Arcade video game

  (Redirected from Arcade system board)

An arcade video game takes player input from its controls, processes it through electrical or computerized components, and displays output to an electronic monitor or similar display. Most arcade video games are coin-operated, housed in an arcade cabinet, and located amusement arcades alongside other kinds of arcade games. Until the late 1990s, arcade video games were the largest[1] and most technologically advanced[2][3] segment of the video game industry.

A player in Japan playing Police 911, an arcade game in which players use a light gun

Early prototypical entries Galaxy Game and Computer Space in 1971 established the principle operations for arcade games, and Atari's Pong in 1972 is recognized as the first successful commercial arcade video game. Improvements in computer technology and gameplay design led to a golden age of arcade video games, the exact dates of which are debated but range from the late 1970s to mid-1980s. This golden age includes Space Invaders, Pac-Man, and Donkey Kong. The arcade industry had a resurgence from the early 1990s to mid-2000s, including Street Fighter II, Mortal Kombat, and Dance Dance Revolution, but ultimately declined in the Western world as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and gameplay capability and decreased in cost. Nevertheless, Japan, China, and Korea retain a strong arcade industry in the present day.[4][citation needed]

HistoryEdit

 
Pong is the first commercially successful arcade video game

Games of skill had been popular amusement park midway attractions since the 19th century. With the introduction of electricity and coin-operated machines, they facilitated a viable business. When pinball machines with electric lights and displays were introduced in 1933, but without the user-controller flippers which would not be invented until 1947, these machines were seen as games of luck. Numerous states and cities treated them as amoral playthings for rebellious young people, and banned them into the 1960s and 1970s.[5]

Electro-mechanical games (EM games) appeared in arcades in the mid-20th century. Following Sega's EM game Periscope (1966), the arcade industry experienced a "technological renaissance" driven by "audio-visual" EM novelty games, establishing the arcades as a healthy environment for the introduction of commercial video games in the early 1970s.[6] In the late 1960s, college student Nolan Bushnell had a part-time job at an arcade where he became familiar with EM games such as Chicago Coin's racing game Speedway (1969), watching customers play and helping to maintain the machinery, while learning the game business.[7]

The early mainframe game Spacewar! (1962) inspired the first commercial arcade video game, Computer Space (1971), created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney and released by Nutting Associates.[8] It was demonstrated at the Amusement & Music Operators Association (AMOA) show in October 1971.[9] Another Spacewar-inspired coin-operated video game, Galaxy Game, was demonstrated at Stanford University in November 1971. Bushnell and Dabney followed their success of Computer Space with the help of Allan Alcorn to create a table tennis game Pong, released in 1972. Pong was a commercial success, leading numerous other coin-op manufacturers to enter the market.[8]

The video game industry transitioned from discrete integrated circuitry to programmable microprocessors in the mid-1970s, starting with Gun Fight in 1975. The arcade industry entered a "Golden Age" in 1978 with the release of Taito's Space Invaders, which introduced many novel gameplay features including a scoreboard. From 1978 to 1982, several other major arcade games from Namco, Atari, Williams Electronics, Stern Electronics, and Nintendo were all considered blockbusters, particularly with Namco's Pac-Man in 1980 which became a fixture in popular culture. Across North America and Japan, dedicated video game arcades appeared and arcade game cabinets appeared in many smaller storefronts. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion in the US.[10]

The novelty of the arcade game waned sharply after 1982 from several factors, including market saturation of arcades and arcade games, a moral panic created over video games due to similar fears that had been raised over pinball machines in the decades prior, and the 1983 video game crash in the home console market that impacted arcades. The arcade market had recovered by 1986, with the help of software conversion kits, the arrival of popular beat 'em up games (such as Kung-Fu Master and Renegade), and advanced motion simulator games (such as Sega's "taikan" games including Hang-On, Space Harrier, and Out Run). However, the growth of home video game systems such as the Nintendo Entertainment System led to another brief arcade decline toward the end of the 1980s.[11]

Arcade games continued to improve with technology and gameplay evolutions. In the early 1990s, the release of Capcom's Street Fighter II established the modern style of fighting games and led to a number of similar games such as Mortal Kombat, Fatal Fury, Killer Instinct, Virtua Fighter, and Tekken, creating a new renaissance in the arcades.[12][13] Another factor was realism,[14] including the "3D Revolution" from 2D and pseudo-3D graphics to true real-time 3D polygon graphics.[15][16] This was largely driven by a technological arms race between Sega and Namco.[17] 3D polygons were popularized in arcades during the early 1990s with games such as Sega's Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter. 3D graphics later became popular in console and computer games by the mid-1990s,[18] though arcade systems such as the Sega Model 3 remained considerably more advanced than home systems in the late 1990s.[2][3] Until about 1996, arcade video games had remained the largest segment of the global video game industry. Arcades declined in the late 1990s, surpassed by the console market for the first time around 1997-1998.[1]

Since the 2000s, arcade games have taken different routes globally. In the United States, arcades have become niche markets as they compete with the home console market, and they adapted other business models, such as providing other entertainment options or adding prize redemptions.[19] In Japan and China,[citation needed] arcades continue to flourish, where games like Dance Dance Revolution and The House of the Dead are tailored to experiences that players cannot easily have at home.[20]

TechnologyEdit

 
The inside of a Neo Geo

Virtually all modern arcade games (other than the very traditional fair midway) make extensive use of solid state electronics, integrated circuits, and monitor screens, all installed inside an arcade cabinet.

With the exception of Galaxy Game and Computer Space, which were built around small form-factor mainframe computers, the first arcade games are based on combinations of multiple discrete logic chips, such as transistor–transistor logic (TTL) chips. Designing an arcade game was more about the combination of these TTL chips and other electronic components to achieve the desired effect on screen. More complex gameplay required significantly more TTL components to achieve this result. By the mid-1970s, the first inexpensive programmable microprocessors had arrived on the market. The first microprocessor-based video game is Midway's Gun Fight in 1975 (a conversion of Taito's Western Gun), and with the advent of Space Invaders and the golden era, microprocessor-based games became typical.[21]: 64  Early arcade games were also designed around raster graphics displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT) display. Many games of the late 1970s and early 1980s use special displays that rendered vector graphics, though these waned by the mid-1980s as display technology on CRTs improved.[22] Prior to the availability of color CRT or vector displays, some arcade cabinets have a combination of angled monitor positioning, one-way mirrors, and clear overlays to simulate colors and other graphics onto the gameplay field.[23]

Coin-operated arcade video games from the 1990s to the 2000s generally use custom hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips, and the latest in expensive computer graphics display technology. This allows more complex graphics and sound than contemporary video game consoles or personal computers. Many arcade games since the 2000s run on modified video game console hardware (such as the Sega NAOMI or Triforce) or gaming PC components (such as the Taito Type X). Many arcade games have more immersive and realistic game controls than PC or console games. This includes specialized ambiance or control accessories such as fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated lightguns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of automobile or airplane cockpits, motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or highly dedicated controllers such as dancing mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually too bulky, expensive, and specialized to be used with typical home PCs and consoles. Arcade makers experiment with virtual reality technology. Arcades have progressed from using coins as credits to smart cards that hold the virtual currency of credits.

