Qusayy ibn Kilab

Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah (Arabic: قصي ٱبن كلاب ٱبن مرة, Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah; ca. 400–480), also spelled Qusayy, Kusayy, Kusai, or Cossai, born Zayd (Arabic: زيد),[1] was an Ishmaelite descendant of the Prophet Abraham. Orphaned early on, he would rise to become King of Mecca, and leader of the Quraysh tribe.[2] He is best known for being an ancestor of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad as well as the third and the fourth Rashidun caliphs, Uthman and Ali, and the later Umayyad, Abbasid, and Fatimid caliphs along with several of the most prominent Hashemite dynasties in the orient.[3]

Qusayy ibn Kilab
قصي ٱبن كلاب
زيد ٱبن كلاب
1st King of Quraysh
Succeeded byAbd Manaf ibn Qusai
Personal details
Born
Zayd ibn Kilab

400
Died480
SpouseHubba bint Hulail
ChildrenAbd-al-Dar ibn Qusai (son)
Abd Manaf ibn Qusai (son)
Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai
Parent(s)Kilab ibn Murrah (father)
Fatimah bint Sa'd (mother)
RelativesZuhrah ibn Kilab (brother)
Known forAncestor of Muhammad, King of Makkah

BackgroundEdit

His father was Kilab ibn Murrah who died when Qusai was an infant. According to Islamic tradition, he was a descendant of Ibrahim (Abraham) through his son Isma'il (Ishmael). His elder brother Zuhrah ibn Kilab was the progenitor of the Banu Zuhrah clan. After his father's death his mother Fatimah bint Sa'd ibn Sayl married Rabi'ah ibn Haram from the Bani Azra tribe, who took her with him to Syria, where she gave birth to a son called Darraj.[4] His uncle was Taym ibn Murrah ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah, who was of the Quraysh al-Bitah (i.e. Qurayshis living near the Ka'bah in Mecca.[4]

Life in SyriaEdit

Qusai grew up treating his step-father, Rabi'ah, as his father. When a quarrel broke out between Qusai and some members of the tribe of Rabi'ah, they reproached him and betrayed the fact that they never regarded him as one of their own. Qusai complained to his mother, who replied "O my son," she said, "your descent is nobler than theirs, you are the son of Kilab ibn Murrah, and your people live in the proximity of the Holy House in Mecca." Because of this, Qusai departed from Syria and returned to Mecca.[4]

Life in MeccaEdit

When Qusai came of age, Hulail ibn Hubshiyyah the chief of Banu Khuza'a tribe was the trustee and guardian of the Ka'bah. Soon Qusai asked for and married Hulail's daughter Hubbah. When his father-in-law died after a battle which ended in arbitration, he committed the keys of the Kaaba to Hubbah. Hulail preferred Qusai as his successor from his own sons and according to Hulail's will, Qusai got the trusteeship of the Kaaba after him.

Qusai brought his nearest of kin of Quraysh, and settled them in the Meccan valley besides the Sanctuary – his brother Zuhrah, his uncle Taym ibn Murrah, the son of another uncle Makhzum ibn Yaqaza, and his other cousins Jumah and Sahm, who were less close.[5] These and their posterity were known as Quraysh al-Biṭāḥ ("Quraysh of the Hollow"), whereas his more remote kinsmen settled in the ravines of the surrounding hills and in the countryside beyond and were known as Quraysh aẓ-Ẓawāhir ("Quraysh of the Outskirts").[2]

Qusai ruled as a King. He reconstructed the Kaaba from a state of decay, and made the Arab people build their houses around it. He is known to have built the first "town hall" in the Arabian Peninsula, a spacious dwelling which was known as the House of Assembly. Leaders of different clans met in this hall to discuss their social, commercial, cultural and political problems. Qusai created laws so that pilgrims who went to Mecca were supplied with food and water, which was paid for by a tax that the people paid. He distributed the responsibilities of looking after the visitors during pilgrimage, taking care of the Kaaba, warfare, and pacifying amongst myriad tribes living in Mecca.[2]

SonsEdit

Qusai had many sons, some of them being Abd, Abd-al-Dar, Abd Manaf and Abd-al-Uzza.[2] It was a marked characteristic of Qusai's line that in each generation there would be one man who was altogether pre-eminent. Among his four sons, Abd Manaf was already honoured in his lifetime. However Qusai preferred his first born, Abd-al-Dar, although he was the least capable of all so he singled out Abd Manaf his second son for his honor and prestige. Shortly before Qusai's death he invested all his rights, powers, and transferred the ownership of the House of Assembly to Abd Manaf.

DescendantsEdit

The following Royal and Imperial dynasties claim descent from Qusai:

Europe

Arabia

Africa

Indo-Persia:

East Asia


Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) was the second of the three major Arab Caliphates established after the end of Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Arabic Europe

Family treeEdit


Kilab ibn MurrahFatimah bint Sa'd
Zuhrah ibn Kilab
(progenitor of Banu Zuhrah)
maternal great-great-grandfather
Qusai ibn Kilab
paternal great-great-great-grandfather
Hubba bint Hulail
paternal great-great-great-grandmother
`Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah
maternal great-grandfather
`Abd Manaf ibn Qusai
paternal great-great-grandfather
Atikah bint Murrah
paternal great-great-grandmother
Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf
maternal grandfather
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf
(progenitor of Banu Hashim)
paternal great-grandfather
Salma bint `Amr
paternal great-grandmother
Fatimah bint `Amr
paternal grandmother
`Abdul-Muttalib
paternal grandfather
Halah bint Wuhayb
paternal step-grandmother
Aminah
mother
`Abdullah
father
Az-Zubayr
paternal uncle
Harith
paternal half-uncle
Hamza
paternal half-uncle
Thuwaybah
first nurse
Halimah
second nurse
Abu Talib
paternal uncle
`Abbas
paternal half-uncle
Abu Lahab
paternal half-uncle
6 other sons
and 6 daughters
MuhammadKhadija
first wife
`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas
paternal cousin
Fatimah
daughter
Ali
paternal cousin and son-in-law
family tree, descendants
Qasim
son
`Abd-Allah
son
Zainab
daughter
Ruqayyah
daughter
Uthman
second cousin and son-in-law
family tree
Umm Kulthum
daughter
Zayd
adopted son
Ali ibn Zainab
grandson
Umamah bint Zainab
granddaughter
`Abd-Allah ibn Uthman
grandson
Rayhana bint Zayd
wife
Usama ibn Zayd
adoptive grandson
Muhsin ibn Ali
grandson
Hasan ibn Ali
grandson
Husayn ibn Ali
grandson
family tree
Umm Kulthum bint Ali
granddaughter
Zaynab bint Ali
granddaughter
Safiyya
tenth wife
Abu Bakr
father-in-law
family tree
Sawda
second wife
Umar
father-in-law
family tree
Umm Salama
sixth wife
Juwayriya
eighth wife
Maymuna
eleventh wife
Aisha
third wife
Family tree
Zaynab
fifth wife
Hafsa
fourth wife
Zaynab
seventh wife
Umm Habiba
ninth wife
Maria al-Qibtiyya
twelfth wife
Ibrahim
son
  • * indicates that the marriage order is disputed
  • Note that direct lineage is marked in bold.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ibn Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. p. 3.
  2. ^ a b c d Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. George Allen & Unwin. p. 6. ISBN 0946621330.
  3. ^ Ibn Hisham. The Life of the Prophet Muhammad. Vol. 1. p. 181.
  4. ^ a b c Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "The Prophet's Line Family No 3 – Qusayy, Hubbah, and Banu Nadr to Quraysh". Ruqaiyyah Waris Maqsood Dawah. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  5. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2001). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. Phoenix. p. 66. ISBN 0946621330.
  6. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  7. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  8. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  9. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  10. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  11. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  12. ^ a b c Andrzejewski, B. W. (April 1962). "A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa". International Affairs. 38 (2): 275–275. doi:10.2307/2610467. ISSN 1468-2346.
  13. ^ Morimoto, Kazuo (2010). "The Earliest ʿAlid Genealogy for the Safavids: New Evidence for the Pre-dynastic Claim to Sayyid Status". Iranian Studies. 43 (4): 447–469. doi:10.1080/00210862.2010.495561. JSTOR 23033219. S2CID 161191720.
  14. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  15. ^ Abul Fazl (2004). The Āʼīn-i Akbarī (2nd ed.). Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9693515307.
  16. ^ Khan, Muhammad Najm-ul-Ghani (1918). Akhbar-us-Sanadeed, vol. 1. Lucknow: Munshi Nawal Kishore. pp. 79–83 (85–89).
  17. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  18. ^ Punjab States Gazetteers Bahawalpur State Vol.36 (Volume 36 ed.). 1908. p. 47.
  19. ^ Khan, Shah Nawaz (1952). Maasir al Umara. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Press. pp. 259–262.
  20. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.
  21. ^ Vachon, Auguste; Boudreau, Claire; Cogné, Daniel (1998). Genealogica & Heraldica: Ottawa 1996. University of Ottawa Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-7766-1600-1.

External linksEdit