at the 1992 Florida Film Festival. Subsequent screenings of a more developed version of the project were at the 1993 Florida Film Festival and at SIGGRAPH 1994's emerging tech venue, The Edge. Morie was one of the first artists to focus on emotional content in VR experiences.
Canadian artist Char Davies created immersive VR art pieces Osmose (1995) and Ephémère (1998). Maurice Benayoun's work introduced metaphorical, philosophical or political content, combining VR, network, generation and intelligent agents, in works like Is God Flat? (1994), "Is the Devil Curved?" (1995), The Tunnel under the Atlantic (1995), and World Skin, a Photo Safari in the Land of War (1997). Other pioneering artists working in VR have include Knowbotic Research, Rebecca Allen and Perry Hoberman. In 2016, the first project in Poland called The Abakanowicz Art Room was realized – it was documentation of the art office Magdalena Abakanowicz made by Jarosław Pijarowski and Paweł Komorowski.
The use of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) data was limited by 2D monitors and paper printouts until the mid-to-late 1990s, when video projectors, 3D tracking, and computer technology enabled a renaissance in the use 3D CAD data in virtual reality environments. With the use of active shutter glasses and multi-surface projection units immersive engineering was made possible by companies like VRcom and IC.IDO. Virtual reality has been used in automotive, aerospace, and ground transportation original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in their product engineering and manufacturing engineering . Virtual reality adds more dimensions to virtual prototyping, product building, assembly, service, performance use-cases. This enables engineers from different disciplines to view their design as its final product. Engineers can view the virtual bridge, building or other structure from any angle. As well, some computer models allow engineers to test their structure's resistance to winds, weight, and other elements. Immersive VR engineering systems enable engineers to see virtual prototypes prior to the availability of any physical prototypes.
Virtual reality in occupational safety and healthEdit
VR simulates real workplaces for occupational safety and health purposes. Information and projection technology are used to produce a virtual, three-dimensional, dynamic work environment. Within work scenarios for example some parts of a machine move of their own accord while others can be moved by human operators. Perspective, angle of view, and acoustic and haptic properties change according to where the person is standing and how he or she moves relative to the environment. VR technology allows human information processing close to real life situations. VR enables all phases of a product life cycle, from design, through use, up to disposal, to be simulated, analysed and optimised. VR can be used for OSH purposes to:
- Review and improve the usability of products and processes whilst their development and design are still in progress. This enables errors in development and the need for subsequent modifications to be avoided.
- Systematically and empirically review design solutions for the human-system interfaces and their influence upon human behaviour. This reduces the need for physical modifications to machinery, and for extensive field studies.
- Safely test potentially hazardous products, processes and safety concepts. This avoids actual hazards during the study of human-system interaction.
- Identify cause-effect relationships following accidents on and involving products. This saves material, personnel, time and financial outlay associated with in-situ testing.
Heritage and archaeologyEdit
The first use of a VR presentation in a heritage application was in 1994, when a museum visitor interpretation provided an interactive "walk-through" of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550. This consisted of a computer controlled laserdisc-based system designed by British-based engineer Colin Johnson. The system was featured in a conference held by the British Museum in November 1994, and in the subsequent technical paper, Imaging the Past – Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology. Virtual reality enables heritage sites to be recreated extremely accurately, so that the recreations can be published in various media. The original sites are often inaccessible to the public or, due to the poor state of their preservation, hard to picture. This technology can be used to develop virtual replicas of caves, natural environment, old towns, monuments, sculptures and archaeological elements.
Architectural and urban designEdit
One of the first recorded uses of virtual reality in architecture was in the late 1980s when the University of North Carolina modeled its Sitterman Hall, home of its computer science department, in a virtual environment.
By 2010, VR programs were developed for urban regeneration, planning and transportation projects.
Music and concertsEdit
VR has the possibility of changing how we view live music by allowing the audience to be right up front their band or to attend virtual concerts like Coachella. Virtual reality can also transform music videos by making them more intense and powerful. Music visualization also has the potential to be changed by VR with multiple apps being created for the Oculus and the HTC Vive although some people dubious as to how popular these will be. Virtual reality is also used in visual music applications.
On May 3, 2016, Norwegian pop band a-ha gave a multimedia performance in collaboration with Void, a Norwegian computational design studio. The stereoscopic VR-experience was made available for Android users directly through a YouTube app and also made available for iPhone users and other platforms.
Virtual reality presents a unique opportunity for advertisers to reach a completely immersed audience. Companies such as Paramount Pictures, Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Disney, The North Face and Innis & Gunn have applied VR into marketing campaigns. Non-profit organizations such as Amnesty International, UNICEF, and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) have used virtual reality to bring potential supporters closer to their work, effectively bringing distant social, political and environmental issues and projects to members of the public in immersive ways not possible with traditional media. Panoramic 360 views of conflict in Syria and face to face encounters with CGI tigers in Nepal have been used in experiential activations and shared online for educational and fundraising purposes.
Lowe's, IKEA, Wayfair and other retailers have developed systems that allow their products to be seen in virtual reality, to give consumers a better idea of how the product will fit into their home, or to allow the consumer to get a better look at the product from home. Consumers looking at digital photos of the products can "turn" the product around virtually, and see it from the side or the back.
Several companies develop software or services that allow architectural design firms and real estate clients to tour virtual models of proposed building designs. During the design process, architects can use VR to experience the designs they are working on before they are built. Seeing a design in VR can give architect a correct sense of scale and proportion. VR models can replace physical miniatures to demonstrate a design to clients or the public. Developers and owners can create VR model of built spaces that allow potential buyers or tenants to tour a space in VR, even if real-life circumstances make a physical tour unfeasible.
In fiction and popular cultureEdit
There have been many novels that reference and describe forms of virtual reality. Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash (1992) and Ernest Cline's Ready Player One (2011) are novels that have been influential for VR engineers working in the early 21st century.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Cyberpunks viewed the technology as a potential means for social change. The recreational drug subculture praised virtual reality not only as a new art form, but as an entirely new frontier.
Concerns and challengesEdit
Virtual reality technology faces a number of challenges, including health and safety, privacy and technical issues. Long-term effects of virtual reality on vision and neurological development are unknown; users might become disoriented in a purely virtual environment, causing balance issues; computer latency might affect the simulation, providing a less-than-satisfactory end-user experience; navigating the non-virtual environment (if the user is not confined to a limited area) might prove dangerous without external sensory information. There have been rising concerns that with the advent of virtual reality, some users may experience virtual reality addiction. From an economic and financial perspective, early entrants to the virtual reality market may spend significant amount of time and money on the technology. If it is not adopted by enough customers, the investment will not pay off.
Health and safetyEdit
There are many health and safety considerations of virtual reality. Most virtual reality systems come with consumer warnings, including: seizures; developmental issues in children; trip-and-fall and collision warnings; discomfort; repetitive stress injury; and interference with medical devices.
A number of unwanted symptoms have been caused by prolonged use of virtual reality, and these may have slowed proliferation of the technology. Virtual reality sickness (also known as cybersickness) occurs when a person's exposure to a virtual environment causes symptoms that are similar to motion sickness symptoms. The most common symptoms are general discomfort, headache, stomach awareness, nausea, vomiting, pallor, sweating, fatigue, drowsiness, disorientation, and apathy. Other symptoms include postural instability and retching. Virtual reality sickness is different from motion sickness in that it can be caused by the visually induced perception of self-motion; real self-motion is not needed. It is also different from simulator sickness; non-virtual reality simulator sickness tends to be characterized by oculomotor disturbances, whereas virtual reality sickness tends to be characterized by disorientation. A 2016 publication assessed the effects of exposure to 2D vs 3D dissection videos on nine pathology resident physicians, using self-reported physiologic symptoms. Watching the content in 3D vs 2D did not increase simulator sickness. Although the average simulator sickness questionnaire score did increase with time, statistical analysis does not suggest significance.
The persistent tracking required by all VR systems makes the technology particularly useful for, and vulnerable to, mass surveillance. The expansion of VR will increase the potential and reduce the costs for information gathering of personal actions, movements and responses. In networked VR spaces with capacity for public interaction, there is the potential for unexpected modifications the environment.
Conceptual and philosophical concernsEdit
In addition, there are conceptual, and philosophical considerations and implications associated with the use of virtual reality. What the phrase "virtual reality" means or refers to can be ambiguous. Mychilo S. Cline argued in 2005 that through virtual reality techniques will be developed to influence human behavior, interpersonal communication, and cognition. In the book The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality by Michael R. Heim, seven different concepts of virtual reality are identified: simulation, interaction, artificiality, immersion, telepresence, full-body immersion, and network communication. As we spend more and more time in virtual space, there could be a gradual "migration to virtual space", resulting in important changes in economics, worldview, and culture. Philosophical implications of VR are discussed in books, including Philip Zhai's Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality (1998) and Digital Sensations: Space, Identity and Embodiment in Virtual Reality (1999), written by Ken Hillis.
Pioneers and notablesEdit
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (January 2016)|
- Thomas A. Furness III
- Maurice Benayoun
- Mark Bolas
- Fred Brooks
- Anshe Chung
- Edmond Couchot
- Carolina Cruz-Neira
- James H. Clark
- Doug Church
- Char Davies
- Tom DeFanti
- David Em
- Scott Fisher
- William Gibson
- Morton Heilig
- Eric Howlett
- Myron Krueger
- Knowbotic Research
- Jaron Lanier
- Brenda Laurel
- Palmer Luckey
- Jacquelyn Ford Morie
- Michael Naimark
- Randy Pausch
- Mark Pesce
- Warren Robinett
- Philip Rosedale
- Louis Rosenberg
- Dan Sandin
- Susumu Tachi
- Ivan Sutherland
||This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2015)|
The companies working in the virtual reality sector fall broadly into three categories of involvement: hardware (making headsets and input devices specific to VR), software (producing software for interfacing with the hardware or for delivering content to users) and content creation (producing content, whether interactive or passive storylines, games, and artificial worlds, for consumption and exploration with VR hardware).
- HMD devices
- Facebook (Oculus Rift)
- Google (Google Cardboard, Google Daydream)
- HTC & Valve (HTC Vive)
- Microsoft (Microsoft HoloLens, Windows Mixed Reality)
- Razer (OSVR Hacker Dev Kit)
- Samsung (Samsung Gear VR)
- Sony Computer Entertainment (PS VR)
- Starbreeze Studios (StarVR)
- Input devices
- Cyberith Virtualizer
- Leap Motion
- Nokia (Nokia OZO camera)
- Virtuix Omni
- ZSpace (company)
- Emerging technologies
- 360 degree video
- Augmented reality
- Intel RealSense
- Magic Leap
- Mixed reality
- Haptic technology
- Antonin Artaud, The Theatre and its Double Trans. Mary Caroline Richards. (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1958).
- "Online Etymology Dictionary".
- "the definition of cyberspace".
- Myron Krueger. Artificial Reality 2, Addison-Wesley Professional, 1991. ISBN 0-201-52260-8
- "VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language". www.w3.org. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Brutzman, Don (October 2016). "X3D Graphics and VR" (PDF). web3D.org. Web3D Consortium. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- kelly, kevin (April 2016). "The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World’s Most Secretive Startup". WIRED. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Orellana, Vanessa Hand (31 May 2016). "10 things I wish I knew before shooting 360 video". CNET. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- "Resident Evil 7: The Use of Photogrammetry for VR". 80.lv. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Johnson, Leif (13 March 2016). "Forget 360 Videos, Photogrammetric Virtual Reality Is Where It's At - Motherboard". Motherboard. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Matthew Schnipper. "Seeing is Believing: The State of Virtual Reality". The Verge. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "How did virtual reality begin?". Virtual Reality Society. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Pygmalion's Spectacles". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Holly Brockwell (3 April 2016). "Forgotten genius: the man who made a working VR machine in 1957". Tech Radar. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Goad, Angela. "Carolina Cruz-Neira | Introductions Necessary". Introductions Necessary. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Smith, David (November 24, 2014). "Engineer envisions sci-fi as reality". Arkansas Online. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Rosenberg, Louis (1992). "The Use of Virtual Fixtures As Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments.". Technical Report AL-TR-0089, USAF Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992.
- Rosenberg, L.B. (1993). "Virtual Fixtures: Perceptual Overlays for Telerobotic Manipulation". In Proc. of the IEEE Annual Int. Symposium on Virtual Reality (1993): pp. 76–82,.
- Horowitz, Ken (December 28, 2004). "Sega VR: Great Idea or Wishful Thinking?". Sega-16. Archived from the original on 2010-01-14. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "Virtuality". YouTube. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Gonzales, D. (editor) (1991). "Automation and Robotics for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach" (PDF). 92 (17897): 35.
- Engler, Craig E. (November 1992). "Affordable VR by 1994". Computer Gaming World. p. 80. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- "Arcade Heroes Sega's Wonderful Simulation Games Over The Years – Arcade Heroes". Arcade Heroes. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "System 16 – Sega Medium Scale Attractions Hardware (Sega)". system16.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "NEXT Generation Issue #6 June 1995". archive.org. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "Nintendo Virtual Boy on theverge.com".
- "Virtual Reality Applications Expand : Imaging: Technology is finding important places in medicine, engineering and many other realms – LA Times.".
- Au, Wagner James. The Making of Second Life, pg. 19. New York: Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-135320-8.
- "Google Street View in 3D: More Than Just an April Fool's Joke".
- Rubin,Peter. (2014). Oculus Rift. Wired, 22(6), 78.
- "Not-quite-live blog: panel discussion with John Carmack, Tim Sweeney, Johan Andersson". The Tech Report. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- James, Paul (2014-01-30). "30 Minutes Inside Valve's Prototype Virtual Reality Headset: Owlchemy Labs Share Their Steam Dev Days Experience - Road to VR". Road to VR. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- James, Paul (2013-11-18). "Valve to Demonstrate Prototype VR HMD and Talk Changes to Steam to "Support and Promote VR Games" - Road to VR". Road to VR. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
- "Facebook to buy Oculus virtual reality firm for $2B". Associated Press. March 25, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Metz, Cade. "Facebook Buys VR Startup Oculus for $2 Billion". WIRED. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "Sony Announces 'Project Morpheus:' Virtual Reality Headset For PS4".
- "Gloveone: Feel Virtual Reality". Kickstarter. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
- "Valve is making a VR headset and its own Steam Machine". Engadget. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- "Valve showing off new virtual reality hardware and updated Steam controller next week". The Verge. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- "Valve's VR headset revealed with Oculus-like features". The Verge. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- "HTC Vive: Everything you need to know about the SteamVR headset". Wareable. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- "Vive Shipment Updates - VIVE Blog". VIVE Blog. 2016-04-07. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Prasuethsut, Lily (August 2, 2016). "HTC Vive: Everything you need to know about the SteamVR headset". Wareable. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Martindale, Jon (15 February 2017). "Vive-like sensor spotted in new Sony patent could make its way to PlayStation VR". Digital Trends. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "Comparison of VR headsets: Project Morpheus vs. Oculus Rift vs. HTC Vive". Data Reality. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Virtual reality headset comparison". Data Reality. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Vendetta Online is the first MMO to get Oculus Rift support". PCGamer. July 23, 2013.
- "Vendetta Online takes its digital galaxies to the Oculus Rift". Polygon. July 24, 2013.
- "Minecraft arrives on Gear VR today". Mojang. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Kim, Meeri (August 21, 2016). "Virtual reality apps aim to make exercise less tedious". Tyler Morning Telegraph. pp. A1, A11.
- Cieply, Michael. "Virtual Reality 'Wild' Trek, With Reese Witherspoon". www.nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Lee, Nicole. "'Gone' is a VR thriller from 'Walking Dead' team and Samsung". Engadget. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- "Naughty America Invites You to Experience Virtual Reality Adult Entertainment During South by Southwest". Business Wire. Business Wire. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Holden, John. "Virtual reality porn: the end of civilisation as we know it?". The Irish Times. The Irish Times. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Virtual reality to be added to World Champs Viewing Experience (Chess.com)
- Rœttgers, Janko (September 13, 2016). "Fox Sports Streams College Football Match in Virtual Reality". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Fox Sports streaming Red River Rivalry live in virtual reality". SI.com. Sports Illustrated. October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Goldman Sachs | Our Thinking - Virtual & Augmented Reality: The Next Big Computing Platform?". Goldman Sachs. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Reger, Greg M.; Holloway, Kevin M.; Candy, Colette; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Difede, JoAnn; Rizzo, Albert A.; Gahm, Gregory A. (2011-02-01). "Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 24 (1): 93–96. ISSN 1573-6598. doi:10.1002/jts.20574.
- Gonçalves, Raquel; Pedrozo, Ana Lúcia; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula (2012-12-27). "Efficacy of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of PTSD: A Systematic Review". PLOS ONE. 7 (12): e48469. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 23300515. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048469.
- Difede, JoAnn; Hoffman, Hunter G. (2002-12-01). "Virtual reality exposure therapy for World Trade Center Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: a case report". Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society. 5 (6): 529–535. ISSN 1094-9313. PMID 12556115. doi:10.1089/109493102321018169.
- Gold, Jeffrey I.; Belmont, Katharine A.; Thomas, David A. (August 2007). "The Neurobiology of Virtual Reality Pain Attenuation". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 10 (4): 536–544. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.9993.
- Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James (2016-12-20). "The Impact of Virtual Reality on Chronic Pain". PLOS ONE. 11 (12): e0167523. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 27997539. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167523.
- Sharar, Sam R; Miller, William; Teeley, Aubriana; Soltani, Maryam; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R (2017-03-17). "Applications of virtual reality for pain management in burn-injured patients". Expert review of neurotherapeutics. 8 (11): 1667–1674. ISSN 1473-7175. PMC . PMID 18986237. doi:10.1586/14737220.127.116.117.
- Li, Angela; Montaño, Zorash; Chen, Vincent J; Gold, Jeffrey I (2017-03-17). "Virtual reality and pain management: current trends and future directions". Pain management. 1 (2): 147–157. ISSN 1758-1869. PMC . PMID 21779307. doi:10.2217/pmt.10.15.
- Chesher, Chris (1994). "Colonizing Virtual Reality: Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality". Cultronix.
- "How VR is training the perfect soldier". Wareable. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "DSTS: First immersive virtual training system fielded". www.army.mil. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Virtual reality used to train Soldiers in new training simulator".
- "NASA shows the world its 20-year virtual reality experiment to train astronauts: The inside story - TechRepublic". TechRepublic. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- James, Paul (2016-04-19). "A Look at NASA's Hybrid Reality Astronaut Training System, Powered by HTC Vive – Road to VR". Road to VR. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "How NASA is Using Virtual and Augmented Reality to Train Astronauts". Unimersiv. 2016-04-11. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Hybrid Reality Astronaut Training Will NASA Prepare Astronauts | NASA Blog". The Official NVIDIA Blog. 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- Dourado, Antônio O.; Martin, C.A. (2013). "New concept of dynamic flight simulator, Part I". Aerospace Science and Technology. 30 (1): 79–82. doi:10.1016/j.ast.2013.07.005.
- "How Virtual Reality Military Applications Work".
- RDS. "Nieuws Pivo en VDAB bundelen rijopleiding vrachtwagens". Het Nieuwsblad. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "Virtual Reality Revolution In Medicine". Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- "Virtual Reality Training Improves Operating Room Performance... : Annals of Surgery". LWW.
