Christian Ernest Dior (French: [kʁistjɑ̃ djɔʁ]; 21 January 1905 – 24 October 1957) was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, Christian Dior SE. His fashion houses are known all around the world, having gained prominence "on five continents in only a decade."[3]

Christian Dior
Christian Dior 1954
Christian Dior in 1954
Born(1905-01-21)21 January 1905
Granville, France
Died24 October 1957(1957-10-24) (aged 52)
Montecatini Terme, Tuscany, Italy
Resting placeCimetière de Callian, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France[1]
Alma materSciences Po[2]
LabelChristian Dior
Parents
Relatives

Dior's skills led to his employment and design for various fashion icons in attempts to preserve the fashion industry during World War II. Post-war, he founded and established the Dior fashion house, with his collection of the "New Look". In 1947 the collection debuted, in which he introduced the "New Look." Featuring rounded shoulders, a cinched waist, and very full skirt, the New Look celebrated ultra-femininity and opulence in women's fashion.

Throughout his lifetime, he won numerous awards for Best Costume Design. Upon his death in 1957, various contemporary icons paid tribute to his life and work.

Early life edit

 
The Christian Dior Home and Museum in Granville, France

Dior was born in Granville, a seaside town on the coast of Normandy, France. He was the second of five children born to Maurice Dior, a wealthy fertilizer manufacturer (the family firm was Dior Frères), and his wife, formerly Madeleine Martin. He had four siblings: Raymond (father of Françoise Dior), Jacqueline, Bernard, and Catherine Dior.[4] When Christian was about five years old, the family moved to Paris, but still returned to the Normandy coast for summer holidays.

Dior's family had hoped he would become a diplomat, but Dior was interested in art.[5] To make money, he sold his fashion sketches outside his house for about 10 cents each ($2 in 2022 dollars [6]). In 1928, he left school and received money from his father to finance a small art gallery, where he and a friend sold art by the likes of Pablo Picasso. The gallery was closed three years later, following the deaths of Dior's mother and brother, as well as financial trouble during the Great Depression that resulted in his father losing control of the family business.[7][8] Dior had no choice but to find another source of income to support himself.[8]

In search of work, Dior again created and sold fashion sketches. Those sketches were discovered by Robert Piguet.[9] From 1937, Dior was employed by fashion designer Piguet, who gave him the opportunity to design for three collections.[10][11] Dior later said that "Robert Piguet taught me the virtues of simplicity through which true elegance must come."[12][13] One of his original designs for Piguet, a day dress with a short, full skirt that was in his collection called "Cafe Anglais", was particularly well-received.[10][11] Whilst at Piguet, Dior worked alongside Pierre Balmain, and was succeeded as house designer by Marc Bohan – who would, in 1960, become head of design for Christian Dior Paris.[11] Dior left Piguet when he was called up for military service.

In 1942, when Dior left the army, he joined the fashion house of Lucien Lelong, where he and Balmain were the primary designers. For the duration of World War II, Dior, as an employee of Lelong, designed dresses for the wives of Nazi officers and French collaborators, as did other fashion houses that remained in business during the war, including Jean Patou, Jeanne Lanvin, and Nina Ricci.[14][15] His sister, Catherine (1917–2008), a member of the French Resistance, was captured by the Gestapo and sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was incarcerated until her liberation in May 1945.[16] In 1947, Dior named his debut fragrance Miss Dior in tribute to her.[17][18]

Dior was known for being superstitious. He often consulted his astrologer before making decisions, and his collections frequently featured talismanic symbols. He also carried a cluster of lucky charms with him, believing they brought him good fortune.[19]

The Dior fashion house edit

 
The "Bar Suit" on display at the Denver Art Museum (2019)

In 1946, Marcel Boussac, a successful entrepreneur, invited Dior to design for Philippe et Gaston, a Paris fashion house launched in 1925.[20] Dior refused, wishing to make a fresh start under his own name rather than reviving an old brand.[21] In 1946, with Boussac's backing, Dior founded his fashion house. The name of the line of his first collection, presented on 12 February 1947,[22] was Corolle (literally the botanical term corolla or circlet of flower petals in English). Dior's debut collection included a launch of 90 garments displayed in outfits.[23] The phrase New Look was coined for it by Carmel Snow, the editor-in-chief of Harper's Bazaar.

Dior's designs were more voluptuous than the boxy, fabric-conserving shapes of the recent World War II styles that had been influenced by the wartime rationing of fabric.[24] Despite being called "New," the Corolle line was clearly drawn from styles of the Edwardian era,[25][26][27] refining and crystallizing trends in skirt shape and waistline that had been burgeoning in high fashion since the late 1930s.[28][29][30] The house employed Pierre Cardin as head of its tailoring atelier for the first three years of its existence,[31] and it was Cardin who designed one of the most popular of the Corolle ensembles, the 1947 Bar suit.[32]

The "New Look" revolutionized women's dress, reestablished Paris as the centre of the fashion world after World War II,[33][34] and made Dior a virtual arbiter of fashion for much of the following decade.[35] Dior's collection was an inspiration to many women post-war and helped them regain their love for fashion.[36] Each season featured a newly titled Dior "line," in the manner of 1947's "Corolle" line, that would be trumpeted in the fashion press:[37] the Envol[38][39] and Cyclone/Zigzag lines[40] in 1948; the Trompe l'Oeil[41][42] and Mid-Century lines[43] in 1949; the Vertical[44][45] and Oblique lines[46][47] in 1950; the Oval[48] and Longue/Princesse[49][50] lines in 1951; the Sinueuse[51] and Profilėe[52][53] lines in 1952; the Tulipe[54][55] and Vivante/Cupola lines[56][57] in 1953; the Muguet/Lily of the Valley line[58] and H-Line[59] in 1954; the A-Line[60][61][62] and Y-Line[63] in 1955; the Flèche/Arrow[64] and Aimant/Magnet lines[65] in 1956; and the Libre/Free[66] and Fuseau/Spindle lines[67][68] in 1957, followed by successor Yves Saint Laurent's Trapeze line in 1958.[69][70]

In 1955, 19-year-old Yves Saint Laurent became Dior's design assistant. Dior told Saint Laurent's mother in 1957 that he had chosen Saint Laurent to succeed him at Dior. She indicated later that she was confused by the remark, as Dior was only 52 at the time.[23]

Death edit

Dior died of a sudden heart attack while on vacation in Montecatini, Italy, on 24 October 1957 in the late afternoon while playing a game of cards.[71] He was survived by Jacques Benita, a North African singer three decades his junior, the last of a number of discreet male lovers.[72][73][74]

Awards and honors edit

 
Dior on a Romanian stamp (2005)

Dior was nominated for the 1955 Academy Award for Best Costume Design in black and white for the Terminal Station directed by Vittorio De Sica (1953). He was also nominated in 1967 for a BAFTA for Best British Costume (Colour) for the Arabesque directed by Stanley Donen (1966).[75] For the 11th César Awards in 1986, he was nominated for Best Costume Design (Meilleurs costumes) for the 1985 film Bras de fer.[76]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Var: Côte d'Azur, Verdon, by Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette, Nouvelles éditions de l'Université, 2010, p. 150[ISBN missing]
  2. ^ Nowinski, Elodie (10 August 2015). "Christian Dior: A Passion for Beauty". Sciences Po. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  3. ^ "The History of the House of Dior". 20 November 2018.[permanent dead link][dead link]
  4. ^ Pochna, M-F. (1996). Christian Dior: The Man Who Made the World Look New p. 5, Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1-55970-340-7.
  5. ^ Pochna, Marie-France (1996). Christian Dior: The Man Who Made the World Look New (1st English language ed.). New York: Arcade Pub. p. 207. ISBN 1-55970-340-7.
  6. ^ 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  7. ^ Cooper, Leah Faye (1 July 2022). "How Christian Dior Pioneered 75 Years of Feminist Fashion". Vanity Fair.
  8. ^ a b "Christian Dior (1905-1957)". The Business of Fashion. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  9. ^ "Christian Dior (1905-1957)". The Business of Fashion. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  10. ^ a b Marly, Diana de (1990). Christian Dior. London: B.T. Batsford. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7134-6453-5. Dior designed three collections while at Piguet's, and the most famous dress he created then was the Cafe Anglais
  11. ^ a b c Pochna, Marie-France (1996). Christian Dior: The Man Who Made the World Look New. Translated by Savill, Joanna (1st English language ed.). New York: Arcade Pub. pp. 62, 72, 74, 80, 102. ISBN 978-1-55970-340-6. Robert Piguet.
  12. ^ Grainger, Nathalie (2010). Quintessentially Perfume. London: Quintessentially Pub. Ltd. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-9558270-6-8.
  13. ^ Picken, Mary Brooks; Dora Loues Miller (1956). Dressmakers of France: The Who, How, and why of the French Couture. Harper. p. 105.
  14. ^ Jayne Sheridan, Fashion, Media, Promotion: The New Black Magic (John Wiley & Sons, 2010), p. 44.
  15. ^ Yuniya Kawamura, The Japanese Revolution in Fashion (Berg Publishers, 2004), page 46. As quoted in the book, Lelong was a leading force in keeping the French fashion industry from being forcibly moved to Berlin, arguing, "You can impose anything upon us by force, but Paris couture cannot be uprooted, neither as a whole or in any part. Either it stays in Paris, or it does not exist. It is not within the power of any nation to steal fashion creativity, for not only does it function quite spontaneously, also it is the product of a tradition maintained by a large body of skilled men and women in a variety of crafts and trades." Kawamura explains that the survival of the French fashion industry was critical to the survival of France, stating, "Export of a single dress by a leading couturier enabled the country to buy ten tons of coal, and a liter of perfume was worth two tons of petrol" (page 46).
  16. ^ Sereny, Gitta (2002). The Healing Wound: Experiences and Reflections, Germany, 1938–2001. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0-393-04428-9.
  17. ^ Ranscombe, Sian (7 November 2017). "An exclusive interview with the nose behind the new Miss Dior perfume". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  18. ^ Pithers, Ellie (12 November 2013). "Who was the original Miss Dior?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  19. ^ "How superstition and clairvoyants influenced fashion designers from Christian Dior to Coco Chanel". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  20. ^ Palmer, Alexandra (Spring 2010). "Dior's Scandalous New Look". ROM Magazine. Royal Ontario Museum. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  21. ^ Pochna, Marie-France (1996). Christian Dior: The Man Who Made the World Look New. Translated by Savill, Joanna (1st English language ed.). New York: Arcade Pub. pp. 90–92. ISBN 978-1-55970-340-6.
  22. ^ Company History at Dior's website Archived 7 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ a b Sowray, Bibby (5 April 2012). "Christian Dior". British Vogue. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  24. ^ Grant, L. (22 September 2007). "Light at the end of the tunnel". The Guardian, Life & Style. London. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  25. ^ Morris, Bernadine (29 July 1976). "A Revolutionary Saint Laurent Showing". The New York Times: 65. Retrieved 16 March 2022. [T]he collection Christian Dior showed in 1947 ... was Edwardian
  26. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1946-1956". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. pp. 180–181. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior's New Look was still relying on old-fashioned underpinnings like boned corsetry ... Fashion ... reviv[ed] the mock-Edwardian style first presented in the late thirties. ... [Dior's] tighter waists, longer, fuller skirts and more pronounced hips were in fact the maximization of an old style
  27. ^ "Christian Dior Cuts Skirt Length in Move Disrupting Couture World". The New York Times: 28. 10 February 1948. As in 1900, horizontal strips of tucked lawn, lace insertion and Valenciennes ruching alternate from décolletage to hem...
  28. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1947". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 194. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. [T]he trend towards longer skirts, smaller waists and feminine lines had begun in the late thirties and was seen in America in the early forties; hence Dior was not the originator of this mode, but its rejuvenator and popularist.
  29. ^ Snow, Carmel (1948). "Fashion and Dress". 1948 Britannica Book of the Year: A Record of the March of Events of 1947. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. p. 321. ...[Christian Dior's] designs...crystallized and dramatized a trend that had started before World War II, but was interrupted by the exigencies of wartime conservation.
  30. ^ Cunningham, Bill (1 March 1988). "Fashionating Rhythm". Details. New York, NY: Details Publishing Corp. VI (8): 121. ISSN 0740-4921. Each of the major fashion changes that mark a season is the result of a series of creative designers adding essential elements to the overall picture. The eventual credit for the genius is often given to the designer who articulated the look with commercial success, such as Dior achieved with his 1947 New Look, although it had been seen in small prototypes at Balenciaga in the early Forties and at other Paris houses just before the war.
  31. ^ "Cardin First Struck Gold with Suit Made for Dior". The New York Times: 22. 27 August 1958. Retrieved 5 April 2023. Cocteau and Berard...introduced...Cardin to [Dior,] who was...preparing his first fashion collection...Cardin designed, cut, and made a coat and a suit. He showed them to Dior, who...enrolled him on his team....Cardin spent three...years at Dior...
  32. ^ "Cardin First Struck Gold with Suit Made for Dior". The New York Times: 22. 27 August 1958. Retrieved 5 April 2023. ...Cardin...designed one of the most successful models...a suit called 'Bar,' which buyers the world over bought.
  33. ^ Morris, Bernadine (14 April 1981). "How Paris Kept Position in Fashion". The New York Times: B19. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Dior's bombshell brought manufacturers as well as store buyers rushing back to the City of Light as they sought to interpret his inspirational designs for their own clients....Throughout the 1950's, Paris was acclaimed as the source of fashion, and Dior's success helped stave off the development of other independent style centers for at least a decade.
  34. ^ "Christian Dior – Fashionsizzle". fashionsizzle.com. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  35. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1948-1959". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 204. ISBN 0-14-004955-X. Women obeyed Paris because of Christian Dior.
  36. ^ "Christian Dior (1905-1957)". The Business of Fashion. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  37. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (1 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 169–173. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. S2CID 213675775. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  38. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1948-49". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 221. ISBN 0-14-004955-X. ...Dior produces his 'envol' line, superimposing an angle of fullness upon an arrow-thin sheath.
  39. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1948". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 200. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior introduced the 'Envol' line, which featured jutting wings and accentuated back interest.
  40. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1948". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 202. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior's autumn collection was entitled 'Zig Zag'. It emphasized an asymmetrical line...
  41. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1949". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 205. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior showed...an ample silhouette, with soft bulk in the skirt or torso, neatly belted in. This was an extension of his New Look. He used trompe-l'oeil devices...
  42. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 170. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. In his Trompe l'oeil collection, Dior used all sorts of tricks to make busts look wider...[H]e put flying panels or pleats on nearly every skirt; when standing still, the figure looked slender and lean, but with movement the panels fluttered and flew.
  43. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 170. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. Dior's Autumn Collection was called the Mid-Century look. The new Dior dresses and suits were softly bloused on top with tiny belted waists and pencil skirts...
  44. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 170. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. The first new look of the fifties was Dior's Vertical Line....Dior was aiming at...the look of a straight line between shoulder and hip...
  45. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1950". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 209. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. The designers of the most uncompromising sheaths were Dior, with his 'Vertical' line...
  46. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 171. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. Dior stayed with geometry for his...Oblique line. There were...asymmetrical necklines and bodices...[T]ucks and seams spiraled around the body.
  47. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1950". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 209. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior uses a stole cut in one with the jacket to achieve the oblique line on his grey flannel suit.
  48. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 171. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. The Oval line[:]...[e]very edge was rounded: suits hugged the body...; shoulders...smoothed into sleeves...; and hips and breasts were gently molded. Sleeves...curved at the top...Dior...used a simple mandarin neck-band – and jackets were rounded off at the front....He introduced a new, snug bolero jacket that...stopped just below the bust.
  49. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1951-52". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 227. ISBN 0-14-004955-X. This is Dior's first collection without stiffened and padded underlinings, and he launches his immediately successful 'princess' line with dresses fitted through the midriff, waist unmarked.
  50. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 171. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. ...[T]he Long line was soon christened the Princess line...[F]or the Princess line, the waist...stayed where it was...[T]he illusion of a high waist was given by...putting short bolero jackets...over dresses, or by placing a seam under the bust..., or by attaching a half-belt high up across the back...Skirts were fractionally longer to emphasize this long line...
  51. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 171. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. ...the Sinuous line: soft, fluid clothes that moved with the body...The sweater look consisted of...a soft cardigan jacket, a simple little top...and gentle skirt.
  52. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 171. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. ...[T]he Profile line...was sharper and more defined...[T]he clothes were simpler...and cut to outline the body in a dramatic way....[H]e invented a...skirt...constructed to jut out over the hips.
  53. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1952". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 219. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior's jutting 'Profile'-line dress..., which stands out as two points of a square at the front and two at the back.
  54. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1953". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 230. ISBN 0-14-004955-X. Dior reintroduces padding over the bust with his 'tulip' line...
  55. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1953". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 223. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior showed his 'Tulip' line, the long body rounding out over the bust and shoulders in petal-shaped curves.
  56. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 172. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. Dior called his Autumn Collection the Cupola, or Dome, line; there were wide, barrel-shaped coats and jackets with exaggeratedly round shoulders,...dresses with full busts and bell skirts, and a...rounded 'bustle' back for evening dresses...Princess dresses...with waists less marked...He raised the hemline by two inches...
  57. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1953". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 224. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. The headline news from Paris this autumn was Dior's skirt – some 16 inches from the ground....Dior offset the rise in hemline by raising the bustline to create an unbroken line,...giving an illusion of length.
  58. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 172. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. [Dior] called [his spring collection] his Lily of the Valley line. There were relaxed...suits with pleated skirts and short, sailor-collared jackets....The waist was less emphasized than ever before.
  59. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1954". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 228. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior's 'H' line suggested 'the tapering figure of a young girl' by increasing the distance between the hips and the bust....His dresses featured...bodices...which flattened the bust...
  60. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1955". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 239. ISBN 0-14-004955-X. Dior produces his new A line, a triangle widened from a small head and shoulders to a full pleated or stiffened hem.
  61. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1955". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 230. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Dior evolved last year's 'H' line into the 'A' line, which was commercially successful and widely adopted. The 'A' line...flared out into wide triangles from narrow shoulders.
  62. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 172. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. The A line and its predecessor, the H line, were revolutionary. They marked a complete U-turn in fashion away from the nipped-in waists and full skirts of the New Look to a sleeker, almost waistless shape...
  63. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 172. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. The Y line...was defined as a slender body with a top-heavy look....The Y could be upside-down too: long tunics with deep slits up the sides. These were...waistless and easy...
  64. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 172. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. ...[T]he Arrow line...showed two new versions of the high waist that he had loved since his Princesse line....[T]here were...jackets...chopped off above the waist to show the belt of the dress underneath, and...loose cut jackets caught in with a belt or sash well above the waist and worn over slim skirts.
  65. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 173. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. ...[Dior] produced daytime suits with skirts as long as those of an Edwardian lady. The new line was called Aimant, or Loving...
  66. ^ Radieva, Krasimira (2 March 2019). "An Investigation of the Silhouettes of Christian Dior". Artte. 7 (3): 173. doi:10.15547/artte.2019.03.002. ISSN 1314-8796. Retrieved 23 May 2023. ...Dior based much of his Libre line on two classic items of clothing[:]...the vareuse, or fishermen's smock,...and...the khaki bush jacket
  67. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1956-57". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 242. ISBN 0-14-004955-X. ...Dior's last collection leaves a legacy, the waistless shift or chemise dress that narrows toward the hem,...called the 'spindle'...
  68. ^ Blackwell, Betsy Talbot (1958). "Fashion". The American Peoples Encyclopedia Yearbook: Events and Personalities of 1957. Chicago, IL, USA: Spencer Press, Inc. p. 316. ...Paris, led by Christian Dior, ushered in the shift....A dress that bypassed the waist completely, it was actually the climax to a long-evolving 'relaxed look' that was everywhere gaining favor.
  69. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1958". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 246. ISBN 0-14-004955-X.
  70. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1958". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, The Penguin Group. pp. 251–252. ISBN 0-670-80172-0.
  71. ^ "Died. Christian Dior, 52". Time. 4 November 1957. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  72. ^ Zotoff, Lucy (25 December 2015). "Revolutions in fashion: Christian Dior". Haute Couture News. Archived from the original on 14 October 2022. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  73. ^ Blanks, Tim (18 August 2002). "The Last Temptation of Christian". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  74. ^ Du Plessix Gray, Francine (27 October 1996). "Prophets of Seduction". New Yorker. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  75. ^ "1967 Film British Costume Design – Colour | BAFTA Awards". Awards.bafta.org. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  76. ^ "Awards – Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma". Academie-cinema.org. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2017.

Further reading edit

External links edit