Modern arcade cabinets use flat panel displays instead of cathode-ray tubes. Internet services such as ALL.Net, NESiCAxLive, e-Amusement and NESYS, allow the cabinets to download updates or new games, do online multiplayer gameplay, save progress, unlock content, or earn credits.

GenresEdit

 
Sega Rally arcade racing games at the Veljekset Keskinen department store in Tuuri, Alavus, Finland in 2017

Many arcade games have short levels, simple and intuitive control schemes, and rapidly increasing difficulty. The classic formula for a successful arcade video game is "easy to learn, difficult to master"[24] along with a "multiple life, progressively difficult level" paradigm.[25] This is due to the environment of the arcade, where the player is essentially renting the game for as long as their in-game avatar can stay alive or until they run out of tokens. Games on consoles or PCs can be referred to as "arcade games" if they share these qualities, or are direct ports of arcade games.[citation needed]

Arcade racing games often have sophisticated motion simulator arcade cabinets,[26][27] a simplified physics engine, and short learning time when compared with more realistic racing simulations. Cars can turn sharply without braking or understeer, and the AI rivals are sometimes programmed so they are always near the player with a rubberband effect. Other types of arcade-style games include music games (particularly rhythm games), and mobile and casual games with intuitive controls and short sessions.[citation needed]

ActionEdit

The term "arcade game" can refer to an action video game designed to play similarly to an arcade game with frantic, addictive gameplay.[28] The focus of arcade action games is on the user's reflexes, and many feature very little puzzle-solving, complex thinking, or strategy skills.[citation needed] These include fighting games often played with an arcade controller, beat 'em up games including fast-paced hack and slash games, and light gun rail shooters and "bullet hell" shooters with intuitive controls and rapidly increasing difficulty.[citation needed]

Many arcade combat flight simulators have sophisticated hydraulic motion simulator cabinets,[26][27] and simplified physics and handling. Arcade flight games are meant to have an easy learning curve, in order to preserve their action component. Increasing numbers of console flight video games, such as Crimson Skies, Ace Combat, and Secret Weapons Over Normandy indicate the falling of manual-heavy flight sim popularity in favor of instant arcade flight action.[29]

A modern subgenre of action games called "hack and slash" or "character action games" represent an evolution of traditional arcade action games, and are sometimes considered a subgenre of beat 'em up brawlers. This subgenre of games was largely defined by Hideki Kamiya, creator of the Devil May Cry and Bayonetta franchises.[30]

IndustryEdit

Arcade games are found in restaurants, bowling alleys, college campuses, video rental shops, dormitories, laundromats, movie theaters, supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, and other retail environments. They are popular in public places where people are likely to have free time.[31]

Their profitability is expanded by the popularity of conversions of arcade games for home-based platforms. In 1997, WMS Industries (parent company of Midway Games, then the most successful arcade game manufacturer) reported that if more than 5,000 arcade units are sold, at least 100,000 home version units will be sold.[32]

The American Amusement Machine Association (AAMA) is a trade association established in 1981[33] that represents the coin-operated amusement machine industry,[34] including 120 arcade game distributors and manufacturers.[35]

Conversions, emulators, and recreationsEdit

Prior to the 2000s, successful video games were often converted to a home video game console or home computer. Many of the initial Atari VCS games, for example, were conversions of Atari's success arcade games. Arcade game manufacturers that were not in the home console or computer business found licensing of their games to console manufacturers to be a successful business model, as console manufacturer competitors would vie for rights to more popular games. Coleco famously bested Atari to secure the rights to convert Nintendo's Donkey Kong, which it subsequently included as a pack-in game for the ColecoVision to challenge the VCS.[36]

Arcade conversions typically had to make concessions for the lower computational power and capabilities of the home console, such as limited graphics or alterations in gameplay. Such conversions had mixed results. The Atari VCS conversion of Space Invaders was considered the VCS's killer application, helping to quadruple the VCS sales in 1980.[37] In contrast, the VCS conversion of Pac-Man in 1982 was highly criticized for technical flaws due to VCS limitations such as flickering ghosts and simplified gameplay. Though Pac-Man was the best-selling game on the VCS, it eroded consumer confidence in Atari's games and partially contributed to the 1983 crash.[38]

The need for arcade conversions began to wane as arcade game manufacturers like Nintendo, Sega, and SNK entered the home console market and used similar technology within their home consoles as found at the arcade, negating the need to simplify the game. Concessions still may be made for a home release; notably, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System conversion of Mortal Kombat removed much of the gore from the arcade version to meet Nintendo's quality control standards.[39]

Exact copies of arcade video games can be run through emulators such as MAME on modern devices. An emulator is an application that translates foreign software onto a modern system, in real-time. Emulated games appeared legally and commercially on the Macintosh in 1994[40][41] with Williams floppy disks, Sony PlayStation in 1996, and Sega Saturn in 1997 with CD-ROM compilations such as Williams Arcade's Greatest Hits and Arcade's Greatest Hits: The Atari Collection 1, and on the PlayStation 2 and GameCube with DVD-ROM compilations such as Midway Arcade Treasures.[citation needed] Arcade games are downloaded and emulated through the Nintendo Wii Virtual Console service starting in 2009.[citation needed]

Using emulation, companies like Arcade1Up have produced at-scale or reduced-scale recreations of arcade cabinets using modern technology, such as LCD monitors and lightweight construction. These cabinets are typically designed to resemble the original arcade game cabinets, but may also support multiple related games. These cabinets can be offered in diverse and miniaturized styles, such as table-mounted and wall-mounted versions.[42]

Highest-grossingEdit

For early arcade games, success was usually judged by either the number of arcade hardware units sold to operators, or the amount of revenue generated, from the number of coins (such as quarters, dollars, or 100 yen coins) inserted into machines,[43] or the hardware sales with prices at $1000, $4000, or more. This list only includes arcade games with either more than 10,000 hardware units sold or that generated a revenue of more than $10 million. Most of the games are from the golden age of arcade video games.

Game Release year Hardware units sold Estimated gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Estimated gross revenue
(US$ with 2020 inflation)[44]
Pac-Man 1980 400,000 (until 1982)[45] $6 billion (until 1982)[46][47] $16.1 billion
Space Invaders 1978 750,000 (until 1979)[48] $3.8 billion (until 1982)[49] $15.1 billion
Street Fighter II 1991 220,000+ (until 1995)[n 1] $5.31 billion+ (until 1999)[53] $10.1 billion
Donkey Kong 1981 132,000 (until 1982)[n 2] $280 million (until 1982)
(US hardware sales)[57]
$797 million
(US hardware sales)
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 125,000 (until 1988)[58][59] $1.5 billion (until 1995)[60] $3 billion
Asteroids 1979 100,000 (until 2001)[59][61] $800 million (until 1991)[62][63] $2.28 billion
Defender 1981 70,000 (until 2020)[64] $1.5 billion (until 2020)[64] $2.16 billion
Galaxian 1979 50,000 (in the US until 1982)[65]
Hyper Olympic (Track & Field) 1983 38,000 (1983 in Japan)[66]
Karate Champ 1984 30,000 (in the US until 1985)[67]
Out Run 1986 30,000 (until 1994)[68] $100 million+ (cabinet sales)[69] $240 million
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 30,000 (in the US until 1982)[70]
Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US until 1982)[71]
Final Fight 1989 30,000 (until 1991)[72]
Virtua Fighter 2 1994 20,000+[73]
Darkstalkers: The Night Warriors 1994 24,000[74]
NBA Jam 1993 20,000 (until 2013)[75] $2 billion (until 2013)[76] $2.9 billion
Vs. Super Mario Bros. 1986 20,000 (1986)[77]
Mortal Kombat II 1993 27,000 (until 2002)[78] $600 million (until 2002)[79] $932 million
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1989 25,000 (US & EU until May 1990)[80][81]
Popeye 1982 20,000 (in the US until 1982)[56]
Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (until 2005)[82]
World Club Champion Football 2002 2,479 (until 2009)[n 4] $706.014 million (until 2012)[89] $1.02 billion
Mortal Kombat 1992 24,000 (until 2002)[78] $570 million (until 2002)[78] $820 million
Jungle Hunt 1982 18,000 (in the US until 1983)[90]
Raiden 1990 17,000[91]
Scramble 1981 15,136 (until 1981)[92]
Champion Baseball 1983 15,000 (in Japan until June 1983)[93]
Mushiking: King of the Beetles 2003 13,500 (until 2005)[94] $530 million (until 2007)[n 6] $746 million
Mahjong Fight Club 3 2004 13,000 (until 2004)[97]
Super Cobra 1981 12,337 (until 1981)[92]
Sega Rally Championship 1994 12,000[98]
Oshare Majo: Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (until 2006)[99][100] $302.68 million (until 2007)[n 7] $415 million
Frogger 1981 $135 million+ (United States)[101] $384 million
Centipede 1981 55,988 (until 1991)[102] $115.65 million (until 1991)[102] $220 million
Street Fighter 1987 10,000+ (until 1991)[103]
Wheels / Wheels II (Speed Race) 1974 10,000 (1975 in the US)[104]
Gee Bee 1978 10,000[105]
World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008 1,689 (until 2009)[n 3] $150.1 million (until 2012)[n 5] $180 million
Dragon's Lair 1983 16,000 (until 1983)[113][114] $68.8 million (until 1983)[113][115] $179 million
Pole Position 1982 21,000 (in the US until 1983)[116] $60.933 million (until 1983)[116][102]
(US hardware sales)
$163 million
(US hardware sales)
StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins 2011 $132.18 million (until 2012)[n 8] $152 million
Border Break 2009 2,998 (until 2009)[107] $107 million (until 2012)[n 9] $129 million
Dig Dug 1982 22,228[102] (in the US until 1983)[90] $46.3 million (until 1983)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$124 million
(US hardware sales)
Tempest 1981 29,000 (until 1983)[116] $62.408 million (until 1991)[102] $119 million
Tron 1982 800 (in the US until 1982)[118] $45 million (until 1983)[119] $102 million
Sengoku Taisen 2010 $94.04 million (until 2012)[n 10] $112 million
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $78.2 million (until 2008)[n 11] $97.6 million
Starhorse2 2005 38,614 (until 2009)[n 12] $59.321 million (until 2011)
(Fifth Expansion)[n 13]
$78.6 million
(Fifth Expansion)
Q*bert 1982 25,000 (until 2001)[125]
Robotron: 2084 1982 23,000 (until 1983)[116]
Samba de Amigo 1999 3,000 (until 2000)[126] $47.11 million (until 2000)[127] $73.2 million
Asteroids Deluxe 1981 22,399 (until 1999)[128] $46.1 million (until 1999)[128] $71.6 million
Missile Command 1980 19,999 (until 2010)[129] $36.8 million (until 1991)[128] $69.9 million
Berzerk 1980 15,780 (until 1981)[92]
Sangokushi Taisen 3 2007 $54.4 million (until 2011)[n 14] $67.9 million
Pong 1972 8,500–19,000[130][131] $11 million (until 1973)[132] $64.1 million
Lord of Vermilion 2008 $50.443 million (until 2008)[n 15] $60.6 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 2008 12,892 (until 2009)[133] $47 million (until 2010)[n 16] $56.5 million
Kangaroo 1982 9,803[102] (until 1983)[90] $20.58 million (until 1983)
(US hardware sales)[102]
$55.2 million
(US hardware sales)
Battlezone 1980 15,122 (until 1999)[128] $31.2 million (until 1999)[128] $48.5 million
Stargate 1981 15,000 (until 1983)[116]
Space Duel 1982 12,038 (until 1991)[102]
Big Buck Hunter Pro 2006 10,000 (until 2009)[134][135]
Hard Drivin' 1989 3,318 (until 1989)[102] $22.9 million (until 1989)[102] $47.8 million
Double Dragon 1987 8,000 (US in 1988)[136] $20 million
(US hardware sales until 1989)[136]
$45.6 million
Gauntlet 1985 7,848 (until 1985)[102] $18.01 million (until 1985)[102] $43.3 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ5 2011 $34.87 million (until 2012)[n 17] $40.1 million
Millipede 1982 9,990 (until 1991)[102] $20.669 million (until 1991)[102] $39.3 million
Race Drivin' 1990 3,525 (until 1991)[102] $20.03 million (until 1991)[102] $38.1 million
Breakout 1976 15,000 (until 1981)[137] $12.045 million
(hardware sales until 1981)[128]
$34.3 million
Time Traveler 1991 $18 million (until 1991)[115] $34.2 million
Space Ace 1984 $13 million (until 1984)[115] $32.4 million
Xevious 1982 5,295 (in the US until 1983)[102] $11.1 million (until 1983)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$29.8 million
(US hardware sales)
Atari Football 1978 11,306 (until 1999)[128] $17.266 million (until 1999)[128] $26.8 million
Final Lap 1987 1,150 (in the US until 1988)[102] $9.5 million (until 1988)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$21.6 million
(US hardware sales)
Paperboy 1984 3,442 (until 1991)[102] $8.6 million (until 1991)[102] $16.3 million
Star Wars 1983 12,695 (until 1991)[102] $7.595 million (until 1991)[102] $14.4 million
Beatmania 1997 25,000 (until 2000)[138] $12.4 million (until 1998)
(Japan hardware sales)[n 18]
$20 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Sprint 2 1976 8,200 (until 1999)[128] $12.669 million (until 1999)[128] $19.7 million
Championship Sprint 1986 3,595 (until 1991)[102] $8.26 million (until 1991)[102] $15.7 million
Pole Position II 1983 2,400 (in the US until 1983)[102] $7.43 million (until 1983)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$19.3 million
(US hardware sales)
Sea Wolf 1976 10,000 (until 2000)[140]
Lunar Lander 1979 4,830 (until 1999)[128] $8.19 million (until 1999)[128] $12.7 million
Super Sprint 1986 2,232 (until 1999)[128] $7.8 million (until 1999)[128] $12.1 million
Marble Madness 1984 4,000 (until 1985)[141] $6.3 million (until 1991)[102] $12 million
Rolling Thunder 1986 2,406 (in the US until 1987)[102] $4.8 million (until 1987)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$11.3 million
(US hardware sales)
Arabian 1983 1,950 (in the US until 1983)[90] $3.9 million (until 1983)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$10.1 million
(US hardware sales)

FranchisesEdit

These are the combined hardware sales of at least two or more arcade games that are part of the same franchise. This list only includes franchises that have sold at least 5,000 hardware units or grossed at least $10 million revenues.

