This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Haptic technology, also known as kinaesthetic communication or 3D touch, refers to any technology that can create an experience of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user. These technologies can be used to create virtual objects in a computer simulation, to control virtual objects, and to enhance remote control of machines and devices (telerobotics). Haptic devices may incorporate tactile sensors that measure forces exerted by the user on the interface. The word haptic, from the Greek: ἁπτικός (haptikos), means "pertaining to the sense of touch". Simple haptic devices are common in the form of game controllers, joysticks, and steering wheels.
Haptic technology facilitates investigation of how the human sense of touch works by allowing the creation of controlled haptic virtual objects. Most researchers distinguish three sensory systems related to sense of touch in humans: cutaneous, kinaesthetic and haptic. All perceptions mediated by cutaneous and kinaesthetic sensibility are referred to as tactual perception. The sense of touch may be classified as passive and active, and the term "haptic" is often associated with active touch to communicate or recognize objects.
- 1 History
- 2 Implementation
- 3 Applications
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
One of the earliest applications of haptic technology was in large aircraft that use servomechanism systems to operate control surfaces. In lighter aircraft without servo systems, as the aircraft approached a stall, the aerodynamic buffeting (vibrations) was felt in the pilot's controls. This was a useful warning of a dangerous flight condition. Servo systems tend to be "one-way," meaning external forces applied aerodynamically to the control surfaces are not perceived at the controls, resulting in the lack of this important sensory cue. To address this, the missing normal forces are simulated with springs and weights. The angle of attack is measured, and as the critical stall point approaches a stick shaker is engaged which simulates the response of a simpler control system. Alternatively, the servo force may be measured and the signal directed to a servo system on the control, also known as force feedback. Force feedback has been implemented experimentally in some excavators and is useful when excavating mixed material such as large rocks embedded in silt or clay. It allows the operator to "feel" and work around unseen obstacles.
In the 1960s, Paul Bach-y-Rita developed a vision substitution system using a 20x20 array of metal rods that could be raised and lowered, producing tactile "dots" analogous to the pixels of a screen. People sitting in a chair equipped with this device could identify pictures from the pattern of dots poked into their backs.
The first US patent for a tactile telephone was granted to Thomas D. Shannon in 1973. An early tactile man-machine communication system was constructed by A. Michael Noll at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. in the early 1970s and a patent was issued for his invention in 1975.
1994 marked the first use of non-contact haptic technology for entertainment when the Aura Interactor vest was developed. The vest is a wearable force-feedback device that monitors an audio signal and uses electromagnetic actuator technology to convert bass sound waves into vibrations that can represent such actions as a punch or kick. The vest plugs into the audio output of a stereo, TV, or VCR and the audio signal is reproduced through a speaker embedded in the vest.
In 1995, Thomas Massie developed the PHANToM (Personal HAptic iNTerface Mechanism) system. It used thimble-like receptacles at the end of computerized arms into which a person's fingers could be inserted, allowing them to "feel" an object on a computer screen.
In 1995, Norwegian Geir Jensen described a wristwatch haptic device with a skin tap mechanism, termed Tap-in. The wristwatch would connect to a mobile phone via Bluetooth, and tapping-frequency patterns would enable the wearer to respond to callers with selected short messages.
In 2015, the Apple Watch was launched. It uses skin tap sensing to deliver notifications and alerts from the mobile phone of the watch wearer.
The majority of electronics offering haptic feedback use vibrations, and most use a type of eccentric rotating mass (ERM) actuator, consisting of an unbalanced weight attached to a motor shaft. As the shaft rotates, the spinning of this irregular mass causes the actuator and the attached device to shake. Some newer devices, such as Apple's MacBooks and iPhones featuring the "Taptic Engine", accomplish their vibrations with a linear resonant actuator (LRA), which moves a mass in a reciprocal manner by means of a magnetic voice coil, similar to how AC electrical signals are translated into motion in the cone of a loudspeaker. LRAs are capable of quicker response times than ERMs, and thus can transmit more accurate haptic imagery.
Piezoelectric actuators are also employed to produce vibrations, and offer even more precise motion than LRAs, with less noise and in a smaller platform, but require higher voltages than do ERMs and LRAs.
Some devices use motors to manipulate the movement of an item held by the user. A common use is in automobile driving video games and simulators, which turn the steering wheel to simulate forces experienced when cornering a real vehicle. In 2007, Novint released the Falcon, the first consumer 3D touch device with high resolution three-dimensional force feedback. This allowed the haptic simulation of objects, textures, recoil, momentum, and the physical presence of objects in games.
Air vortex ringsEdit
Air vortex rings are donut-shaped air pockets made up of concentrated gusts of air. Focused air vortices can have the force to blow out a candle or disturb papers from a few yards away. Both Microsoft Research (AirWave) and Disney Research (AIREAL) have used air vortices to deliver non-contact haptic feedback.
Focused ultrasound beams can be used to create a localized sense of pressure on a finger without touching any physical object. The focal point that creates the sensation of pressure is generated by individually controlling the phase and intensity of each transducer in an array of ultrasound transducers. These beams can also be used to deliver sensations of vibration, and to give users the ability to feel virtual 3D objects.
Tactile electronic displaysEdit
A tactile electronic display is a display device that delivers text and graphical information using the sense of touch. Devices of this kind have been developed to assist blind or deaf users by providing an alternative to visual or auditory sensation.
Haptic feedback is commonly used in arcade games, especially racing video games. In 1976, Sega's motorbike game Moto-Cross, also known as Fonz, was the first game to use haptic feedback, causing the handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle. Tatsumi's TX-1 introduced force feedback to car driving games in 1983. The game Earthshaker! added haptic feedback to a pinball machine in 1989.
Simple haptic devices are common in the form of game controllers, joysticks, and steering wheels. Early implementations were provided through optional components, such as the Nintendo 64 controller's Rumble Pak in 1997. In the same year, the Microsoft SideWinder Force Feedback Pro with built-in feedback was released by Immersion Corporation. Many console controllers and joysticks feature built in feedback devices, including Sony's DualShock technology and Microsoft's Impulse Trigger technology. Some automobile steering wheel controllers, for example, are programmed to provide a "feel" of the road. As the user makes a turn or accelerates, the steering wheel responds by resisting turns or slipping out of control.
Recent introductions include:
- 2013: Steam Machines microconsoles by Valve, including a new Steam Controller unit that uses weighted electromagnets capable of delivering a wide range of haptic feedback via the unit's trackpads. These controllers' feedback systems are user-configurable.
- 2014: A new type of haptic cushion that responds to multimedia inputs by LG Electronics.
- 2015: The Steam Controller with HD Haptics, with haptic force actuators on both sides of the controller, by Valve.
- 2017: The Nintendo Switch's Joy-Con, introducing the HD Rumble feature (similar to Valve HD Haptics).
- 2018: The Nari Ultimate, a pair of headphones using a pair of Intelligent Haptics, by Razer Inc.
In 2008, Apple Inc.'s MacBook and MacBook Pro started incorporating a "Tactile Touchpad" design with button functionality and haptic feedback incorporated into the tracking surface. Products such as the Synaptics ClickPad followed.
Tactile haptic feedback is common in cellular devices. In most cases, this takes the form of vibration response to touch. Alpine Electronics uses a haptic feedback technology named PulseTouch on many of their touch-screen car navigation and stereo units. The Nexus One features haptic feedback, according to their specifications. Samsung first launched a phone with haptics in 2007.
Surface haptics refers to the production of variable forces on a user's finger as it interacts with a surface such as a touchscreen. Tanvas uses an electrostatic technology to control the in-plane forces experienced by a fingertip, as a programmable function of the finger's motion. The TPaD Tablet Project uses an ultrasonic technology to modulate the apparent slipperiness of a glass touchscreen.
In 2013, Apple Inc. was awarded the patent for a haptic feedback system that is suitable for multitouch surfaces. Apple's U.S. Patent for a "Method and apparatus for localization of haptic feedback" describes a system where at least two actuators are positioned beneath a multitouch input device, providing vibratory feedback when a user makes contact with the unit. Specifically, the patent provides for one actuator to induce a feedback vibration, while at least one other actuator uses its vibrations to localize the haptic experience by preventing the first set of vibrations from propagating to other areas of the device. The patent gives the example of a "virtual keyboard," however, it is also noted that the invention can be applied to any multitouch interface.
Haptics are gaining widespread acceptance as a key part of virtual reality systems, adding the sense of touch to previously visual-only interfaces. Systems are being developed to use haptic interfaces for 3D modeling and design, including systems that allow holograms to be both seen and felt. Several companies are making full-body or torso haptic vests or haptic suits for use in immersive virtual reality to allow users to feel explosions and bullet impacts.
Teleoperators and simulatorsEdit
Teleoperators are remote controlled robotic tools. When the operator is given feedback on the forces involved, this is called haptic teleoperation. The first electrically actuated teleoperators were built in the 1950s at the Argonne National Laboratory by Raymond Goertz to remotely handle radioactive substances. Since then, the use of force feedback has become more widespread in other kinds of teleoperators, such as remote-controlled underwater exploration devices.
Devices such as medical simulators and flight simulators ideally provide the force feedback that would be felt in real life. Simulated forces are generated using haptic operator controls, allowing data representing touch sensations to be saved or played back.
Haptic feedback is essential to perform complex tasks via telepresence. The Shadow Hand, an advanced robotic hand, has a total of 129 touch sensors embedded in every joint and finger pad that relay information to the operator. This allows tasks such as typing to be performed from a distance. An early prototype can be seen in NASA's collection of humanoid robots, or robonauts.
Medicine and dentistryEdit
Haptic interfaces for medical simulation are being developed for training in minimally invasive procedures such as laparoscopy and interventional radiology,  and for training dental students. A Virtual Haptic Back (VHB) was successfully integrated in the curriculum at the Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Haptic technology has enabled the development of telepresence surgery, allowing expert surgeons to operate on patients from a distance. As the surgeon makes an incision, they feel tactile and resistance feedback as if working directly on the patient.
Haptic technologies have been explored in virtual arts, such as sound synthesis or graphic design and animation. Haptic technology was used to enhance existing art pieces in the Tate Sensorium exhibit in 2015.
Force-feedback can be used to increase adherence to a save flight envelope and thus reduce the risk of pilots entering dangerous states of flights outside the operational borders while maintaining the pilots' final authority and increasing their situation awareness.
- "Augmented Reality" (PDF). Zums.ac.ir. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- Gabriel Robles-De-La-Torre. "International Society for Haptics: Haptic technology, an animated explanation". Isfh.org. Archived from the original on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- Srinivasan, M.A. & LaMotte, R.H. (1995). ”Tactual discrimination of softness”. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73, 88–101.
- Freyberger, F.K.B. & Färber, B. (2006). “Compliance discrimination of deformable objects by squeezing with one and two fingers”. Proceedings of EuroHaptics (pp. 271–76).
- Bergmann Tiest, W.M. & Kappers, A.M.L. (2009a). “Cues for haptic perception of compliance”. IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2, 189–99.
- Tiest W.M. (2010). "Tactual perception of material properties." Vision Res 50(24): 2775–82.
- Loftin, Lawrence K, Jr. (1985). "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft" (PDF). NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch. pp. Chapter 10. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- Morosi, Federico; Rossoni, Marco; Caruso, Giandomenico (2019). "Coordinated control paradigm for hydraulic excavator with haptic device". Automation in Construction. 105: 102848. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2019.102848.
- Bach-Y-Rita, Paul; Collins, Carter C.; Saunders, Frank A.; White, Benjamin; Scadden, Lawrence (1969). "Vision Substitution by Tactile Image Projection". Nature. 221 (5184): 963–964. doi:10.1038/221963a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
- "Patent US3780225 – Tactile communication attachment". USPTO. 18 December 1973. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Man-Machine Tactile Communication," SID Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, (July/August 1972), pp. 5–11.
- "US Patent 3919691 – Tactile man-machine communication system". USPTO. 11 November 1975. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Chen, Howard Henry. "Electronic vest adds a chest full of thrills to video games". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- 5587937, Massie, Thomas H. & Jr Salisbury, "United States Patent: 5587937 - Force reflecting haptic interface", issued December 24, 1996
- "Apple-klokka ble egentlig designet i Norge for 20 år siden". Teknisk Ukeblad digi.no. (Norwegian language). 30 March 2015.
- Ye, Shen (2015-04-08). "The science behind Force Touch and the Taptic Engine". iMore. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- Texas Instruments (2017). "Hear and feel the difference: TI's low-power audio and activators" (PDF). Texas Instruments. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- Wood, Tina (2007-04-05). "Introducing the Novint Falcon". On10.net. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- "Devices". HapticDevices. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
- Gupta, Sidhant; Morris, Dan; Patel, Shwetak N.; Tan, Desney (2013-01-01). "AirWave: Non-contact Haptic Feedback Using Air Vortex Rings". Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. UbiComp '13. New York: ACM: 419–28. doi:10.1145/2493432.2493463. ISBN 978-1-4503-1770-2.
