Abu Hanifa

Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (Arabic: أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان‎; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims,[5] was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,[6] who became the eponymous founder of the Hanafi school of Sunni jurisprudence, which has remained the most widely practiced law school in the Sunni tradition,[6] predominates in Central Asia, Afghanistan, Persia (until the 16th century), Balkans, Russia, Chechnya, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Muslims in India, Turkey, and some parts of the Arab world.[7][8]

Abū Ḥanīfah
أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان
ابوحنیفه
Abu Hanifa Name.png
Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā ibn Marzubān with Islamic calligraphy
TitleThe Great Imam
Personal
Born699 (80 Hijri)
Kufa, Umayyad Caliphate
Died767 (150 Hijri)
Baghdad, Abbasid Caliphate
ReligionIslam
EthnicityPersian[1][2][3][4]
EraIslamic golden age
RegionKufa[1]
Main interest(s)Jurisprudence
Notable idea(s)Istihsan
Notable work(s)Al-Fiqh al-Akbar
Muslim leader

He is often alluded to by the reverential epithets al-Imām al-Aʿẓam ("The Greatest Imam") and Sirāj al-aʾimma ("The Lamp of the Imams") in Sunni Islam.[3][6] He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims.[9]

Born to a Muslim family in Kufa,[6] Abu Hanifa is known to have travelled to the Hejaz region of Arabia in his youth, where he studied under the most renowned teachers in Mecca and Medina at the time.[6] As his career as a theologian and jurist progressed, Abu Hanifa became known for favoring the use of reason in his legal rulings (faqīh dhū raʾy) and even in his theology.[6] Abu Hanifa's theological school is claimed to be what would later develop into the Maturidi school of Sunni theology.[6]

LifeEdit

ChildhoodEdit

Abū Ḥanīfah was born in the city of Kufa in Iraq,[10][11] during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. His father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul (modern-day Afghanistan), was 40 years old at the time of Abu Hanifa's birth.

His grandfather Zuta is said to have been brought as a slave from Kabul and transported to Kufa,[12] where Abu Hanifa was born. He studied at Kufa and gradually gained influence as an authority on legal questions, founding a moderate rationalist school of Islamic jurisprudence that was named after him.[13]

It's being said that his family emigrated from Charikar north of Kabul to Baghdad in the eighth century.[14]

His ancestry is generally accepted as being of Persian origin as suggested by the etymology of the names of his grandfather (Zuta) and great-grandfather (Mah).[15] The historian Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi records a statement from Imām Abū Ḥanīfah's grandson, Ismail bin Hammad, who gave Abū Ḥanīfah's lineage as Thabit bin Numan bin Marzban and claiming to be of Persian origin.[3][4] The discrepancy in the names, as given by Ismail of Abū Ḥanīfah's grandfather and great-grandfather, are thought to be due to Zuta's adoption of the Arabic name (Numan) upon his acceptance of Islam and that Mah and Marzban were titles or official designations in Persia, with the latter, meaning a margrave, referring to the noble ancestry of Abū Ḥanīfah's family as the Sasanian Marzbans (equivalent of margraves). The widely accepted opinion, however, is that most probably he was of Persian ancestry .[3][4]

Adulthood and deathEdit

In 763, al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State, but he declined the offer, choosing to remain independent. His student Abu Yusuf was later appointed Qadi Al-Qudat (Chief Judge of the State) by the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.[16]

In his reply to al-Mansur, Abū Ḥanīfah said that he was not fit for the post. Al-Mansur, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused Abū Ḥanīfah of lying.

"If I am lying," Abū Ḥanīfah said, "then my statement is doubly correct. How can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qadi (Judge)?"

Incensed by this reply, the ruler had Abū Ḥanīfah arrested, locked in prison and tortured. He was never fed nor cared for.[17] Even there, the jurist continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him.

On the 15 Rajab 150[18] (August 15, 767[19]), Abū Ḥanīfah died in prison. The cause of his death is not clear, as some say that Abū Ḥanīfah issued a legal opinion for bearing arms against Al-Mansur, and the latter had him poisoned.[20] The fellow prisoner and Jewish Karaite founder, Anan Ben David, is said to have received life-saving counsel from the subject.[21] It was said that so many people attended his funeral that the funeral service was repeated six times for more than 50,000 people who had amassed before he was actually buried. On the authority of the historian al-Khatib, it can be said that for full twenty days people went on performing funeral prayer for him. Later, after many years, the Abū Ḥanīfah Mosque was built in the Adhamiyah neighbourhood of Baghdad. Abū Ḥanīfah also supported the cause of Zayd ibn Ali and Ibrahim al Qamar both Alid Zaidi Imams.

The tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and the tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani were destroyed by Shah Ismail of Safavi empire in 1508.[22] In 1533, Ottomans conquered Baghdad and rebuilt the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and other Sunni sites.[23]

StudentsEdit

Many people came to study under Imām Abu Hanifa from different parts of Muslim world in his lifetime. Imām Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi listed 97 hadith scholars who were his students. Most of them were famous hadith scholars and their narrated hadiths were compiled in the Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and other famous books of hadith.[24] Imām Badr al-Din al-Ayni included another 260 students who studied Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Hanifa.[25]

His most famous student was Imām Abu Yusuf, who served as the first chief justice in the Muslim world. Another famous student was Imām Muhammad al-Shaybani, who was the teacher of the Shafi‘i school of jurisprudence founder, Imām Al-Shafi‘i. His other students include:[26]

  1. Abdullah ibn Mubarak
  2. Abu Nuāim Fadl Ibn Dukain
  3. Malik bin Mighwal
  4. Dawood Taa’ee
  5. Mandil bin Ali
  6. Qaasim bin Ma’n
  7. Hayyaaj bin Bistaam
  8. Hushaym bin Basheer Sulami
  9. Fudhayl bin Iyaadh
  10. Ali bin Tibyaan
  11. Wakee bin Jarrah
  12. Amr bin Maymoon
  13. Abu Ismah
  14. Zuhayr bin Mu’aawiyah
  15. Aafiyah bin Yazeed

Sources and methodologyEdit

The sources from which Abu Hanifa derived Islamic law, in order of importance and preference, are: the Qur'an, the authentic narrations of the Muslim prophet Muhammad (known as hadith), consensus of the Muslim community (ijma), analogical reasoning (qiyas), juristic discretion (istihsan) and the customs of the local population enacting said law (urf). The development of analogical reason and the scope and boundaries by which it may be used is recognized by the majority of Muslim jurists, but its establishment as a legal tool is the result of the Hanafi school. While it was likely used by some of his teachers, Abu Hanifa is regarded by modern scholarship as the first to formally adopt and institute analogical reason as a part of Islamic law.[27]

As the fourth Caliph, Ali had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi school of law based many of its rulings on the prophetic tradition as transmitted by those first generation Muslims residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities from the direct relatives (or Ahli-ll-Bayṫ) of Moḥammad from whom Abu Hanifa had studied such as Muhammad al-Baqir. Many jurists and historians had reportedly lived in Kufa, including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman.[28][29]

Generational statusEdit

Abū Ḥanīfah is regarded by some as one of the Tabi‘un, the generation after the Sahaba, who were the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. This is based on reports that he met at least four Sahaba including Anas ibn Malik,[10] with some even reporting that he transmitted Hadith from him and other companions of Muhammad.[30][31] Others take the view that Abū Ḥanīfah only saw around half a dozen companions, possibly at a young age, and did not directly narrate hadith from them.[30]

Abū Ḥanīfah was born 67 years after the death of Muhammad, but during the time of the first generation of Muslims, some of whom lived on until Abū Ḥanīfah's youth. Anas bin Malik, Muhammad's personal attendant, died in 93 AH and another companion, Abul Tufail Amir bin Wathilah, died in 100 AH, when Abū Ḥanīfah was 20 years old. The author of al-Khairat al-Hisan collected information from books of biographies and cited the names of Muslims of the first generation from whom it is reported that the Abu Hanifa had transmitted hadith. He counted them as sixteen, including Anas ibn Malik, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah and Sahl ibn Sa'd.[32]

ReceptionEdit

 
Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (grass green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Northern Middle East, many parts of Egypt, Central Asia and most of the Indian subcontinent

Abu Hanifa ranks as one of the greatest jurists of Islamic civilization and one of the major legal philosophers of the entire human community.[33] He attained a very high status in the various fields of sacred knowledge and significantly influenced the development of Muslim theology.[34] During his lifetime he was acknowledged by the people as a jurist of the highest calibre.[35]

Outside of his scholarly achievements Abu Hanifa is popularly known amongst Sunni Muslims as a man of the highest personal qualities: a performer of good works, remarkable for his self-denial, humble spirit, devotion and pious awe of God.[36]

His tomb, surmounted by a dome erected by admirers in 1066 is still a shrine for pilgrims.[33] It was given a restoration in 1535 by Suleiman the Magnificent upon the Ottoman conquest of Baghdad.[23]

The honorific title al-Imam al-A'zam ("the greatest leader") was granted to him[37] both in communities where his legal theory is followed and elsewhere.[citation needed] According to John Esposito, 41% of all Muslims follow the Hanafi school.[38]

Abu Hanifa also had critics. The Zahiri scholar Ibn Hazm quotes Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah: "[T]he affairs of men were in harmony until they were changed by Abù Hanìfa in Kùfa, al-Batti in Basra and Màlik in Medina".[39] Early Muslim jurist Hammad ibn Salamah once related a story about a highway robber who posed as an old man to hide his identity; he then remarked that were the robber still alive he would be a follower of Abu Hanifa.[40]

Connection with the family of Muhammad and Shi'ismEdit

Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607–661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618–687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610–660) taughtUmar (579–644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603–681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657–725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637–715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614–693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624–692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667–772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682–720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676–733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)Al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran

As with Malik ibn Anas (who was a teacher of Imam Ash-Shafi‘i,[41][42]:121 who in turn was a teacher of Sunni Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal), Imam Abu Hanifah was a student of the Shi'ite Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, who was a descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad. Thus all of the four great Imams of Sunni Fiqh are connected to Ja'far from the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad, whether directly or indirectly.[43]

In one hadith, Abu Hanifah once said about Imam Ja'far: "I have not seen anyone with more knowledge than Ja'far ibn Muhammad."[44] However, in another hadith, Abu Hanifah said: "I met with Zayd (Ja'far's uncle) and I never saw in his generation a person more knowledgeable, as quick a thinker, or more eloquent than he was."[45]

Opposition to deviations in beliefEdit

Imam Abu Hanifa is quoted as saying that Jahm ibn Safwan (d. 128/745) went so far in his denial of anthropomorphism (Tashbih) as to declare that 'God is nothing (Allah laysa bi shay')'. And Muqatil ibn Sulayman's extremism (d. 150/767), on the other side, likened God with His creatures.[46]

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi narrated in his Tarikh Baghdad (History of Baghdad) that Imam Abu Hanifa said:

Two groups of the worst of people are from Khurasan: the Jahmiyyah (followers of Jahm ibn Safwan) and the Mushabbihah (antropomorphists), and he probably said (instead of Mushabbihah) "Muqatiliyyah" (followers of Muqatil ibn Sulayman).[47][48][49]

WorksEdit

Scholarly works by Abu Hanifa
Title Description
Al-Fiqh al-Akbar
Al-Fiqh al-Absat
Kitaab-ul-Aathaar Narrated by Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani & Imam Abu Yusuf – compiled from a total of 70,000 hadith
Aalim wa'l-muta‘allim
At Tareeq Al Aslam Musnad Imam ul A’zam Abu Hanifah

Confusion regarding Al-Fiqh Al-AkbarEdit

The attribution of Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar has been disputed by A.J. Wensick,[50] as well as Zubair Ali Zai.[51]

Other scholars have upheld that Abu Hanifa was the author such as Muhammad Zahid Al-Kawthari, al-Bazdawi, and Abd al-Aziz al-Bukhari.[52]

Past Scholar, Ibn Abil-'Izz Al-Hanafi even attributed the book to Abu Hanifa[53]

