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Mount Agung or Gunung Agung is a volcano in Bali in Indonesia, located south east of Mt Batur volcano, also in Bali. Gunung Agung stratovolcano is the highest point on Bali. It dominates the surrounding area, influencing the climate, especially rainfall patterns.

Mount Agung
Agung usgs.jpg
Mount Agung in 1989
Highest point
Elevation 3,031 m (9,944 ft) [1][2]
Prominence 3,031 m (9,944 ft) [1]
Ranked 87th
Isolation 105 kilometres (65 mi)
Listing Island high point
Ultra
Ribu
Coordinates 8°20′27″S 115°30′12″E / 8.34083°S 115.50333°E / -8.34083; 115.50333Coordinates: 8°20′27″S 115°30′12″E / 8.34083°S 115.50333°E / -8.34083; 115.50333[1]
Naming
Translation Paramount, The Great Mountain
Geography
Mount Agung is located in Indonesia Bali
Mount Agung
Mount Agung
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 1963 to 1964[3]
Climbing
Easiest route Hike

Balinese believe that Mt Agung is a replica of Mt Meru, the central axis of the universe. One legend holds it that the mountain is a fragment of Meru brought to Bali by the first Hindus. The most important temple on Bali, Pura Besakih, is located high on the slopes of Gunung Agung.[4]

Gunung Agung last erupted in 1963–1964 in one of the largest and most devastating in Indonesia's history. It is still active with a large and very deep crater which occasionally belches smoke and ash. From a distance, the mountain appears to be perfectly conical.

From the peak of the mountain, it is possible to see the peak of Mt Rinjani on the nearby island of Lombok, to the east, although both mountains are frequently covered in clouds.

Contents

1963–64 eruptionEdit

The volcano last erupted in 1963 in one of the largest and most devastating in Indonesia's history.

On February 18, 1963, local residents heard loud explosions and saw clouds rising from the crater of Mount Agung. On February 24, lava began flowing down the northern slope of the mountain, eventually traveling 7 km in the next 20 days. On March 17, the volcano erupted (VEI 5), sending debris 8 to 10 km into the air and generating massive pyroclastic flows.[5] These flows devastated numerous villages, killing an estimated 1,100—1,500 people. Cold lahars caused by heavy rainfall after the eruption killed an additional 200. A second eruption on May 16 led to pyroclastic flows that killed another 200 inhabitants. Minor eruptions and flows followed and lasted almost a year.[6][7]

The lava flows missed, sometimes by mere yards, the Mother Temple of Besakih. The saving of the temple is regarded by Balinese as miraculous and a signal from the gods that they wished to demonstrate their power but not destroy the monument that the Balinese had erected.

Andesite was the dominant lava type with some samples mafic enough to be classified as basaltic andesite.[8]

2017 seismic activityEdit

In September 2017, an increase of seismic activity around the volcano raised the alert level to the highest level and about 122,500 people evacuated their houses around the volcano.[9] The Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management declared a 12-kilometer exclusion zone around the volcano on September 24.[10]

Evacuees have gathered in sports halls and other community buildings around Klungkung, Karangasem, Buleleng and other areas.[11] The monitoring station is located in Tembuku, Rendang, Karangasem Regency, where intensity and frequency of tremors are being monitored for signs of imminent eruption.[12]

The area experienced 844 volcanic earthquakes on September 25, and 300 to 400 earthquakes by midday on September 26. Seismologists has been alarmed at the force and frequency of the incidents as it has taken much less for similar volcanos to erupt.[6][13]

RecreationEdit

There are two main routes up the mountain; one from Pura Besakih proceeds to the higher western peak and starts at approximately 1,100 m (3,610 ft). The second route, reputed to take five hours (one-way), proceeds to the southern peak and commences higher from Pura Pasar Agung, near Selat.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Mountains of the Indonesian Archipelago" Peaklist.org. Note: Sources differ on the elevation of this peak. GVP gives an elevation of 3,142 m for Mount Agung. Peaklist.org gives this explanation in its footnotes: The elevation for Agung on most websites is 3142m. Analysis of IFSAR data and site visits by climbers indicated that the true elevation is close to 3031. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  2. ^ "Gunung Agung, Indonesia" Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
  3. ^ "Agung". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  4. ^ Pringle, pp. 4,63
  5. ^ "Geology of Mt. Agung". Pusat Vulkanologi & Mitigasi Bencana Geologi — VSI. ,. Archived from the original on 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
  6. ^ a b Once tremors detected, Bali volcano can erupt within hours: Volcanologist CNA, 3 October 2017
  7. ^ Zen, M. T.; Hadikusumo, Djajadi (December 1964). "Preliminary report on the 1963 eruption of Mt.Agung in Bali (Indonesia)". The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  8. ^ Self, S., and M.R. Rampino, 2012: The 1963–1964 eruption of Agung volcano (Bali, Indonesia). Bull. Vulcanol., 74, 1521–1536
  9. ^ "Indonesian official: More than 120,000 flee Bali volcano". Fox News. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017. 
  10. ^ "Thousands evacuated as Bali volcano sparks fear". The Australian. 24 September 2017. 
  11. ^ http://ubudhood.com/mount-agung-facts/
  12. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-09-25/how-do-experts-know-mount-agung-is-about-to-erupt/8985974
  13. ^ Lamb, Kate (2017-09-26). "Bali volcano eruption could be hours away after unprecedented seismic activity". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-09-26. 

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit