Abdul Hamid I
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Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد اول, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Turkish: Birinci Abdülhamit; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789) was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789.
|Abdul Hamid I|
عبد الحميد الاول
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
|27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)|
|Reign||21 January 1774 – 7 April 1789|
|Born||20 March 1725|
Topkapi Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
(present day Istanbul, Turkey)
|Died||7 April 1789 (aged 64)|
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
He was born on 20 March 1725 in Constantinople, a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III (reigned 1703–1730) and his consort Şermi Kadın. Ahmed III abdicated in favor of his nephew Mahmud I, who was succeeded by his brother Osman III, and Osman by Ahmed's elder son Mustafa III. As a potential heir to the throne, Abdul Hamid was imprisoned in comfort by his cousins and older brother, as was customary. This lasted until 1767. During this period, he received his early education from his mother Rabia Şermi, who taught him history and calligraphy.
On the day of Mustafa's death on 21 January 1774 , Abdul Hamid ascended to the throne with a ceremony held in the palace. The next day Mustafa III's funeral procession was held. The new sultan sent a letter to the Grand Vizier and Serdar-ı Ekrem Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha on the front and informed him to continue his duty. On 27 January 1774, the sword was armed in Eyup Sultan. At the time, the Ottoman-Russian front wars continued, the army was at once, and there was a shortage of food in Istanbul. 
Abdul Hamid's long imprisonment had left him indifferent to state affairs and malleable to the designs of his advisors. Yet he was also very religious and a pacifist by nature. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the Janissary Corps. The new Sultan told the Janissaries "There are no longer gratuities in our treasury, as all of our soldier sons should learn."
Abdul Hamid now sought to reform the Empire's armed forces. He enumerated the Janissary corps and tried to renovate it, and also the navy. He established a new artillery corps. He was also credited with the creation of the Imperial Naval Engineering School.
Abdul Hamid tried to strengthen Ottoman rule over Syria, Egypt, and Iraq. However, slight successes against rebellions in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimean Peninsula, which had become nominally independent in 1774, but was in practice now controlled by Russia.
Russia repeatedly exploited its position as protector of Eastern Christians to interfere in the Ottoman Empire, and explicitly. Finally the Ottomans declared war against Russia in 1787. Austria soon joined Russia. Turkey held its own in the conflict, at first, but on 6 December 1788, Ochakov fell to Russia (all of its inhabitants being massacred). It is said that this sad defeat broke Abdul Hamid's spirit, as he died four months later.
In spite of his failures, Abdul Hamid was regarded as the most gracious Ottoman Sultan. He personally directed the fire brigade during the Constantinople fire of 1782. He was admired by the people for his religious devotion, and was even called a Veli ("saint"). He also outlined a reform policy, supervised the government closely, and worked with statesmen.
Abdul Hamid I turned to internal affairs after the war with Russia ended in this way. He tried to suppress internal revolts through Algerian Gazi Hasan Pasha, and to regulate the reform works through Silâhdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (Karavezir) and Halil Hamid Pasha.
Especially in Syria, the rebellion of Zahir al-Omar, who cooperated with the admirals of the Russian navy in the Mediterranean, benefiting from the confusion caused by the Russian expedition of the 1768 Russian campaign, and suppressed the rebellion in Egypt in 1775, as well as the Kölemen who were in rebellion in Egypt. was brought to the road. On the other hand, the confusion in Peloponnese was ended, and calm was achieved. Kaptanıderyâ Gazi Hasan Pasha and Cezzâr Ahmed Pasha played an important role in suppressing all these events. 
Treaty of Küçük KaynarcaEdit
Despite his pacific inclinations, the Ottoman Empire was forced to renew the ongoing war with Russia almost immediately. This led to complete Turkish defeat at Kozludzha and the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed on 21 July 1774. The Ottomans ceded territory to Russia, and also the right to intervene on behalf of the Orthodox Christians in the Empire.
With the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, the territory left, as well as Russia's ambassador at Istanbul level and an authorized representative, this ambassador's participation in other ceremonies at the state ceremonies, the right to pass through the Straits to Russia, as the envoys of the Russian envoy were given immunity. Marketing opportunities for all kinds of commodities in Istanbul and other ports, as well as the full commercial rights of England and France were given. It was also in the treaty that the Russian state had a church built in Ga lata. Under the circumstances, this church would be open to the public, referred to as the Russo-Greek Church, and forever under the protection of Russian ambassadors in Istanbul. 
Relations with Tipu SultanEdit
In 1789, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embassy to Abdul Hamid, urgently requesting assistance against the British East India Company, and proposed an offensive and defensive alliance. Abdul Hamid informed the Mysori ambassadors that the Ottomans were still entangled and exhausted from the ongoing war with Russia and Austria.
Abdul Hamid I left many architectural works, mostly in Istanbul. The most important of these is the current in Sirkeci in 1777. It is the building built by the Vakıf Inn. He built a fountain, an elementary school, a madrasah and a library next to this building. The books in the library are kept in the Süleymaniye Library today and the madrasah is used as a stock exchange building. During the construction of the Vakıf Inn, the fountain was removed by construction and the fountain was transferred to the corner of Zeynep Sultan Mosque opposite Gülhane Park. 
In addition to these works, in 1778, he built a mosque with a mosque on the beach of Beylerbeyi on behalf of Râbia Şermi Kadın, and built fountains in Çamlıca Kısıklı Square, other than places such as İskele Square, Çınarönü, Havuzbaşı and Car Square. In addition, he had the Beylerbeyi Mosque substantially repaired, built a mosque, a fountain and a bath and shops around Emirgi in Emirgân in 1783, and another one for Hümâşah Sultan and his son Mehmed. The fountain has been built more. In addition to these, there is a fountain next to Neslişah Mosque in Istinye, and another fountain on the embankment between Dolmabahçe and Kabataş. 
He wrote down the troubles he saw before, to the grand vizier or to the governor of his empire. He accepted the invitations of the and his grand vizier and went to his mansions, followed by the reading of Quran. He was humble and a religious Sultan.
It is known that Abdul Hamid I was fond of his children, was interested in family life, spent the summer months in Karaağaç, Beşiktaş with his consorts, sons and daughters. His daughter Esma Sultan's dressing styles, her passion for entertainment, her journey to the objects with her journeymen and concubines have set an example for Istanbul ladies.
Abdul Hamid had married all of his consorts. He had made marriage of conscience because there were grounds for believing that the women in question had been born Muslims. In each case the sultan declared the girl to be free and repeated the marriage vow in her behalf before the Şeyhülislam, but did this without pomp. His nine wives were:
- Ayşe Kadın (died 1775, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul), Senior Consort;
- Ruhşah Kadın alias El-Hace Hatice (died 1808, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I), Second Consort→Senior Consort;
- Hümaşah Kadın (died 1778, buried in New Mosque, Istanbul), Third Consort→Second Consort;
- Sineperver Sultan (died 11 December 1828, buried in Eyüp Sultan Mosque), Fourth Consort→Third Consort→Second Consort;
- Binnaz Kadın (died June 1823, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I), Fifth Consort→Fourth Consort→Third Consort;
- Mehtabe Kadın, Fifth Consort→Fourth Consort;
- Mutebere Kadın (died 16 May 1837, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I), Sixth Consort→Fifth Consort;
- Şebsefa Kadın (died 1805, buried in Şebsefa Kadın Mosque, Eminönü, Istanbul), Sixth Consort;
- Nakşidil Sultan (died 22 August 1817, buried in Nakşidil Sultan Mausoleum, Fatih Mosque, Istanbul), Seventh Consort; (A mythical legend claims her to have been Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, a distant cousin-in-law of Napoleon's wife, Empress Josephine);
His sons were:
- Mustafa IV (reigned 1807–08) – with Sineperver;
- Mahmud II (reigned 1808–39) – with Nakşidil;
- Şehzade Abdullah (10 January 1776 – 10 January 1776);
- Şehzade Mehmed (22 August 1776 – 3 February 1781, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) – with Hümaşah;
- Şehzade Ahmed (12 December 1776 – 18 December 1778, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) – with Sineperver;
- Şehzade Abdurrahman (31 July 1777 – 2 August 1777);
- Şehzade Süleyman (13 March 1779 – 19 January 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Mutebere;
- Şehzade Abdülaziz (19 August 1779 – 19 August 1779) – with Ruhşah;
- Şehzade Mehmed Nusret (20 September 1782 – 23 October 1785) – with Şebsafa;
- Şehzade Seyfullah Murad (22 October 1783 – 21 January 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Nakşidil;
His daughters were:
- Hatice Sultan (12 January 1776 – 8 November 1776, buried in New Mosque);
- Ayşe Sultan (30 July 1777 – 9 September 1777);
- Esma Sultan (16 July 1778 – 4 June 1848, buried in Tomb of Mahmud II) – with Sineperver, married 29 May 1792, Damat Küçük Hüseyin Pasha (died 8 January 1803), foster-sister of Sultan Selim III;
- Rabia Sultan (19 April 1780 – 28 June 1780, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);
- Aynışah Sultan (10 July 1780 – 28 July 1780, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);
- Melikşah Sultan (29 December 1780 – 1781, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);
- Rabia Sultan (10 August 1781 – 3 October 1782, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);
- Fatma Sultan (19 January 1782 – 11 January 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Sineperver;
- Alemşah Sultan (10 November 1784 – 10 March 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Şebsafa;
- Saliha Sultan (28 November 1786 – 10 April 1788, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Nakşidil;
- Emine Sultan (4 February 1788 – 9 March 1791, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) – with Şebsafa;
- Hibetullah Sultan (16 March 1789 – 18 September 1841, buried in Tomb of Mahmud II) – with Şebsafa, married 3 February 1804, Damat Alaeddin Pasha (died at Scutari, January 1813), son of Damat Seyid Ahmed Pasha;
- Adopted daughters
Abdul Hamid had adopted two daughters when he was a prince:
Abdul Hamid died on 7 April 1789, at the age of sixty-four, in Constantinople. He was buried in Bahcekapi, a tomb he had built for himself.
He bred Arabian horses with great passion. One breed of Küheylan Arabians was named "Küheylan Abdülhamid" after him.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abd-ul-Hamid I.|
- Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (1 January 2018). Hamîd-i Evvel Külliyesi ve Çevresi. Istanbul Ticaret Borsasi. ISBN 978-6-051-37663-9.
- Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2015). Bu Mülkün Sultanları. Alfa Yayıncılık. ISBN 978-6-051-71080-8.
- Sarıcaoğlu, Fikret (1997). Hatt-ı Humayunlarına göre Bir Padişah'ın Portresi: Sultan I. Abdülhamid (1774-1789).
Media related to Abdül Hamid I at Wikimedia Commons
Abdul Hamid IBorn: 20 March 1725 Died: 7 April 1789[aged 64]
| Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
21 Jan 1774 – 7 Apr 1789
|Sunni Islam titles|
| Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
21 Jan 1774 – 7 Apr 1789