Mugadur / ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ / الصويرة
|City and Wilaya|
Clockwise from top:
Essaouira skyline, city wall bastion, Magana clocktower, Essaouira citadel by Scala harbour, Mosque Ben Youssef
|• Mayor||Asma Chaâbi|
|Highest elevation||50 m (160 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Time zone||WET (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Official name||Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)|
|Criteria||Cultural: ii, iv|
|Inscription||2001 (25th Session)|
|Buffer zone||15 ha|
Essaouira (Arabic: الصويرة; Berber languages: ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast. The modern name means "the little rampart", a reference to the fortress walls that still enclose part of the city.
Name and etymologyEdit
The name of the city is usually spelled Essaouira in Latin script, and الصويرة in Arabic script. Both spellings represent its name in Moroccan Arabic, ṣ-Ṣwiṛa. This is the diminutive (with definite article) of the noun ṣuṛ which means "wall (as round a yard, city), rampart". The pronunciation with pharyngealized /ṣ/ and /ṛ/ is a typically Moroccan development. In Classical Arabic, the noun is sūr (with plain /s/ and /r/), diminutive suwayrah. Hence, the spelling of the name in Arabic script according to the classical pronunciation is السويرة al-Suwayrah (with sīn not ṣād).
In the Berber language, which is spoken by a sizeable proportion of the city's inhabitants, it is called "Taṣṣort", meaning 'the small fortress'.
In Moroccan Arabic, a single male inhabitant is called ṣwiṛi, plural ṣwiṛiyin, a single female inhabitant is ṣwiṛiya, plural ṣwiṛiyat. In the Berber language, a single male inhabitant is U-Taṣṣort, plural: Ayt Taṣṣuṛt, a single female inhabitant is Ult Taṣṣort, plural 'Ist Taṣṣort.
Until the 1960s, Essaouira was generally known by its Portuguese name, Mogador. This name is probably a corruption of the older Berber name Amaqdūl, which is mentioned by the 11th-century geographer al-Bakrī.
Archaeological research shows that Essaouira has been occupied since prehistoric times. The bay at Essaouira is partially sheltered by the island of Mogador, making it a peaceful harbor protected against strong marine winds.
Around the end of the 1st century BCE or early 1st century CE, the Berber king Juba II established a Tyrian purple factory, processing the murex and purpura shells found in the intertidal rocks at Essaouira and the Iles Purpuraires. This dye colored the purple stripe in Imperial Roman Senatorial togas.
A Roman villa was excavated on Mogador island. A Roman vase was found as well as coinage from the 3rd century CE. Most of the artifacts are now visible in the Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum and the Rabat Archaeological Museum.
Betica amphora found in Essaouira, 1-2nd century CE.
Aegean amphora found in Essaouira, 3-4th century CE.
Roman coins excavated in Essaouira, 3rd century.
Early modern periodEdit
Portuguese establishment (1506–10)Edit
In 1506, the king of Portugal, D. Manuel I, ordered a fortress to be built there, named Castelo Real de Mogador. Altogether, the Portuguese are documented to have seized six Moroccan towns and built six stand-alone fortresses on the Moroccan Atlantic coast, between the river Loukos in the north and the river of Sous in the south. Four of them only had a short duration: Graciosa (1489), São João da Mamora (1515), Castelo Real of Mogador (1506–10) and Aguz (1520–25). Two became permanent urban settlements: Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (modern Agadir, founded in 1505–06), and Mazagan, founded in 1514–17. Following the 1541 Fall of Agadir, the Portuguese had to abandon most of their settlements between 1541 and 1550, although they were able to keep Ceuta, Tangier and Mazagan.
During the 16th century, powers including Spain, England, the Netherlands and France tried in vain to conquer the locality. Essaouira remained a haven for the export of sugar, molasses and the anchoring of pirates.
De Razilly expedition (1629)Edit
France was involved in an early attempt to colonize Mogador in 1629. As Richelieu and Père Joseph were attempting to establish a colonial policy, Admiral Isaac de Razilly suggested they occupy Mogador in 1626, which he had reconnoitered in 1619. The objective was to create a base against the Sultan of Marrakesh and asphyxiate the harbour of Safi.
He departed for Salé on 20 July 1629 with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Griffon, Catherine, Hambourg, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. He bombarded the city the Salé, destroyed three corsair ships, and then sent the Griffon under Captain Treillebois to Mogador. The men of Razilly saw the fortress of Castelo Real in Mogador and landed 100 men with wood and supplies on Mogador island, with the agreement of Richelieu. After a few days, however, the Griffon reimbarked the colonists and departed to rejoin the fleet in Salé.
After these expeditions, France signed a treaty with Abd el-Malek II in 1631, giving France preferential treatment, known as "capitulations": preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects.
Foundation of modern Essaouira (1760–70)Edit
The present city of Essaouira was built during the mid-eigtheeth century by the Moroccan King. Mohammed III tried to reorient his kingdom toward the Atlantic for increased exchanges with European powers, chose Mogador as his key location. One of his objectives was to establish a harbour at the closest possible point from Marrakesh. The other was to cut off trade from Agadir in the south, which had been favouring political rival of Mohammed III, and the inhabitants of Agadir were forced to relocate to Essaouira.
For 12 years, Mohammed III directed a French engineer, Théodore Cornut, and several other European architects and technicians to build the fortress and city along modern lines. Originally called "Souira" ("the small fortress"), the name became "Es-Saouira" ("the beautifully designed").
Thédore Cornut designed and built the city itself, particularly the Kasbah area, corresponding to the royal quarters and the buildings for Christian merchants and diplomats. Other parts were built by other foreigners. The harbour entrance, with the "Porte de la Marine", was built by an English renegade by the names of Ahmed el Inglizi ("Ahmed the English") or Ahmed El Alj ("Ahmed the Renegade"). The two "scalas" with their fortifications (the Harbour scala and the Northern scala) were built by Genoese engineers.
Mohammed III took numerous steps to encourage the development of Essaouira: the harbour of Agadir to the south was closed off in 1767, so that southern trade should be redirected through Essaouira. European communities in the northern harbour of Rabat-Salé were ordered to move to Essaouira through an ordinance of 21 January 1765.
From the time of its rebuilding by Muhammad III until the end of the nineteenth century, Essaouira served as Morocco's principal port, offering the goods of the caravan trade to the world. The route brought goods from sub-Saharan Africa to Timbuktu, then through the desert and over the Atlas mountains to Marrakech. The road from Marrakech to Essaouira is a straight line, explaining the king's choice of this port among the many that the Moroccan coast offers.
The ramparts from the Medina.
Dutch cannon made by Adrianus Crans in The Hague in 1744, installed in Essaouira.
Mohammed ben Abdallah encouraged Moroccan Jews to settle in the town and handle the trade with Europe. Jews once comprised 40% of the population, and the Jewish quarter (or mellah) contains many old synagogues. The town also has a large Jewish cemetery. The city flourished until the caravan trade died, superseded by direct European shipping trade with sub-Saharan Africa. Changes in trade, the founding of Israel and resulting wars with Arab states, and the independence of Morocco all resulted in Sephardic Jews leaving the country. As of 2017, Essaouira has only three Jewish inhabitants.
European trade and diplomacyEdit
In the 19th century, Essaouira became the first seaport of Morocco, with trade volumes about double those of Rabat. The city functioned as the harbour for Marrakesh, as it was only a few days from the inland city. Diplomatic and trade representations were established by European powers in Essouira. In the 1820, European diplomats were concentrated in either Tangiers or Essaouira.
Remains of the 19th-century Dutch Consulate in Essaouira.
Remains of the 19th-century Portuguese Consulate in Essaouira.
Former Essaouira English Consulate.
French interventions and ProtectorateEdit
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Following Morocco's alliance with Algeria's Abd-El-Kader against France, Essaouira was bombarded and briefly occupied by the French Navy under the Prince de Joinville on 16 August 1844, in the Bombardment of Mogador, an important battle of the First Franco-Moroccan War.
From 1912 to 1956, Essaouira was part of the French protectorate of Morocco. Mogador was used as a base for a military expedition against Dar Anflous, when 8,000 French troops were located outside of the city under the orders of Generals Franchet d'Esperey and Brulard. The Kasbah of Dar Anflous was taken on 25 January 1913. In 1930, brothers, Michel and Jean Vieuchange used Essaouira as a base before Michel set off into the Western Sahara to try to find Smara.
France had an important administrative, military and economic presence. Essaouira had a Franco-Moroccan school, still visible in Derb Dharb street. Linguistically, many Moroccans of Essaouira speak French fluently today.
In the early 1950s film director and actor Orson Welles stayed at the Hotel des Iles just south of the town walls during the filming of his 1952 classic version of "Othello" which contains several memorable scenes shot in the labyrinthine streets and alleyways of the medina. Legend has it that during Welles's sojourn in the town he met Winston Churchill, another guest at the Hotel des Iles. A bas-relief of Orson Welles is located in a small square just outside the medina walls close to the sea. It is in a neglected state being covered in bird droppings, graffiti and with a broken nose. In addition, the dedication plaque below it has been stolen (as of Dec 2008). Several other film directors have utilised Essaouira's photogenic and atmospheric qualities.
Beginning in the late 1960s, Essaouira became something of a hippie hangout. Despite common misconception, Jimi Hendrix's song "Castles Made of Sand" was written in 1967, two years before he visited the castles of Essaouira.
Essaouira is protected by a natural bay partially shielded from wave action by the Iles Purpuraires. A broad sandy beach extends from the harbour south of Essaourira, at which point the Oued Ksob discharges to the ocean; south of the discharge lies the archaeological ruin, the Bordj El Berod. The Canary Current is responsible for the generally southward movement of ocean circulation and has led to enhancement of the local fishery. The village of Diabat lies about five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of Essaouira, immediately south of the Oued Ksob.
Essaouira connects to Safi to the north and to Agadir to the south via the N1 road and to Marrakech to the east via the R 207 road. There is a small airport some 7 to 8 km (4 to 5 mi) away from the town, which schedules several flights a week to Paris-Orly, London-Luton and Brussels-South (Charleroi) and daily to Casablanca.
Essaouira's climate is mild semi-arid (BSn) bordering a warm summer Mediterranean one (Csb). The gap between highs and lows is small and summers are warm while winters are mild. Annual rainfall is usually 300 to 500 millimetres (12 to 20 in). Essaouira's climate is akin to coastal Los Angeles, specifically Santa Monica in California.
|Climate data for Essaouira, Morocco (1961–1990, extremes 1941–1992)|
|Record high °C (°F)||30.5
|Average high °C (°F)||18.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||14.6
|Average low °C (°F)||11.2
|Record low °C (°F)||3.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51.5
|Average precipitation days||8.3||7.8||7.9||6.9||3.5||1.0||0.1||0.3||1.2||5.2||8.6||8.4||59.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80||81||81||82||82||84||86||86||84||83||80||81||83|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||208.5||204.9||247.2||264.0||289.5||290.9||301.6||291.4||251.8||234.1||197.0||197.6||2,978.5|
|Source #1: NOAA|
|Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity)|
Xiphias gladius, Essaouira
There are only a handful of modern purpose-built hotels within the walls of the old city. Newer international hotels have been built along the sea front – the local planning regulations restrict buildings to 4 storeys high to help preserve the stunning views. There are also many privately owned riads, also known as dars, that may be rented on a daily or weekly basis.
The medina is home to many small arts and crafts businesses, notably cabinet making and 'thuya' wood-carving (using roots of the Tetraclinis tree), both of which have been practised in Essaouira for centuries.
The fishing harbour, suffering from the competition of Agadir and Safi remains rather small, although the catches (sardines, conger eels) are surprisingly abundant due to the coastal upwelling generated by the powerful trade winds and the Canaries Current. Essaouira remains one of the major fishing harbours of Morocco.
Essaouira is also renowned for its kitesurfing and windsurfing, with the powerful trade wind blowing almost constantly onto the protected, almost waveless, bay. Several world-class clubs rent top-notch material on a weekly basis. The township of Sidi Kaouki is located 25 km south of Essaouira and is becoming one of the best locations in Morcco for surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing. There are several businesses in Sidi Kaouki which offer gear rental.
Essaouira is also a center of argan oil production. It has become a tourist attraction due to the tree-climbing goats who are unique to the region, as argan trees are the only type the goats climb.
Culinary classes can also be offered.
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Essaouira presents itself as a city full of culture: several small art galleries are found all over the town. Since 1998, the Gnaoua Festival of World Music is held in Essaouira, normally in the last week of June. It brings together artists from all over the world. Although focussed on gnaoua music, it includes rock, jazz and reggae. Dubbed as the "Moroccan Woodstock" it lasts four days and attracts annually around 450,000 spectators.
- "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
- On the formation of diminutive nouns in Moroccan Arabic, see R.S. Harrell, A short reference grammar of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1962), p. 81.
- See T. Fox and M. Abu-Talib, A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1966), p. 148.
- The form sūr, with plain /s/, is the only form cited in all dictionaries of Classical Arabic.
- Mac Guckin de Slane (ed. and transl.), Description de l'Afrique septentrionale par el-Bekri (Alger 1913), Arabic text p. 86 مرسى امقدول marsá Ameqdūl "the port of Ameqdūl", translation p. 175 Amegdoul (Amegdul), with footnote: "Le tombeau ou chapelle de Sîdi Megdoul est situé tout auprès de Mogador; ce dernier est une altération de Megdoul".
- Marokko Ingeborg Lehmann, Rita Henss p.243
- City walls: the urban enceinte in global perspective, James D. Tracy, p.352
- Notes to The History and Description of Africa and of the Notable Things Therein by Leo Africanus p.338
- E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 9 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, p.549
- France in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu by Victor Lucien Tapié p.259
- Goldberg, Harvey E. (1996). Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries: History and Culture in the Modern Era. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253210410.
- The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.521
- Of Essaouira: "He employed European architects to design it, one a Frenchman said to be his prisoner, and the other an Englishman, converted to Islam and known as Ahmed el-Inglizi— otherwise Ahmed the Englishman." in Morocco, Dorothy Hales Gary, Baron Patrick Balfour Kinross, Viking Press, 1971, p.35
- The Sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi World by Daniel J. Schroeter, pp. 17 ff
- "Morocco's little idyll of Jewish-Muslim coexistence". The Economist. 2 November 2017.
- The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.520 ff
- The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroete,r p.125
- The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter p.17
- The sultan's Jew: Morocco and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter, p.121
- "Castles in the Sand". Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: And the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Kulleraugen – Visuelle Kommunikation Nr. 40, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5
- C.Michael Hogan, Mogador: promontory fort, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, 2 November 2007 
- William Adams Hance, The Geography of Modern Africa, Columbia University Press, 1975 ISBN 0-231-03869-0
- "Essaouira Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- "Klimatafel von Essaouira (Mogador) / Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Planet, Lonely. "Sidi Kaouki, Morocco – Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Essaouira: Home of the Argan Tree, Hardworking Berber Women, and Amusing Goats". Essence of Argan. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- [Www.essaouirataste.com Essaouira taste]
- "Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly – OSUI." AEFE. Retrieved on 12 May 2016. "25 rue Princesse Lalla Hasna, Quartier des Dunes, 44000 Essaouira"
- Gnaoua Festival Press Kit Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- ""La Rosace du Roi Salomon", nouveau roman de David Bensoussan". Le Mag. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Le judaïsme marocain est "bien vivant"". Atlas. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- David Bensoussan & Asher Knafo, "Mariage juif à Mogador" Éditions Du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2004 (ISBN 2-922505-15-4)
- David Bensoussan, Le fils de Mogador, www.editionsdulys.com,Éditions Du Lys, Montréal, 2002 (ISBN 978-2-922505-21-4)
- David Bensoussan, Il était une fois le Maroc : témoignages du passé judéo-marocain, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2010 (ISBN 2-922505-14-6); Deuxième édition : www.iuniverse.com, ISBN 978-1-4759-2608-8, 620p. ebook ISBN 978-1-4759-2609-5, Prix Haïm Zafrani de l'Institut universitaire Élie Wiesel, Paris 2012.
- David Bensoussan, La rosace du roi Salomon, Les Éditions Du Lys,www.editionsdulys.com, 2011, ISBN 978-2-922505-23-8.
- Hamza Ben Driss Ottmani, Une cité sous les alizés, MOGADOR, Des origines à 1939, Éditions La Porte, Rabat, 1997 ISBN 9981889180
- Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Consuls et vice-consuls de France à Mogador (Maroc), L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr
- Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Les Inscriptions du cimetière [chrétien] de Mogador (Essaouira, Maroc) – étude épigraphique et généalogique, L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr
- Doris Byer: Essaouira, endlich, Wien 2004, ISBN 978-3-8542-0651-4
- Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: And the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5
- Brigitte Tast, Hans-Jürgen Tast: Orson Welles – Othello – Mogador. Aufenthalte in Essaouira, Kulleraugen Vis.Komm. Nr. 42, Schellerten 2013, ISBN 978-3-88842-042-9
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Essaouira.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Essaouira.|
- UNESCO World Heritage site: Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)
- Website of the Urban Agency of Essaouira