- Sodhi, Rajinder; Poupyrev, Ivan; Glisson, Matthew; Israr, Ali (2013-07-01). "AIREAL: Interactive Tactile Experiences in Free Air". ACM Trans. Graph. 32 (4): 134:1–10. doi:10.1145/2461912.2462007. ISSN 0730-0301.
- Shtarbanov, Ali; Bove Jr., V. Michael (2018). "Free-Space Haptic Feedback for 3D Displays via Air-Vortex Rings" (PDF). Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '18. Montreal QC, Canada: ACM Press: 1–6. doi:10.1145/3170427.3188622. ISBN 9781450356213.
- Culbertson, Heather; Schorr, Samuel B.; Okamura, Allison M. (2018). "Haptics: The Present and Future of Artificial Touch Sensation". Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems. 1 (1): 385–409. doi:10.1146/annurev-control-060117-105043.
- Long, Benjamin (Nov 19, 2014). "Rendering volumetric haptic shapes in mid-air using ultrasound: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2014". ACM Transactions on Graphics. 33: 6.
- Chouvardas, V.G.; Miliou, A.N.; Hatalis, M.K. (2008). "Tactile displays: Overview and recent advances" (PDF). Displays. 29 (3): 185–194. doi:10.1016/j.displa.2007.07.003.
- "Here's What the Future of Haptic Technology Looks (Or Rather, Feels) Like". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- Moto-Cross at the Killer List of Videogames
- Fonz at the Killer List of Videogames
- Mark J.P. Wolf (2008), The video game explosion: a history from PONG to PlayStation and beyond, p. 39, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-313-33868-X
- TX-1 at the Killer List of Videogames
- "Microsoft and Immersion Continue Joint Efforts To Advance Future Development of Force Feedback Technology". Stories. 3 February 1998.
- Webster, Andrew (September 27, 2013). "Valve unveils the Steam Controller". The Verge. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- Y. J., Cho. "Haptic Cushion: Automatic Generation of Vibro-tactile Feedback Based on Audio Signal for Immersive Interaction with Multimedia". Research Gate. LG Electronics. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017.
- Neal, Dave (2013-09-30). "Valve shows off the Steam controller with haptic feedback". The Inquirer. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- "Nintendo's HD Rumble will be the best unused Switch feature of 2017". Engadget. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
- Andreadis, Kosta (2019-06-21). "Razer Nari Ultimate Wireless Gaming Headset Review - AusGamers.com". Ausgamers. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- "The Tactile Touchpad". CHI 97 Electronic Publications. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017.
- I. Scott, MacKenzie (April 23, 1998). "A Comparison of Three Selection Techniques for Touchpads" (PDF). CHI 98.
- "MacBook design". Apple.com.
- "ClickPad". Synaptics.com. Archived from the original on 2011-02-18.
- "Apple's 'Force Touch' Trackpad Fools Users Into Feeling Clicks Without Actually Moving". Retrieved 2017-11-22.
- "The MacBook Pro's new Force Touch Trackpad is great. Pity about the name". The Verge. Retrieved 2017-11-22.
- "Alpine Electronics Ships New IVA-W205 Double-DIN Audio/Vide + Naviation Head Unit". Torrance, CA. May 8, 2007. Archived from the original on November 17, 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
- "What's With Tech? –Technology Guide For Dummies". whatswithtech.com. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
- "Mobile Phones to Get Tactile Touch Screens". TechHive. Retrieved 2015-10-07.
- Rediscover Touch. Tanvas, Inc. website. retrieved 2016-06-05
- "Finger on Electrostatic Touchscreen in Slow Motion." YouTube video retrieved 2016-06-05
- "TPaD Tablet Project website." retrieved 2016-06-05
- , Pance, Aleksandar; Paul Alioshin & Brett Bilbrey, "United States Patent: 8378797 – Method and apparatus for localization of haptic feedback"
- Campbell, Mikey (2013-02-19). "Apple awarded patent for more accurate haptic feedback system". Apple Insider. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Moren, Dan (2015-04-27). "Haptic Gloves Use Air Pressure To Simulate The Feel Of Virtual Objects". Popular Science. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- Jeffrey, Colin (2014-12-02). "New ultrasound research creates holographic objects that can be seen and felt". New Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- "Touchable Hologram Becomes Reality (w/ Video)". Physorg.com. 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- Mary-Ann Russon (2016). Holograms you can reach out and touch developed by Japanese scientists. IBTimes
- Moss, Richard (2015-01-15). "Haptic technology: The next frontier in video games, wearables, virtual reality, and mobile electronics". New Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- Goertz, R.C. (1952-11-01). "Fundamentals of general purpose remote manipulators". Nucleonics. 10: 36–42.