Scholars such as Mufti Abdur-Rahman have pointed out that the book being brought into question by Wensick is actually another work by Abu Hanifa called: "Al-Fiqh Al-Absat".[52]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 24–5. ISBN 978-1780744209.
  2. ^ Mohsen Zakeri (1995), Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of 'Ayyārān and Futuwwa, p.293 [1]
  3. ^ a b c d S. H. Nasr (1975), "The religious sciences", in R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, Cambridge University Press. pg 474: "Abū Ḥanīfah, who is often called the "grand imam"(al-Imam al-'Azam) was Persian
  4. ^ a b c Cyril Glasse, "The New Encyclopedia of Islam", Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. pg 23: "Abu Hanifah, a Persian, was one of the great jurists of Islam and one of the historic Sunni Mujtahids"
  5. ^ ABŪ ḤANĪFA, Encyclopædia Iranica
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, "Abū Ḥanīfa", in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
  7. ^ Nazeer Ahmed (2001). Islam in Global History: Volume One: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First World War. Xlibris Corporation. p. 113. ISBN 9781462831302.
  8. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780810878150.
  9. ^ Abu Bakr al-Jassas al-Razi. Ahkam al-Quran. Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya. pp. volume 1 page 100.
  10. ^ a b Meri, Josef W. (October 31, 2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 9781135456030.
  11. ^ Hisham M. Ramadan, Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, (AltaMira Press: 2006), p.26
  12. ^ "Biography of Abu Hanifa". Afghanistan Online (afghan-web.com).
  13. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780810878150.
  14. ^ Peter Tomsen (2013). The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of Great Powers. PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610394123.
  15. ^ Suryakant Nijanand Bal (2004). Central Asia: A Strategy for India's Look-north Policy. Lancer Publishers. p. 101. ISBN 9788170622734.
  16. ^ "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Abu Yusuf. Oxford University Press.
  17. ^ Ya'qubi, vol. III, p.86; Muruj al-dhahab, vol. III, pp. 268–270.
  18. ^ Ammar, Abu (2001). "Criticism levelled against Imam Abu Hanifah". Understanding the Ahle al-Sunnah: Traditional Scholarship & Modern Misunderstandings. Islamic Information Centre. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  19. ^ "Islamic Hijri Calendar For Rajab – 150 Hijri". habibur.com. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  20. ^ Najeebabadi, Akbar S. (2001). The History of Islam. vol, 2. Darussalam Press. pp. 287. ISBN 9960-892-88-3.
  21. ^ Nemoy, Leon. (1952). Karaite Anthology: Excerpts from the Early Literature. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-300-00792-2.
  22. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire
  23. ^ a b Burak, Guy (2015). The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Ḥanafī School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-107-09027-9.
  24. ^ Tāhzibul Kamal by Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi
  25. ^ Māganīl Akhīar by Imām Aini
  26. ^ "40 Great Students of Imam Abu Hanifah". ilmfeed.com. March 26, 2014.
  27. ^ See:
    *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pg. 236–237. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933.
    *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
    *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, pg. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984.
    *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, pg. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.
    *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf [de], Jurisprudence, pg. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007.
    *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, pg. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005.
    *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada's Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pgs. 89–113. 1974
  28. ^ Nadwi, Sayyid Ijteba. Nuqoosh-e-Tabinda. (in Urdu) (1994 First ed). Jamia Nagar: Dar Irnaws p. 254
  29. ^ "The Leading Fiqh Scholars (Founders of the four schools of Fiqh)".
  30. ^ a b Imām-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian
  31. ^ http://www.islamicinformationcentre.co.uk/alsunna7.htm last accessed June 8, 2011
  32. ^ "Imam-ul-A'zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian". Masud.co.uk. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  33. ^ a b Magill, Frank Northen (January 1, 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 9781579580414.
  34. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (January 1, 1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The Middle Ages. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 9781579580414.
  35. ^ Hallaq, Wael B. (January 1, 2005). The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 9780521005807.
  36. ^ Waines, David (November 6, 2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780521539067.
  37. ^ Houtsma, M. Th (January 1, 1993). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. BRILL. p. 840. ISBN 9004097902.
  38. ^ Esposito, John (2017). "The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims" (PDF). The Muslim 500. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  39. ^ Camilla Adang, "This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority," p.33. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006
  40. ^ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 15. Volume 3 of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419
  41. ^ Dutton, Yasin, The Origins of Islamic Law: The Qurʼan, the Muwaṭṭaʼ and Madinan ʻAmal, p. 16
  42. ^ Haddad, Gibril F. (2007). The Four Imams and Their Schools. London, the U.K.: Muslim Academic Trust. pp. 121–194.
  43. ^ "Imam Ja'afar as Sadiq". History of Islam. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  44. ^ Siyār Aʿlām An-Nubalāʾ (in Arabic). 6. p. 257.
  45. ^ Al-Tuhaf Sharh al-Zulaf (in Arabic). p. 28.
  46. ^ M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth (2000). History of civilizations of Central Asia: Volume IV: The Age of Achievement: A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century - Part Two: The Achievements. UNESCO. p. 122. ISBN 9789231036545.
  47. ^ "The Scholarly Acceptance of Imam Abu Hanifah's Pronouncements on al-Jarh wa al-Ta'dil". IlmGate - A Digital Archive of Islamic Knowledge.
  48. ^ "Answers to Doubts over the 'Aqidah of Imam Abu Hanifah". Darul Ma'arif.
  49. ^ "Siyar A'lam al-Nubala' by Al-Dhahabi". Islam Web.
  50. ^ Wensick, A.J. (1932). The Muslim Creed. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 125.
  51. ^ Zubair Ali ZaiIs Fiqh ul-Akbar Imaam Abu Haneefah's book. Taken from The Story of the Fabricated book and the Rabbaanee Scholars, pg. 19–20. Trns. Abu Hibbaan and Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari.
  52. ^ a b Ibn Yusuf Mangera, Mufti Abdur-Rahman (November 2007). Imam Abu Hanifa's Al-Fiqh Al-Akbar Explained (First ed.). California, USA: White Thread Press. pp. 24–35. ISBN 978-1-933764-03-0.
  53. ^ Ibn Abil-Izz. Sharh At-Tahawiyah.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit