Abdul Hamid I

Abdülhamid or Abdul Hamid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد اول, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Turkish: Birinci Abdülhamid; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789)[1] was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1774 to 1789.

Abdul Hamid I
Ottoman Caliph
Amir al-Mu'minin
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Portrait of Abdülhamid I of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Padishah)
Reign21 January 1774 – 7 April 1789
PredecessorMustafa III
SuccessorSelim III
Born20 March 1725[1]
Topkapi Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
(present day Istanbul, Turkey)
Died7 April 1789(1789-04-07) (aged 64)[1]
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Among others
Abdülhamid Han bin Ahmed[2]
FatherAhmed III
MotherŞermi Kadın
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraAbdul Hamid I's signature

Early lifeEdit

Abdul Hamid was born on March 20, 1725, in Constantinople. He was a younger son of Sultan Ahmed III (reigned 1703–1730) and his consort Şermi Kadın.[3] Ahmed III abdicated his power in favor of his nephew Mahmud I, who was then succeeded by his brother Osman III, and Osman[3] by Ahmed's elder son Mustafa III. As a potential heir to the throne, Abdul Hamid was imprisoned in comfort by his cousins and older brother, which was customary. His imprisonment lasted until 1767. During this period, he received his early education from his mother Rabia Şermi, who taught him history and calligraphy.[3]



On the day of Mustafa's death on 21 January 1774, Abdul Hamid ascended to the throne with a ceremony held in the palace. The next day Mustafa III's funeral procession was held. The new sultan sent a letter to the Grand Vizier and Serdar-ı Ekrem Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha on the front and informed him to continue his duty. On 27 January 1774, the sword was armed in Eyup Sultan. At the time, the Ottoman-Russian front wars continued, the army was at once, and there was a shortage of food in Istanbul.[4]


Abdul Hamid's long imprisonment had left him indifferent to state affairs and malleable to the designs of his advisors.[5] Yet he was also very religious and a pacifist by nature. At his accession, the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the Janissary Corps. The new Sultan told the Janissaries "There are no longer gratuities in our treasury, as all of our soldier sons should learn."

The Ottoman Army advances from Sofia, its largest garrison in Rumelia, in the year 1788.

Abdul Hamid now sought to reform the Empire's armed forces. He enumerated the Janissary corps and tried to renovate it and the navy. He also established a new artillery corps, and is credited with the creation of the Imperial Naval Engineering School.[1]

Abdul Hamid tried to strengthen Ottoman rule over Syria, Egypt, and Iraq.[1] However, small successes against rebellions in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimean Peninsula, which had become nominally independent in 1774, but was in practice actually controlled by Russia.

Russia repeatedly and explicitly exploited its position as protector of Eastern Christians to interfere in the Ottoman Empire. Ultimately, the Ottomans declared war against Russia in 1787. Austria soon joined Russia. Turkey held its own in the conflict, at first, but on 6 December 1788, Ochakov fell to Russia (all of its inhabitants being massacred). Upon hearing this, Abdul Hamid I had a stroke, which resulted in his death.[6]

In spite of his failures, Abdul Hamid was regarded as the most gracious Ottoman Sultan.[7] He personally directed the fire brigade during the Constantinople fire of 1782. He was admired by the people for his religious devotion, and was even called a Veli ("saint"). He also outlined a reform policy, supervised the government closely, and worked with statesmen.

Abdul Hamid I turned to internal affairs after the war with Russia ended in this way. He tried to suppress internal revolts through Algerian Gazi Hasan Pasha, and to regulate the reform works through Silâhdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (Karavezir) and Halil Hamid Pasha.

Particularly in Syria, the rebellion of Zahir Al-Omar, who cooperated with the admirals of the Russian navy in the Mediterranean, benefiting from the confusion caused by the Russian expedition of the 1768 Russian campaign, and suppressed the rebellion in Egypt in 1775, as well as the Kölemen who were in rebellion in Egypt, was brought to the road. On the other hand, the confusion in Peloponnese was ended, and calm was achieved. Kaptanıderyâ Gazi Hasan Pasha and Cezzâr Ahmed Pasha played an important role in suppressing all these events.[6]

Treaty of Küçük KaynarcaEdit

Despite his pacific inclinations, the Ottoman Empire was forced to renew the ongoing war with Russia almost immediately. This led to complete Turkish defeat at Kozludzha and the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed on 21 July 1774. The Ottomans ceded territory to Russia, and also the right to intervene on behalf of the Orthodox Christians in the Empire.

With the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, the territory left, as well as Russia's ambassador at Istanbul level and an authorized representative, this ambassador's participation in other ceremonies at the state ceremonies, the right to pass through the Straits to Russia, as the envoys of the Russian envoy were given immunity. Marketing opportunities for all kinds of commodities in Istanbul and other ports, as well as the full commercial rights of England and France were given. It was also in the treaty that the Russian state had a church built in Galata. Under the circumstances, this church would be open to the public, referred to as the Russo-Greek Church, and forever under the protection of Russian ambassadors in Istanbul. [8]

Relations with Tipu SultanEdit

In 1789, Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embassy to Abdul Hamid, urgently requesting assistance against the British East India Company, and proposed an offensive and defensive alliance. Abdul Hamid informed the Mysori ambassadors that the Ottomans were still entangled and exhausted from the ongoing war with Russia and Austria.[citation needed]


Abdul Hamid I left many architectural works, mostly in Istanbul. The most important of these is the current in Sirkeci in 1777. It is the building built by the Vakıf Inn. He built a fountain, an elementary school, a madrasah and a library next to this building. The books in the library are kept in the Süleymaniye Library today and the madrasah is used as a stock exchange building. During the construction of the Vakıf Inn, the fountain was removed by construction and transferred to the corner of Zeynep Sultan Mosque opposite Gülhane Park.[6]

In addition to these works, in 1778, he built the Beylerbeyi Mosque dedicated to Râbia Şermi Kadın, and built fountains in Çamlıca Kısıklı Square, other than places such as İskele Square, Çınarönü, Havuzbaşı and Car Square. In addition, he built a mosque, a fountain and a bath and shops around Emirgi in Emirgân in 1783, and another one for Hümâşah Sultan and his son Mehmed. The fountain has been built more. In addition to these, there is a fountain next to Neslişah Mosque in Istinye, and another fountain on the embankment between Dolmabahçe and Kabataş.


He wrote down the troubles he saw before, to the grand vizier or to the governor of his empire. He accepted the invitations of the and his grand vizier and went to his mansions, followed by the reading of Quran. He was humble and a religious Sultan.[9]

It is known that Abdul Hamid I was fond of his children, was interested in family life, spent the summer months in Karaağaç, Beşiktaş with his consorts, sons and daughters. His daughter Esma Sultan's dressing styles, her passion for entertainment, her journey to the objects with her journeymen and concubines have set an example for Istanbul ladies.[10]



Abdul Hamid had married all of his consorts. He had made marriage of conscience because there were grounds for believing that the women in question had been born Muslims. In each case the sultan declared the girl to be free and repeated the marriage vow in her behalf before the Şeyhülislam, but did this without pomp.[11] His nine wives were:


His sons were:

  • Mustafa IV (reigned 1807–08) – with Sineperver;[14]
  • Mahmud II (reigned 1808–39) – with Nakşidil;[14]
  • Şehzade Abdullah (10 January 1776 - 1849, died in Algeria);[16][26]
  • Şehzade Muhammed (22 August 1776 – 3 February 1781, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) – with Hümaşah;[14][27][26]
  • Şehzade Ahmed (12 December 1776 – 18 December 1778, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) – with Sineperver;[14][28][26]
  • Şehzade Abdurrahman (31 July 1777 – 2 August 1777);[16][29]
  • Şehzade Süleyman (13 March 1779 – 19 January 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Mutebere;[30][31][29]
  • Şehzade Abdülaziz (19 August 1779 – 19 August 1779) – with Ruhşah;[16][29]
  • Şehzade Mehmed Nusret (20 September 1782 – 23 October 1785) – with Şebsafa;[32][33]
  • Şehzade Seyfullah Murad (22 October 1783 – 21 January 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Nakşidil;[16][34][33]

His daughters were:

  • Hatice Sultan (12 January 1776 – 8 November 1776, buried in New Mosque);[35][26]
  • Ayşe Sultan (30 July 1777 – 9 September 1777);[26]
  • Esma Sultan (16 July 1778[36] – 4 June 1848, buried in Tomb of Mahmud II) – with Sineperver,[37] married 29 May 1792, Damat Küçük Hüseyin Pasha (died 8 January 1803), foster-sister of Sultan Selim III;[14]
  • Rabia Sultan (19 April 1780 – 28 June 1780, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);[14][27][29]
  • Aynışah Sultan (10 July 1780 – 28 July 1780, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);[31][29]
  • Melikşah Sultan (29 December 1780 – 1781, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);[38][34][29]
  • Rabia Sultan (10 August 1781 – 3 October 1782, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I);[34][33]
  • Fatma Sultan (19 January 1782 – 11 January 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Sineperver;[16][38][34][33]
  • Alemşah Sultan (10 November 1784 – 10 March 1786, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Şebsafa;[16][38][34][33]
  • Saliha Sultan (28 November 1786 – 10 April 1788, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) - with Nakşidil;[16][39][36]
  • Emine Sultan (4 February 1788 – 9 March 1791, buried in Tomb of Abdul Hamid I) – with Şebsafa;[16][28][36]
  • Hibetullah Sultan (16 March 1789[36] – 18 September 1841, buried in Tomb of Mahmud II) – with Şebsafa, married 3 February 1804, Damat Alaeddin Pasha (died at Scutari, January 1813), son of Damat Seyid Ahmed Pasha;[14]
Adopted daughters

Abdul Hamid had adopted two daughters when he was a prince:

  • Ahtermelek Hanım (1758[40] – 3–31 December 1785, buried in Eyüp Cemetery), married Mehmed Said Bey, son of Izzet Pasha;[36]
  • Dürrüşehvar Hanım (1760 – May 1826, buried in Nakşidil Sultan Mausoleum), married Ahmed Nazif Bey (killed 21 May 1789), son of Hacı Selim Agha;


Abdul Hamid died on 7 April 1789, at the age of sixty-four, in Constantinople. He was buried in Bahcekapi, a tomb he had built for himself.

He bred Arabian horses with great passion. One breed of Küheylan Arabians was named "Küheylan Abdülhamid" after him.


  1. ^ a b c d e Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdulhamid I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. pp. 22. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  2. ^ Kürkman, Garo (2003). Anatolian Weights and Measures. ISBN 9789757078173.
  3. ^ a b c Derman Sabancı (2002). "27. Osmanlı padişahı Sultan I. Abdülhamid'in eserleri" (PDF). Islamic Manuscripts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  4. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 349.
  5. ^ Yarbrough, Luke B. (13 June 2019). Friends of the Emir: Non-Muslim State Officials in Premodern Islamic Thought (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108634274.011. ISBN 978-1-108-63427-4.
  6. ^ a b c "ABDÜlHAMID I عبدالحمید (ö. 1203/1789) Osmanlı padişahı (1774-1789)". İslam Ansiklopedisi. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  7. ^ "Abdulhamid II | Biography, History, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  8. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 350.
  9. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 353.
  10. ^ Sakaoğlu 2015, p. 357.
  11. ^ Fanny Davis (1986). The Ottoman Lady: A Social History from 1718 to 1918. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-313-24811-5.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Kocaaslan, Murat. I. Abdülhamid'in İstanbul'daki İmar Faaliyetleri. pp. 124–5.
  13. ^ a b c d e Cunbur, Müjgan. I. Abdülhamid Vakfiyesi Ve Hamidiye Kütüphanesi.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Uluçay, Mustafa Çağatay (2011). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Ötüken, Ankara. pp. 105–9.
  15. ^ Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (1998). İstanbul su külliyâtı: İstanbul şer'iyye sicilleri : Mâ-i Lezı̂z defterleri 2 (1791-1794). İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. p. 147.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sarıcaoğlu, Fikret (2001). Kendi kaleminden bir Padişahın portresi Sultan I. Abdülhamid (1774-1789). Tatav, Tarih ve Tabiat Vakfı. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-9-756-59601-2.
  17. ^ Raif, Mehmet; Kut, Günay; Aynur, Hatice (1996). Mirʼât-ı İstanbul. felik Gülersoy Vakfı. p. 99.
  18. ^ Ayvansarai, Hafız Hüseyin; Çabuk, Vâhid (1985). Mecmuâ- i tevârih. İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi. p. 261.
  19. ^ Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (2001). Yüzyıllar boyunca Üsküdar - Volume 2. Üsküdar Belediyesi. p. 758. ISBN 978-9-759-76060-1.
  20. ^ Ziya, Mehmet (2004). Istanbul ve Boğaziçi: Bizans ve Osmanlı medeniyetlerinin Ölümsüz Mirası, Volume 1. BIKA.
  21. ^ Kal'a, Ahmet; Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (2000). İstanbul su külliyâtı. 16 : İstanbul şer'iyye sicilleri mâ-i lezîz defterleri. (1813 - 1817). İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. p. 97.
  22. ^ Sarıcaoğlu, Fikret (2001). Kendi kaleminden bir Padişahın portresi Sultan I. Abdülhamid (1774-1789). Tatav, Tarih ve Tabiat Vakfı. p. 8. ISBN 978-9-756-59601-2.
  23. ^ Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (1998). İstanbul su külliyâtı: İstanbul şer'iyye sicilleri : Mâ-i Lezı̂z defterleri 1 (1786-1791), Volume 3. İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. p. 229.
  24. ^ Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (1998). İstanbul su külliyâtı: İstanbul şer'iyye sicilleri : Mâ-i Lezı̂z defterleri 1 (1786-1791), Volume 3. İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. p. 153.
  25. ^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century, Journal of World History, vol. 17, No. 2, 2006.
  26. ^ a b c d e Sarıcaoğlu 1997, p. 11.
  27. ^ a b Haskan 2018, p. 75.
  28. ^ a b Haskan 2018, p. 84.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Sarıcaoğlu 1997, p. 12.
  31. ^ a b Haskan 2018, p. 74.
  32. ^ Barışta, Örcün (2000). Osmanlı İmparatorluğu dönemi İstanbul'undan kuşevleri. Kültür Bakanlığı. p. 223. ISBN 978-9-751-72535-6.
  33. ^ a b c d e Sarıcaoğlu 1997, p. 13.
  34. ^ a b c d e Haskan 2018, p. 76.
  35. ^ Uluçay 2011, p. 166.
  36. ^ a b c d e Sarıcaoğlu 1997, p. 14.
  37. ^ Kal'a, Ahmet; Tabakoğlu, Ahmet (2002). Vakıf su defterleri. İstanbul Araştırmaları Merkezi. p. 182.
  38. ^ a b c Uluçay 2011, p. 169.
  39. ^ Haskan 2018, p. 77.
  40. ^ Yıldırım, Tahsin (2006). Veliaht Yusuf İzzeddin. Çatı Yayıncılık. p. 26. ISBN 978-9-758-84521-7.


  • Haskan, Mehmet Nermi (1 January 2018). Hamîd-i Evvel Külliyesi ve Çevresi. Istanbul Ticaret Borsasi. ISBN 978-6-051-37663-9.
  • Sakaoğlu, Necdet (2015). Bu Mülkün Sultanları. Alfa Yayıncılık. ISBN 978-6-051-71080-8.
  • Sarıcaoğlu, Fikret (1997). Hatt-ı Humayunlarına göre Bir Padişah'ın Portresi: Sultan I. Abdülhamid (1774-1789).

External linksEdit

  Media related to Abdül Hamid I at Wikimedia Commons

Abdul Hamid I
Born: 20 March 1725 Died: 7 April 1789[aged 64]
Regnal titles
Preceded by Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
21 Jan 1774 – 7 Apr 1789
Succeeded by
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
21 Jan 1774 – 7 Apr 1789
Succeeded by