- Ahlberg, Gunnar; Enochsson, Lars; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Hedman, Leif; Hogman, Christian; McClusky III, David A.; Ramel, Stig; Smith, C. Daniel; Arvidsson, Dag (2007-06-01). "Proficiency-based virtual reality training significantly reduces the error rate for residents during their first 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies". The American Journal of Surgery. 193 (6): 797–804. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.06.050.
- Colt, Henri G.; Crawford, Stephen W.; Galbraith, III ,Oliver (2001-10-01). "Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulation*: A revolution in procedural training". Chest. 120 (4): 1333–1339. ISSN 0012-3692. doi:10.1378/chest.120.4.1333.
- Volpicelli, Gian. "What's next for virtual reality surgery?". WIRED UK. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Graham, Luke (2016-07-26). "Now you can watch surgeries live in virtual reality". CNBC. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
- Mura, Gianluca (2011). Metaplasticity in Virtual Worlds: Aesthetics and Semantic Concepts. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-60960-077-8.
- Goslin, M and Morie, J F (1996) Virtopia: Emotional Experiences in Virtual Environments with Mike Goslin. Leonardo Journal, Vol 29, no. 2, 1996. MIT Press.
- Reichhardt, Tony (1994) Virtual Worlds without End. American Way Magazine, 27 (22). November 1994
- "Database of Virtual Art".
- "Information about The Abakanowicz Art Room". kulturalna.warszawa.pl. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "Virtual reality at the British Museum: What is the value of virtual reality environments for learning by children and young people, schools, and families? - MW2016: Museums and the Web 2016".
- "Extending the Museum Experience with Virtual Reality". 18 March 2016.
- Higgins, T., Main, P. & Lang, J. (1996). "Imaging the Past: Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology", Volume 114 of Occasional paper, London: British Museum. ISSN 0142-4815.
- Pimentel, K., & Teixeira, K. (1993). Virtual reality. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-8306-4065-2
- Pletinckx, D.; Callebaut, D.; Killebrew, A.E.; Silberman, N.A. (2000). "Virtual-reality heritage presentation at Ename", "On-site VR" paragraph, in MultiMedia, IEEE , vol.7, no.2, pp.45-48
- "Architecture's Virtual Shake-Up" Tayfun King, Click, BBC World News (2005-10-28)
- Barlow, John Perry (1990). "Being in Nothingness: Virtual Reality and the Pioneers of Cyberspace". Electronic Frontiers Foundation.
- Roudavski, S. (2010). Virtual Environments as Techno-Social Performances: Virtual West Cambridge Case-Study, in CAADRIA2010: New Frontiers, the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, ed. by Bharat Dave, Andrew I-kang Li, Ning Gu and Hyoung-June Park, pp. 477-486
- "How virtual reality is redefining live music".
- Hu, Cherie. "Virtual Reality In The Music Industry Needs To Be A Tool, Not Just An Experience".
- Smith, Nicola K. (31 January 2017). "How virtual reality is shaking up the music industry" – via www.bbc.com.
- Robertson, Adi (28 December 2015). "Does anybody really want a virtual reality music visualizer?".
- "Inventor updates ’70s creation to bring 3-D vision to music - The Boston Globe".
- Norsk Hydro (3 May 2016). "The technology behind A-ha Afterglow - HYDRO" – via YouTube.
- "Preparing for Afterglow. News. The Official Website of a-ha".
- "a-ha Afterglow. News. The Official Website of a-ha".
- "What the Rise of Virtual Reality Means for Marketers".
- "The North Face and Jaunt Create and Launch “The North Face VR” Leading With Breathtaking Virtual Reality Experiences in Yosemite National Park and Moab". Jaunt VR. 2015-03-11. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Dykstra, Jim (2016-08-11). "Innis & Gunn Serves Beer With Virtual Reality". The Beer Connoisseur. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- Rusli, Evelyn (Jan 27, 2015). "WSJ.D Technology: Oculus VR Seeks to Go Beyond Games — Facebook Unit to Create Lab to Help Studios Create Films Using Virtual Reality Technology". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "Virtual Reality and Marketing: The Top 3 Strategies".