- Feyzabadi, S.; Straube, S.; Folgheraiter, M.; Kirchner, E.A.; Su Kyoung Kim; Albiez, J.C., "Human Force Discrimination during Active Arm Motion for Force Feedback Design," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 309, 319, July–Sept. 2013
- Dormehl, Luke (2019-04-27). "The holy grail of robotics: Inside the quest to build a mechanical human hand". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- "Robonaut". Robonaut.jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- Jacobus, C., et al., Method and system for simulating medical procedures including virtual reality and control method and system, US Patent 5,769,640
- Pinzon D, Byrns S, Zheng B. “Prevailing Trends in Haptic Feedback Simulation for Minimally Invasive Surgery”. Surgical Innovation. 2016 Feb.
- Martin, Nicolas; Maddock, Stephen; Stokes, Christopher; Field, James; Towers, Ashley (2019). "A scoping review of the use and application of virtual reality in pre-clinical dental education" (PDF). British Dental Journal. 226 (5): 358–366. doi:10.1038/s41415-019-0041-0. ISSN 1476-5373. PMID 30850794.
- "Honors And Awards". Ent. ohiou.edu. Archived from the original on April 2, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- Kapoor, Shalini; Arora, Pallak; Kapoor, Vikas; Jayachandran, Mahesh; Tiwari, Manish (2017-05-17). "Haptics – Touchfeedback Technology Widening the Horizon of Medicine". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 8 (3): 294–99. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7814.4191. ISSN 2249-782X. PMC 4003673. PMID 24783164.
- Russ, Zajtchuk (2008-09-15). "Telepresence Surgery". Archived from the original on 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
- Attila A Priplata, James B Niemi, Jason D Harry, Lewis A Lipsitz, James J Collins. "Vibrating insoles and balance control in elderly people" Archived 2012-06-10 at the Wayback Machine The Lancet, Vol 362, October 4, 2003.
- Gardner, Julie (2014-12-10). "Vibrating Insoles May Improve Balance in Seniors". CBS Boston. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- Sommerer, Christa; Mignonneau, Laurent (1999-06-01). "Art as a Living System: Interactive Computer Artworks". Leonardo. 32 (3): 165–173. doi:10.1162/002409499553190. ISSN 0024-094X.
- Davis, Nicola (2015-08-22). "Don't just look – smell, feel, and hear art. Tate's new way of experiencing paintings". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
- Florian J. J. Schmidt-Skipiol & Peter Hecker (2015). "Tactile Feedback and Situation Awareness-Improving Adherence to an Envelope in Sidestick-Controlled Fly-by-Wire Aircrafts [sic]". 15th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference: 2905. doi:10.2514/6.2015-2905.
- Klein, D.D.; Rensink, H.; Freimuth, G.J.; Monkman, S.; Egersdörfer, H.; Böse & M. Baumann. Modelling the Response of a Tactile Array using Electrorheological Fluids. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 794–803, 2004.
- Klein, D.H.; Freimuth, G.J.; Monkman, S.; Egersdörfer, A.; Meier, H.; Böse M.; Baumann, H;, Ermert & O. T. Bruhns. ”Electrorheological Tactile Elements”. Mechatronics Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 883–97. Pergamon, September 2005.
- Monkman. G.J. “An Electrorheological Tactile Display”. Presence (Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments) Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 219–28, MIT Press, July 1992.
- Robles-De-La-Torre G. Principles of Haptic Perception in Virtual Environments. In Grunwald M (Ed.), Human Haptic Perception, Birkhäuser Verlag, 2008.
- Vashisth, A.; Mudur, S. (2008). "Deforming point-based models using an electronic glove". Proceedings of the 2008 C3S2E Conference: 193. doi:10.1145/1370256.1370288. ISBN 978-1-60558-101-9.