Franchise Original release year Total hardware units sold Gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Gross revenue
(US$ with 2020 inflation)[44]
Pac-Man 1980 526,412 (until 1988)[n 19] $6 billion (until 1982)[142] $16 billion
Space Invaders 1978 750,000 (until 1980)[48] $3.8 billion (until 1982)[49] $15.1 billion
Street Fighter 1987 500,000 (until 2002)[143][144] $5.31 billion+ (until 1999)[53] $10.1 billion
Pac-Man clones 1980 300,000 (until 2002)[145]
Mario 1981 190,800 (until 1983)[n 20] $280 million (until 1982)
(US hardware sales)[57]
$797 million
(US hardware sales)
Donkey Kong 1981 167,000 (until 1983)[n 2] $280 million (until 1982)
(US hardware sales)[57]
$797 million
(US hardware sales)
Asteroids 1979 136,437 (until 1999)[n 21] $850.79 million (until 1999)[n 22] $1.32 billion
Golden Tee Golf 1989 100,000 (until 2011)[146]
Defender 1981 85,000 (until 2020)[n 23] $1.5 billion (until 2020)[64] $2.16 billion
Centipede 1981 65,978 (until 1991)[n 24] $136.3 million (until 1991)[n 25] $259 million
Mortal Kombat 1992 51,000 (until 2002)[78] $1.17 billion (until 200)[78][79] $1.68 billion
Galaxian 1979 50,986 (in the US until 1988)[n 26]
Starhorse 2000 38,734 (until 2009)[n 27] $191.501 million (until 2012)[n 28] $288 million
Big Buck 2000 33,500 (until 2010)[n 29]
Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US until 1982)[71]
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $78.2 million (until 2008)[n 11] $97.6 million
Lord of Vermilion 2008 $50.443 million (until 2008)[n 15] $60.6 million
Bemani 1997 28,500 (until 2000)[n 30] $12.4 million (until 1998)
(Japan hardware sales)[n 18]
$20 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Scramble 1981 27,473 (until 1981)[92]
Sega Network Mahjong 2000 25,986 (until 2006)[n 33] $81.87 million (until 2012)[n 34] $123 million
Pole Position 1982 24,550 (in the US until 1983)[n 35] $77.9 million (until 1988)
(US hardware sales)[n 36]
$209 million
(US hardware sales)
Dig Dug 1982 22,228[102] (in the US until 1983)[90] $46.3 million (until 1983)[102]
(US hardware sales)
$124 million
(US hardware sales)
Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (until 2005)[82]
Breakout 1976 15,805 (until 1999)[128] $17.745 million (until 1999)[128] $27.6 million
Star Wars 1983 14,039 (until 1991)[102] $9.275 million (until 1983)[102] $17.6 million
Sprint 1976 14,027 (until 1999)[128] $28.729 million (until 1999)[128] $44.6 million
Mushiking 2003 13,500 (until 2005)[94] $530 million (until 2007)[n 6] $746 million
Sea Wolf 1976 14,000 (until 2000)[140]
Mahjong Fight Club 2002 13,000 (until 2004)[97]
Gauntlet 1985 11,368 (until 1991)[102] $20.41 million (until 1991)[102] $38.8 million
Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (until 2006)[99] $302.68 million (until 2007)[n 7] $415 million
Sangokushi Taisen 2005 9,929 (until 2008)[n 38] $148.44 million (until 2012)[n 39] $197 million
Pong 1972 8500–19,000[130][131] $11 million (until 1973)[132] $64.1 million
Hard Drivin' 1989 6,843 (until 1991)[102] $42.93 million (until 1991)[102] $75.48 million
Samba de Amigo 1999 3,000 (until 2000)[126] $47.11 million (until 2000)[n 40] $73.2 million
Border Break 2009 2,998 (until 2009)[107] $107 million (until 2012)[n 9] $129 million
World Club Champion Football 2012 2,479 (until 2015)[n 4] $706.014 million (until 2012)[n 41] $1.02 billion

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Street Fighter II:
  2. ^ a b c Donkey Kong:
  3. ^ a b World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006–2007 – 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009[106]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 858 units from April 2009 to December 2009[107]
  4. ^ a b World Club Champion Football series, unit sales:
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 – 514 units in fiscal year ending March 2006[83]
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 Ver. 2 – 276 units during April–September 2006 (240 satellite units during April–June 2006,[84] and 36 body units during April–September 2006)[85]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 1,689 units from June 2008 to December 2009[n 3]
  5. ^ a b c World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥4.2 billion[108]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥3.8 billion[109]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥3.6 billion[110][111]
    • 1st quarter ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[112]
    • Currency conversion:[88]
      • ¥4.2 billion = $51.9159 million
      • ¥3.8 billion = $46.9716 million
      • ¥3.6 billion = $44.8253 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  6. ^ a b Mushiking:
  7. ^ a b Love and Berry:
  8. ^ a b StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins
    • Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥10.1 billion[110]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[112]
    • Currency conversion:[88]
      • ¥10.1 billion = $125.8 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  9. ^ a b Border Break:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.3 billion[108]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.5 billion[109]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥2.3 billion[110][117]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[112]
    • Currency conversion:[88]
      • ¥3.3 billion = $40.7317 million
      • ¥2.5 billion = $30.8542 million
      • ¥2.3 billion = $28.6371 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  10. ^ a b Sengoku Taisen:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥6.4 billion[109]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥1.2 billion[110]
    Currency conversion:[88]
    • ¥6.4 billion = $79.1 million
    • ¥1.2 billion = $14.94 million
  11. ^ a b Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road
    • ¥4.5 billion from June 2007 to March 2008[120]
      • Currency conversion: $56.731 million[88]
    • ¥1.7 billion from April 2008 to September 2008[121]
      • Currency conversion: $21.4317 million[88]
  12. ^ a b StarHorse2:
    • From April 2005 to March 2007: 18,079 units
      • StarHorse2: New Generation – 7,819 units from April 2005 to June 2006 (6,020 units in fiscal year ended March 2006,[83] and 1,799 units during April–June 2006)[85]
      • StarHorse2: Second Fusion – 10,260 units from April 2006 to March 2007 (8,105 conversion kits during April–December 2006,[99] and 2,155 body and satellite units in fiscal year ending March 2007)[122]
    • From April 2007 to March 2008: 10,275 units (756 body and satellite units of StarHorse2: Second Fusion during April–September 2007,[123] and 9,519 conversion kits in fiscal year ended March 2008)[124]
    • From April 2009 to December 2009: 10,657 units of StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion[107]
  13. ^ a b StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥2.8 billion[108]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2 billion[109]
    • Currency conversion:[88]
      • ¥2.8 billion = $34.6039 million
      • ¥2 billion = $24.7171 million
  14. ^ a b Sangokushi Taisen 3:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥1.8 billion[108]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.6 billion[109]
    • Currency conversion:[88]
      • ¥1.8 billion = $22.2401 million
      • ¥2.6 billion = $32.1248 million
  15. ^ a b Lord of Vermilion: ¥4 billion[121]
    • Currency conversion: $50.443 million[88]
  16. ^ a b Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.8 billion[108]
    • Currency conversion: $47 million[88]
  17. ^ a b Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥2.8 billion[110]
    • Currency conversion: $34.87 million[88]
  18. ^ a b Beatmania:
    • ¥1 billion in May 1998[139]
    • Yen-Dollar currency conversion: $12.4 million[88]
  19. ^ Pac-Man series:
  20. ^ Mario series:
  21. ^ Asteroids series:
  22. ^ Asteroids series:
  23. ^ Defender series:
  24. ^ Centipede series:[116][102]Millipede: 9,990
  25. ^ Centipede series:[102]Millipede: $20.669 million
  26. ^ Galaxian series:
  27. ^ StarHorse series:
    • Starhorse Progress – 120 in fiscal year ended March 2005[147]
    • StarHorse2 – 38,614 until 2009[n 12]
  28. ^ Starhorse series, 2009–2011:
    • Starhorse2 – $59.321 million[n 13]
    • StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins – $132.18 million[n 8]
  29. ^ Big Buck series:
    • Big Buck Hunter series sales until April 2007: 22,500 units, including 7,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units.[135]
    • Series sales after April 2007 until September 2009: additional 2,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units and 5,500 Big Buck Safari units.[134]
    • Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season sales from September 2009 to January 2010: 3,000 units[148]
  30. ^ Bemani series, sales:
  31. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ2:
    • April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984[147]
    • April 2005 to June 2005: 502[149]
  32. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ4:
    • Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[124]
    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[106]
  33. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ series:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ2 from April 2004 to June 2005: 5,486 units[n 31]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ3 from April 2005 to March 2006: 7,608 units[83]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 from April 2007 to March 2009: 12,892[n 32]
  34. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ series, 2009–2012:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4: $47 million in fiscal year 2010[n 16]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ5: $34.87 million in fiscal year 2012[n 17]
  35. ^ Pole Position series US sales:
  36. ^ Pole Position series US sales:[116][102]
  37. ^ Sangokushi Taisen:
    • As of March 2005: 421[147]
    • April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521[83]
  38. ^ Sangokushi Taisen series:
    • Sales from January 2005 to September 2006: 5,153 units
      • Sangokushi Taisen from January 2005 to March 2006: 1,942 units[n 37]
      • Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2006: 3,211 units[85]
    • Sales from April 2007 to March 2008: 4,776
      • 166 body units of Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2007[123]
      • 4,610 satellite units of Sangokushi Taisen from April 2007 to March 2008[124]
  39. ^ Sangokushi Taisen series, 2009–2011:
    • Sangokushi Taisen 3: $54.4 million[n 14]
    • Sengoku Taisen: $94.04 million[n 10]
  40. ^ Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion
    • Currency conversion: $47.11 million[88]
  41. ^ World Club Champion Football series, revenue:
    • Series revenues until March 2009 – $552.3 million
      • 480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack.[86] A¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each.[87] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion.[88] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 – $150.1 million[n 5]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Naramura, Yuki (23 January 2019). "Peak Video Game? Top Analyst Sees Industry Slumping in 2019". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b "News: Virtua Fighter 3". Computer and Video Games. No. 174. May 1996. pp. 10–1.
  3. ^ a b "Second Hand Smoke – One up, two down". Tom's Hardware Guide. 22 October 1999. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Why Japan's arcades are its game industry's cutting-edge labs". VentureBeat. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  5. ^ Kocurek, Carly (2015). Coin-Operated Americans: Rebooting Boyhood at the Video Game Arcade. p. 91. ISBN 9780816691821.
  6. ^ Smith, Alexander (19 November 2019). They Create Worlds: The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry, Vol. I: 1971-1982. CRC Press. pp. 119–20, 188–91. ISBN 978-0-429-75261-2.
  7. ^ "The Great Videogame Swindle?". Next Generation. No. 23. Imagine Media. November 1996. pp. 211–229.
  8. ^ a b June, Laura (16 January 2013). "For Amusement Only: the life and death of the American arcade". The Verge. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  9. ^ Smith, Alexander (27 November 2019). They Create Worlds: The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry. 1: 1971 – 1982. CRC Press. pp. 129–135. ISBN 978-1-138-38990-8.
  10. ^ "Can Lasers Save VIdeo Arcades?". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 3 February 1984. Last year, arcade game revenues were approximately $5 billion, compared to $8 billion in 1981 and $7 billion in 1982.
  11. ^ "Coin-Op history – 1975 to 1997 – from the pages of RePlay". RePlay. 1998. Archived from the original on 28 April 1998. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  12. ^ Compton, Shanna (2004). Gamers: writers, artists & programmers on the pleasures of pixels. Soft Skull Press. p. 119. ISBN 1-932360-57-3.
  13. ^ Carter, Jay (July 1993). "Insert Coin Here: Getting a Fighting Chance". Electronic Games.
  14. ^ Perry, Dave (November 1994). "Arcades: Ready for a Renaissance?". Games World. No. 7 (January 1995). Paragon Publishing. p. 6.
  15. ^ Williams, Andrew (16 March 2017). History of Digital Games: Developments in Art, Design and Interaction. CRC Press. pp. 143–6, 152–4. ISBN 978-1-317-50381-1.
  16. ^ Spencer, Spanner (12 February 2008). "The Tao of Beat-'em-ups (part 2)". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  17. ^ Thorpe, Nick (March 2014). "The 90s: The Decade of Rivalries". Retro Gamer. No. 127. pp. 32–5.
  18. ^ "Virtua Racing – Arcade (1992)". 15 Most Influential Games of All Time. GameSpot. 14 March 2001. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011.
  19. ^ Fuller, Brad. "Awakening the Arcade". Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
  20. ^ Ashcraft, Brian. "Why Arcades Haven't Died in Japan". Kotaku. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  21. ^ Kent, Steven L. (16 June 2010). The Ultimate History of Video Games: Volume Two: from Pong to Pokemon and beyond...the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Crown/Archetype. ISBN 978-0-307-56087-2.
  22. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P. (2008). The video game explosion: a history ... - Mark J. P. Wolf - Google Books. ISBN 9780313338687. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  23. ^ Gains, Raiford (November 2015). "Beyond the Bezel: Coin-Op Arcade Video Game Cabinets as Design History". Journal of Design History. 28 (4). doi:10.1093/jdh/epv036.
  24. ^ Kunkel, Bill (February 1983). "Insert Coin Here: Jungle King". Electronic Games. Vol. 1 no. 12. p. 62.
  25. ^ Hague, James (1997). "Eugene Jarvis". Halcyon Days: Interviews with Classic Computer and Video Game Programmers. Dadgum Games. Archived from the original on 22 June 2002. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  26. ^ a b "Sega's Wonderful Simulation Games Over The Years". Arcade Heroes. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  27. ^ a b Horowitz, Ken (6 July 2018). The Sega Arcade Revolution: A History in 62 Games. McFarland & Company. pp. 96–9. ISBN 978-1-4766-3196-7.
  28. ^ "Genre Definitions". Mobygames. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  29. ^ Butts, Steve (2003). "Secret Weapon Over Normandy Review". IGN. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007.
  30. ^ Hovermale, Chris (10 March 2019). "How Devil May Cry's arcade inspirations shaped character action games". Destructoid. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  31. ^ Tricks of the Podcasting Masters p. 38
  32. ^ Webb, Marcus (January 1998). "WMS Report Offers Revealing Look at Factory". Next Generation. No. 37. Imagine Media. p. 34.
  33. ^ "American Amusement Machine Association". www.gamingregulation.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  34. ^ "AAMA mission statement". AAMA. 2016.
  35. ^ Kushner, David (23 September 1999). "Care for a Latte With That, Mr. Nukem?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  36. ^ McFerran, Damien (18 September 2010). "Feature: How ColecoVision Became the King of Kong". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  37. ^ "The Definitive Space Invaders". Retro Gamer. No. 41. Imagine Publishing. September 2007. pp. 24–33.
  38. ^ Barton, Matt; Loguidice, Bill (28 February 2008). "A History of Gaming Platforms: Atari 2600 Video Computer System/VCS". Gamasutra. p. 5. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  39. ^ "Gamespy's The 25 Dumbest Moments in Gaming". Archive.gamespy.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  40. ^ "Joust for Macintosh (1994) – MobyGames". MobyGames. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  41. ^ "Digital Eclipse Software, Inc. – MobyGames". MobyGames. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  42. ^ Paprocki, Matt (6 November 2019). "How Arcade1Up found a sweet spot for scaled-down home game cabinets". Ars Technica. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  43. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P. (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-313-33868-7. What are the best-selling video games? There are a number of factors to consider when attempting to answer this question. First, there are several different types of video games, which makes comparisons difficult, or perhaps unfair. Arcade games are played for a quarter a play (although some are 50 cents, or even more), while home games are bought outright, and their systems must be purchased as well.
  44. ^ a b "CPI Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  45. ^ a b Kao, John J. (1989). Entrepreneurship, creativity & organization: text, cases & readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 45. ISBN 0-13-283011-6. Estimates counted 7 billion coins that by 1982 had been inserted into some 400,000 Pac Man machines worldwide, equal to one game of Pac Man for every person on earth. US domestic revenues from games and licensing of the Pac Man image for T-shirts, pop songs, to wastepaper baskets, etc. exceeded $1 billion.
  46. ^ Uncle John's Legendary Lost Bathroom Reader. Portable Press. September 1999. p. 373. ISBN 978-1-879682-74-0. In 1982 alone, Americans pumped $6 billion in quarters into Pac-Man's mouth—more than they spent in Las Vegas casinos and movie theatres combined.
  47. ^ Uncle John's Legendary Lost Bathroom Reader. Simon and Schuster. November 2012. p. 348. ISBN 978-1-60710-670-8. In 1982 alone, Americans pumped $6 billion in quarters into Pac-Man's mouth—more than they spent in Las Vegas casinos and movie theatres combined.
  48. ^ a b "After Pong". ACE. No. 6 (March 1988). 4 February 1988. pp. 29–32 (29).
  49. ^ a b Hansen, Dusty (2016). Game On! Video Game History From Pong and Pac-Man to Mario, Minecraft and More. MacMillan Publishing Group, LLC. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-250-08095-0.
  50. ^ Ste Curran (2004). Game plan: great designs that changed the face of computer gaming. Rotovision. p. 38. ISBN 2-88046-696-2. When Street Fighter II′ (pronounced street fighter two dash) was released just a short time later, it sold around 140,000 units, at ¥160.000 (c. US$1300 / £820) each. The figures were beyond massive – they were simply unheard of. Capcom's Titanic wasn't sinking. Anything but. The game was a runaway success in its territory of choice, bringing Western gamers as much joy as it had in the East.
  51. ^ Leone, Matt (3 February 2014). "Street Fighter 2: An Oral History". Polygon. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  52. ^ Steven L. Kent (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World. Prima. p. 446. ISBN 9780761536437. Capcom will not release the final numbers, but some outsiders have estimated that more than 60,000 Street Fighter II arcade machines were sold worldwide.
  53. ^ a b Leack, Jonathan (26 January 2017). "World of Warcraft Leads Industry With Nearly $10 Billion In Revenue". GameRevolution. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  54. ^ Ashcraft, Brian; Snow, Jean (2008). Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-7700-3078-8. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo and laying the groundwork for Nintendo and Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond.
  55. ^ Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Donkey Kong sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States.
  56. ^ a b c Steven L. Kent (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World. Prima. p. 352. ISBN 9780761536437. With more than 60,000 units sold in the United States, Donkey Kong was Nintendo's biggest arcade hit. The arcade industry began its long collapse the year after Donkey Kong was released, and Nintendo's arcade fortunes eroded quickly. Nintendo released Donkey Kong Junior in 1982 and sold only 30,000 machines, 20,000 Popeye machines (also 1982), and a mere 5000 copies of Donkey Kong 3 (1983).