- "Unicef 360°".
- "See WWF's virtual tiger".
- Kirsner, Scott (May 5, 2016). "Adding a level of reality to online shopping". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- "CG Garage Podcast #61 | Shane Scranton – IrisVR – Chaos Group Labs". labs.chaosgroup.com. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- "OnePlus 2 to be revealed on 27 July via world's first VR product launch". Tech2. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "VR and vice: Are we heading for mass addiction to virtual reality fantasies". Wareable. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- "Risk Management – The Real Risks of Virtual Reality". Retrieved 2017-05-16.
- "Oculus Rift Health and Safety Notice" (PDF). Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Lawson, B. D. (2014). Motion sickness symptomatology and origins. Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, 531-599.
- LaViola, J. J. Jr (2000). "A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments". ACM SIGCHI Bulletin. 32: 47–56. doi:10.1145/333329.333344.
- Kolasinski, E. M. "Simulator sickness in virtual environments (ARI 1027)". www.dtic.mil. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Stanney, K. M.; Kennedy, R. S.; Drexler, J. M. (1997). "Cybersickness is not simulator sickness". Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 41: 1138–1142. doi:10.1177/107118139704100292.
- Madrigal, E.; Prajapati, S.; Hernandez-Prera, J.C. (2016). "Introducing a Virtual Reality Experience in Anatomic Pathology Education.". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 146: 462–468. doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqw133.
- Cline, Mychilo Stephenson (2005). Power, Madness, & Immortality: the Future of Virtual Reality. Virtualreality.universityvillagepress.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
- "The Future of Virtual Reality with Mychilo Cline » Introduction to the Future of Virtual Reality". Virtualreality.universityvillagepress.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
- "Power, Madness and Immortality | KurzweilAI". www.kurzweilai.net. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Castranova, E. (2007). Exodus to the Virtual World: How online fun is changing reality. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Rosenberg, L., "Virtual fixtures as tools to enhance operator performance in telepresence environments," SPIE Manipulator Technology, 1993.
- Rosenberg, "Virtual Haptic Overlays Enhance Performance in Telepresence Tasks," Dept. of Mech. Eng., Stanford Univ., 1994.
- Rosenberg, "Virtual Fixtures: Perceptual Overlays Enhance Operator Performance in Telepresence Tasks," Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University.
- Choi, SangSu, Kiwook Jung, and Sang Do Noh. "Virtual reality applications in manufacturing industries: Past research, present findings, and future directions." Concurrent Engineering (2015): 1063293X14568814.
- Kulkarni, S.D.; Minor, M.A.; Deaver, M.W.; Pardyjak, E.R.; Hollerbach, J.M.Design, Sensing, and Control of a Scaled Wind Tunnel for Atmospheric Display, Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on, vol.17, no.4, pp. 635–645, Aug. 2012
- Blascovich, J Bailenson, J. Infinite Reality: Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds, and the Dawn of the Virtual Revolution, Harper Collins, 2011.
- TechCast Article Series, Mateo Fernandez, Metaverse
- TechCast Article Series, Aaron Druck, When will Virtual Reality become reality?
- Brooks Jr, F. P. (1999). "What's Real About Virtual Reality?" (PDF). IEEE Computer Graphics And Applications. 19 (6): 16. doi:10.1109/38.799723.
- Burdea, G. and P. Coffet (2003). Virtual Reality Technology, Second Edition. Wiley-IEEE Press.
- Genovese, Paolo Vincenzo (2005). Dalla Decostruzione alla Cyber-Architettura e oltre. L'uso del computer nella progettazione degli spazi non-euclidei. Liguori Editore, Napoli. In Italian.
- Goslin, M; Morie, J. F. (1996). "Virtopia" Emotional experiences in Virtual Environments". Leonardo. 29 (2): 95–100. doi:10.2307/1576338.
- Oliver Grau, (2003) Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion (Leonardo Book Series). Cambridge/Massachusetts: MIT-Press.
- Hayward V, Astley OR, Cruz-Hernandez M, Grant D, Robles-De-La-Torre G. Haptic interfaces and devices. Sensor Review 24(1), pp. 16–29 (2004).
- Hillis, Ken (1999). Digital Sensations: Space, Identity and Embodiment in Virtual Reality. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
- Kalawsky, R. S. (1993). The Science of Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments: A Technical, Scientific and Engineering Reference on Virtual Environments, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, England ; Reading, Massachusetts
- Kelly, K., A. Heilbrun and B. Stacks (1989). "Virtual Reality; an Interview with Jaron Lanier", Whole Earth Review, Fall 1989, no. 64, pp. 108(12)
- Klein. D, D. Rensink, H. Freimuth, G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, H. Böse, & M. Baumann — Modelling the Response of a Tactile Array using an Electrorheological Fluids – Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol 37, no. 5, pp794–803, 2004
- Klein. D, H. Freimuth, G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, A. Meier, H. Böse M. Baumann, H. Ermert & O.T. Bruhns — Electrorheological Tactile Elements. Mechatronics – Vol 15, No 7, pp883–897 – Pergamon, September 2005.
- Krueger, Myron (1991). Artificial Reality II, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts
- Lanier, Jaron; Biocca, F. (1992). "An Insider's View of the Future of Virtual Reality". Journal of Communication. 42 (4): 150. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00816.x.
- Monkman. G.J. ‑ An Electrorheological Tactile Display ‑ Presence (Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments) ‑ Vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 219–228, MIT Press, July 1992.
- Monkman. G.J. - 3D Tactile Image Display – Sensor Review – Vol 13, issue 2, pp. 27–31, MCB University Press, April 1993.
- Joseph Nechvatal, Immersive Ideals / Critical Distances. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2009
- Rheingold, Howard (1992). Virtual Reality, Simon & Schuster, New York, N.Y.
- Robinett, Warren (1994). "Interactivity and Individual Viewpoint in Shared Virtual worlds: The Big Screen vs. Networked Personal Displays". Computer Graphics. 28 (2): 127. doi:10.1145/178951.178969.
- Robles-De-La-Torre G. The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments. IEEE Multimedia 13(3), Special issue on Haptic User * Interfaces for Multimedia Systems, pp. 24–30 (2006).
- Roudavski, S. (2010). Virtual Environments as Techno-Social Performances: Virtual West Cambridge Case-Study, in CAADRIA2010: New Frontiers, the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, ed. by Bharat Dave, Andrew I-kang Li, Ning Gu and Hyoung-June Park, pp. 477–486
- Mel Slater and Martin Usoh (1993). "The Influence of a Virtual Body on Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments" Virtual Reality International 93, Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Virtual Reality, London, April 1993, pages 34–42. Meckler, 1993
- Stanney, K. M. ed. (2002). Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, New Jersey
- Sutherland, Ivan (1965). "The Ultimate Display" (PDF). Proceedings of IFIP 65. 2: 506–508.
- Warwick, K., Gray, J. and Roberts, D. eds. (1993). Virtual Reality in Engineering, Peter Peregrinus.
- Zhai, Philip. (1998). Get Real: A Philosophical adventure in Virtual Reality, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, New York and Oxford.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Virtual reality.|
|Virtual Reality, Computer Chronicles (1992)|
- Isaac, Joseph (2016). "Step into a new world - Virtual Reality (VR)". Retrieved 2 July 2016. Basic Concepts of Virtual Reality along with Research Challenges explained in simple words.
- Mixed Reality Scale – Milgram and Kishino's (1994) Virtuality Continuum paraphrase with examples.
- Drummond, Katie (2014). "The Rise and Fall and Rise of Virtual Reality". The Verge. Retrieved 15 November 2014. Interviews on the history and future of virtual reality by leaders in the field.
- "New Trends In Virtual Reality".
- "Virtual reality in human-system interaction".