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Climbers on the world's highest summit, Mount Everest.
View from the summit of Switzerland's highest, Monte Rosa

A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.

Contents

DefinitionEdit

The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may also refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route.

The highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level (29,029 ft). The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary. He reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. [1][2] The UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres (98 ft) or more; it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres (980 ft). This can be summarised as follows:

Term Prominence Isolation
Subpeak < 30 m ? m
Independent peak or summit 30 m or more ? m
Mountain 300 m or more ? m
 
The summit of Mount Damavand, Iran, in winter
 
Jeff Davis Peak, one of the highest peaks entirely within Nevada, United States
 
Mount Elbrus and its two peaks (Caucasus, Russia)

Western United StatesEdit

 
Siskiyou Mountain Summit sign along Interstate 5, marking the highest point along the highway at 4,310 ft (1,310 m)

In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit.

Summit climbing equipmentEdit

A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, and a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox (anti-altitude sickness medication), masks, and bottles of oxygen. There are also special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, clothing, etc.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lyons, Kate (2017-05-21). "Mount Everest's Hillary Step has collapsed, mountaineer confirms". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  2. ^ "Everest". National Geographic. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 

External linksEdit