  57. ^ a b c Jörg Ziesak (2009). Wii Innovate – How Nintendo Created a New Market Through the Strategic Innovation Wii. GRIN Verlag. p. 50. ISBN 978-3640497744. Donkey Kong was Nintendo's first international smash hit and the main reason behind the company's breakthrough in the Northern American market. In the first year of its publication, it earned Nintendo 180 million US dollars, continuing with a return of 100 million dollars in the second year.
  58. ^ a b "Bally Will Quit Making Pinball, Video Machines". Toledo Blade. 11 July 1988. p. 22.
  59. ^ a b Mark J. P. Wolf (2001). The medium of the video game. University of Texas Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-292-79150-X.
  60. ^ "Ms. Pac-Man (Coin-Op)". Digital Press. No. 24. March 1995. p. 19.
  61. ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 132. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Atari sold more than 70,000 Asteroids machines in the United States. The game did not do as well in Europe and Asia, however. Only about 30,000 units were sold overseas.
  62. ^ a b Gottschalk, S. (1995). "Videology: Video-Games as Postmodern Sites/Sights of Ideological Reproduction". Symbolic Interaction. 18 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1525/si.1995.18.1.1.
  63. ^ "Forbes". Forbes. Vol. 127. 1981. p. 102. At $2000 a unit, Atari has made about $140 million from that game alone.
  64. ^ a b c d Horowitz, Ken (6 August 2020). Beyond Donkey Kong: A History of Nintendo Arcade Games. McFarland & Company. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-4766-8420-8.
  65. ^ a b Bloom, Steve (1982). Video Invaders. Arco Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-668-05520-8.
  66. ^ RePlay. January 1984.
  67. ^ "Overseas Readers Column" (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 259. Amusement Press, Inc. 1 May 1985. p. 22.
  68. ^ "OutRun". Mean Machines Sega. No. 22. EMAP. August 1994. p. 92. ISSN 0967-9014.
  69. ^ Horowitz, Ken (22 June 2018). "OutRun (September 1986)". The Sega Arcade Revolution: A History in 62 Games. McFarland & Company. pp. 112–114 (114). ISBN 978-1-4766-7225-0. Both versions went on to produce terrific numbers for Sega, bringing in total worldwide sales of over $100 million and adding another memorable franchise to Sega's stable of hits.
  70. ^ Donkey Kong:
    • Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong
      • Brian Ashcraft; with Jean Snow; forewords by Kevin Williams; Crecente, Brian (2008). "sixty-five+thousand" Arcade Mania: The Turbo-charged World of Japan's Game Centers (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-7700-3078-8. Jumpman hopped over barrels, climbed ladders, and jumped from suspended platform to suspended platform as he tried to rescue a damsel from his pissed-off pet gorilla. The game was a smash, and sixty-five thousand cabinets were sold in Japan, propping up the then-struggling Nintendo and laying the groundwork for Nintendo and Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto to dominate gaming throughout the 1980s and beyond.
    • United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong
      • Bienaimé, Pierre (13 January 2012). "Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES)". Nintendojo. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Donkey Kong sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States.
    • United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr. and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3.[56]
  71. ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 352. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. In 1982, Universal Sales made arcade history with a game called Mr Do! Instead of selling dedicated Mr Do! machines, Universal sold the game as a kit. The kit came with a customized control panel, a computer board with Mr Do! read-only memory (ROM) chips, stickers that could be placed on the side of stand-up arcade machines for art, and a plastic marquee. It was the first game ever sold as a conversion only. According to former Universal Sales western regional sales manager Joe Morici, the company sold approximately 30,000 copies of the game in the United States alone.
  72. ^ Leone, Matt (8 December 2020). "Street Fighter 3: An oral history". Polygon. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  73. ^ Famitsu DC (15 February 2002). Interview: Akira Nagai — SEGA REPRESENTATIVE. セガ・アーケード・ヒストリー (Sega Arcade History). Famitsu Books (in Japanese). Enterbrain. pp. 20–23. ISBN 9784757707900. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020. (Translation by Shmuplations. Archived 7 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine).
  74. ^ Okamoto, Yoshiki (23 January 2021). "[How Darkstalkers Was Born!] Katsuya Akitomo, the Man Who Influenced Character Designs in "CAPCOM"". YouTube. Retrieved 21 July 2021..
  75. ^ "'NBA Jam' Rigged Against The Chicago Bulls According To Pistons Fan/Lead Designer, Mark Turmell". The Huffington Post. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  76. ^ Leone, Matt. "The Rise, Fall, and Return of NBA Jam". 1UP. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  77. ^ a b Horowitz, Ken (30 July 2020). Beyond Donkey Kong: A History of Nintendo Arcade Games. McFarland & Company. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4766-4176-8.
  78. ^ a b c d e Horwitz, Jeremy (8 July 2002). "Technology: Mortal Apathy?". The New York Times.
  79. ^ a b Rignall, Jaz (1 January 2016). "Top 10 Highest-Grossing Arcade Games of All Time". USgamer. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  80. ^ "Overseas Readers Column: Korean Counterfeiters Were Exposed By Police" (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 379. Amusement Press, Inc. 1 May 1990. p. 30.
  81. ^ "News Digest: TMNT Counterfeiters". RePlay. Vol. 15 no. 9. June 1990. p. 18.
  82. ^ a b "Pump It Up: Exceed drops to PS2 / Xbox". Punch Jump Crew. 8 September 2005.
  83. ^ a b c d "FY Ending March 2006: Full Year Results Presentation" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 16 May 2006. p. 11.
  84. ^ "Segment Results: Amusement Machines" (PDF). FY 2007: 1st Quarter Results (April–June 2006). Sega Sammy Holdings. 28 July 2006. p. 10.
  85. ^ a b c "FY 2007: Interim Results (April–September 2006)" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 10 November 2006. pp. 11–13.
  86. ^ a b "AOU 2009 – Sega World Club Champion Football Intercontinental Clubs 2007–2008". AOU Amusement Expo 2009. DigInfo TV. 2 March 2009. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012.
  87. ^ a b "Sports Gaming in Japan: World Club Champion Football". GameSpot. 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Currency Conversion". XE.com. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  89. ^ World Club Champion Football series, revenue:
    • Series revenues until March 2009 – $552.3 million
      • 480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack.[86] A¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each.[87] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion.[88] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 – $150.1 million[n 5]
  90. ^ a b c d e Fujihara, Mary (25 July 1983). "Inter Office Memo". Atari. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  91. ^ "THE FLASH DESIRE 雷電III". inhgroup.com (in Japanese). 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019. (Translation by Shmuplations. Archived 2019-12-17 at the Wayback Machine).
  92. ^ a b c d "Stern Production Numbers and More CCI Photos". 1 May 2012.
  93. ^ "#1 Game In Japan: Sega Electronics To Bring 'Champion Baseball' Vid to U.S." (PDF). Cash Box. 16 June 1983. pp. 33–4.
  94. ^ a b "FY Ending March 2006: Interim Results Presentation (April–September 2005)" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 22 November 2005.
  95. ^ a b c d Carless, Simon (29 March 2007). "Uemura – Sega's Hidden Game Design Power?". GameSetWatch.
  96. ^ a b c d Ashcraft, Brian (14 October 2005). "How Sega Reels in Girls". Kotaku.
  97. ^ a b "FY2005 Third quarter Financial Results (April–December 2004)" (PDF). Konami. 27 January 2005. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2006.
  98. ^ Alexander, Leigh; Sheffield, Brandon (8 February 2008). "DICE: Mizuguchi Talks Artistry And Commerce In Concert". Gamasutra. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  99. ^ a b c "Fiscal Year Ending March 2007: 3rd Quarter Results (April–December 2006)" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 7 February 2007. pp. 11–13.
  100. ^ "Fiscal Year Ending March 2006: 3rd quarter Results (April–December 2005)" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 8 February 2006. p. 8.
  101. ^ Horowitz, Ken (22 June 2018). The Sega Arcade Revolution: A History in 62 Games. McFarland & Company. pp. 36–42. ISBN 978-1-4766-7225-0.
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av "Atari Production Numbers Memo". Atari Games. 4 January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013.
  103. ^ Leone, Matt (7 July 2020). "Street Fighter 1: An oral history". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  104. ^ Baer, Ralph H. (2005). Videogames: In the Beginning. Rolenta Press. pp. 10–3. ISBN 978-0-9643848-1-1.
  105. ^ Kurokawa, Fumio (17 March 2018). "ビデオゲームの語り部たち 第4部:石村繁一氏が語るナムコの歴史と創業者・中村雅哉氏の魅力". 4Gamer (in Japanese). Aetas. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  106. ^ a b c "Segment Results: Amusement Machine" (PDF). Fiscal Year 2009: Full Year Results (Ending March 2009). Sega Sammy Holdings. 14 May 2009. p. 15.
  107. ^ a b c d "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: 9 Months Ended December 31, 2009" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 5 February 2010. p. 3.
  108. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: Year Ended March 31, 2010" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 14 May 2010. p. 3.
  109. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: Year Ended March 31, 2011" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 13 May 2011. p. 3.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: Year Ended March 31, 2012" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 11 May 2012. p. 3.
  111. ^ a b "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements: 9 Months Ended December 31, 2011" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 3 February 2012. p. 3.
  112. ^ a b c d e f "FY Ending March 2013: 1st Quarter Results Presentation (Ended June 2012)" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 1 August 2012. p. 11.
  113. ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 225. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Cinematronics sold more than 16,000 Dragon's Lair machines in 1983, for an average price of $4300. Coleco purchased the home rights to the game, giving Cinematronics an additional $2 million.
  114. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (13 August 1983). "Daring Dirk Perk For Arcades". Ottawa Citizen. p. 29.
  115. ^ a b c "Rick Dyer: Biography". Allgame. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  116. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fujihara, Mary (2 November 1983). "Inter Office Memo". Atari. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  117. ^ a b "Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements 6 Months Ended September 30, 2011" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 31 October 2011. p. 3.
  118. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (3 July 1982). "Movie Themes Come To Video Games". Star-News.
  119. ^ Jack B. Rochester; John Gantz (1983). The naked computer: a layperson's almanac of computer lore, wizardry, personalities, memorabilia, world records, mind blowers, and tomfoolery. William Morrow and Company. p. 164. ISBN 0-688-02450-5. Although the Disney Studios expected to make over $400 million from this siliconic extravaganza, our source at Variety tells us that its North American rentals were $15 million and estimated total gross, $30 million. The arcade game Tron, made by Bally, grossed more.
  120. ^ "Outline of Results Briefing" (PDF). Square Enix. 23 May 2008. p. 4.
  121. ^ a b "Outline of Results Briefing by SQUARE ENIX HOLDINGS held on November 7, 2008" (PDF). Square-Enix.com. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
  122. ^ "Fiscal Year Ended March 2007: Full Year Results" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 14 May 2007. p. 11.
  123. ^ a b "Fiscal Year 2008: Interim Results" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 12 November 2007. p. 11.
  124. ^ a b c d "Segment Results: Amusement Machines" (PDF). FY 2008: Full Year Results (Ending March 2008). Sega Sammy Holdings. 15 May 2008. p. 13.
  125. ^ Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 224. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Gottlieb sold approximately 25,000 Q*Bert arcade machines.
  126. ^ a b "Japanese gamers shake it, shake it!". South Africa: Independent Online (South Africa). 14 August 2000.
  127. ^ Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion
    • Currency conversion: $47.11 million[88]
  128. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Production Numbers" (PDF). Atari Games. 31 August 1999. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  129. ^ Fulton, Jeff (2010). "A short history of Missile Command". The essential guide to Flash games : building interactive entertainment with ActionScript 3.0 (New ed.). [Berkeley, Calif.]: Friends of ED. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4302-2614-7. While certainly not the size of Asteroids, the game was still a huge hit with almost 20,000 units sold.
  130. ^ a b "Business 1974: Industry: Space Age Pinball, Atari's PONG". Time. 5 October 1983. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2021. Typical of the new games is Pong, a popular version of electronic table tennis manufactured by two-year-old Atari, Inc. (estimated fiscal 1974 revenue: $14 million) of Los Gatos, Calif. Atari sold some 8,500 games to U.S. amusement parlors and other businesses last year.
  131. ^ a b Ashley S. Lipson; Robert D. Brain (2009). Computer and Video Game Law: Cases and Materials. Carolina Academic Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-59460-488-1. Atari eventually sold more than 19,000 Pong machines, giving rise to many imitations. Pong made its first appearance in 1972 at "Andy Capp's," a small bar in Sunnyvale, California, where the video game was literally "overplayed" as eager customers tried to cram quarters into an already heavily overloaded coin slot.
  132. ^ a b Barack, Lauren (8 May 2003). "In Blast From the Past, Atari Video Games Plan a Return". New York Post. p. 34. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Its first hit game, "Pong," launched in 1972, made $11 million in revenue in just one year.
  133. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ4:
    • Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[124]
    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[106]
  134. ^ a b "Big Buck Safari® Reaches Two Milestones!". Raw Thrills. 1 September 2009.[dead link]
  135. ^ a b Strang, Katie (24 April 2007). "Shootout at the local pub: Big Buck Hunter is a hit". The Arizona Republic.
  136. ^ a b "Patent, Trademark & Copyright Series". Patent, Trademark & Copyright Series. Bureau of National Affairs. 13 (503–4): 423–4. 1989. Taito received over $20 million from its U.S. sales of Double Dragons (...) A Double Dragon dedicated game cost a U.S. operator approximately $2500
  137. ^ "Video Games Star War". The New York Times. 25 October 1981. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  138. ^ a b Beals, Gregory (11 December 2000). "Kings of Cool". Newsweek. Konami has sold 25,000 Beatmania machines in three years. In the arcade industry, selling 1000 units is considered a success.
  139. ^ a b ("Special Feature: Music Simulation Games Rock the Market". Annual Report. Konami. 1999. p. 2. Archived from the original on 25 June 2004.)
  140. ^ a b Steven L. Kent (2000). The first quarter: a 25-year history of video games. BWD Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-9704755-0-0. Sea Wolf, which was another creation of Dave Nutting, did solid business, selling more than 10,000 machines.
  141. ^ Orland, Kyle (4 March 2011). "GDC 2011: Mark Cerny Discusses Marble Madness' Turbulent Development". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011.
  142. ^ Stern, Jane; Stern, Michael (1992). Jane & Michael Stern's Encyclopedia of Pop Culture: An A to Z Guide of Who's who and What's What, from Aerobics and Bubble Gum to Valley of the Dolls and Moon Unit Zappa. Harper Perennial. p. 373. ISBN 978-0-06-055343-2. “I think we have the Mickey Mouse of the 1980s,” said one Pac-Man executive when it was noted that Americans were spending about $6 billion per year on the game and its spinoffs
  143. ^ "Call-it Entertainment, Inc. Partners with Capcom to Launch Street Fighter Wireless Game Series". Business Wire. 16 May 2002. Archived from the original on 24 June 2002.
  144. ^ Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008. Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition. Guinness World Records. 2008. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-904994-21-3. Street Fighter has sold over 25 million console games and 500,000 arcade units generating more than a billion dollars in revenue.
  145. ^ Leonard Herman; Jer Horwitz; Steve Kent; Skyler Miller (2002). "The History of Video Games" (PDF). GameSpot. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012.
  146. ^ "What is Golden Tee?". Incredible Technologies. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013.
  147. ^ a b c "FY2004 Financial Results (for the year ended March 31, 2005)" (PDF). Tokyo: Sega Sammy Holdings. 25 May 2005. p. 11.
  148. ^ Shaggy (7 January 2010). "Big Buck Hunter Open Season pushes 3000 units in 90 days". Arcade Heroes.
  149. ^ "FY2005 1Q Results: Amusement Machine Sales" (PDF). FY2005 1Q Business Results (April–June 2005). Sega Sammy Holdings. 4 August 2005. p. 6.

External linksEdit