Barelvi (Urdu: بَریلوِی, Barēlwī, Urdu pronunciation: [bəreːlʋi]) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia. The name derives from the north Indian town of Bareilly, the hometown of its founder and main leader Ahmed Raza Khan (1856–1921). Although Barelvi is the commonly used term in the media and academia, the followers of the movement often prefer to be known by the title of Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at, (Urdu: اہل سنت وجماعت) or as Sunnis, a reference to their perception as forming an international majority movement.
The movement emphasizes personal devotion to Allah and the Muslim prophet Muhammad and a synthesis of Sharia with Sufi practices such as veneration of saints. Because of this, they are often called Sufi. The movement later identified as "Barelvi" to differentiate itself from the Deobandi movement.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Presence
- 4 Beliefs
- 5 Practices
- 6 Barelvis and Sufi tradition
- 7 Mosques
- 8 Relations with other movements
- 9 Persecution
- 10 Notable scholars
- 11 Notable organizations
- 12 Main institutions
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 External links
To its followers, the Barelvi movement is the Ahle Sunnat wal Jama'at, or "People of the traditions [of Muhammad] and the community," and they refer to themselves as Sunnis. This terminology is used to lay exclusive claim to be the only legitimate form of Sunni Islam in South Asia, in opposition to the Deobandi, Ahl-i Hadith, Salafis and Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama followers.
The Barelvi movement became known as Barelvi due to their leader Ahmad Raza Khan who established Islamic schools in 1904 with the Manzar-e-Islam. The Barelvi movement formed as a defense of the traditional mystic practices of South Asia, which it sought to prove and support.
Although the Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama was founded in 1893 to reconcile South Asia's Muslim sectarian differences, the Barelvis eventually withdrew their support from the council and criticized its efforts as heretical, radical, and counter to the Islamic values.
In contrast with the Deobandi movement, the Barelvis showed unequivocal support for the Movement for Pakistan. In the aftermath of the 1948 Partition, they formed an association to represent the movement in Pakistan, called Jamiyyat-u Ulam-i Pakistan (JUP). Like ulema of the Deobandi and Ahl-i Hadith movements, Barelvi ulema have advocated application of sharia law across the country.
As a reaction to the anti-Islam film Innocence of Muslims, a conglomerate of forty Barelvi parties called for a boycott of Western goods, while at the same time condemning violence which had taken place in protest against the film.
India Today estimates that the vast majority of Muslims in India adhere to the Barelvi movement, and The Heritage Foundation, Time and The Washington Post give similar assessments for the vast majority of Muslims in Pakistan. Political scientist Rohan Bedi estimates that 60% of Pakistani Muslims are Barelvis.
The majority of people in the United Kingdom of Pakistani and Kashmir origin are descended from immigrants from Barelvi-majority areas. The Barelvi movement in Pakistan has received funding from Barelvis in the UK, in part as a reaction to rival movements in Pakistan also receiving funding from abroad. According to an editorial in the English-language Pakistani newspaper The Daily Times, many of these mosques have been however usurped by Saudi-funded radical organizations.
Like other Sunni Muslims, Barelvis base their beliefs on the Quran and Sunnah and believe in monotheism and the prophethood of Muhammad. Although Barelvis may follow any one of the Ashari and Maturidi schools of Islamic theology and one of the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali madhhabs of fiqh in addition to optionally choosing from one of the Sunni Sufi orders like the Qadiri, Chishti or the Suhrawardi tariqas, most Barelvis in South Asia follow the Maturidi school of Islamic theology and the Hanafi madhhab of fiqh.
Light of Muhammad (Nur Muhammadiyya)Edit
A central doctrine of the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad is both human and light. According to the doctrine, Muhammad's physical birth was preceded by his existence as light which pre-dates creation. According to this doctrine the primordial reality of Muhammad existed before creation and that creation was created out of God's love for the Muhammad. Proponents of this doctrine believe that the word Nur (light) in the Quran 5:15 refer to Muhammad.
Sahl al-Tustari the famous 9th century Sufi commentator of the Quran, describes the creation of the primordial light of Muhammad in his tafsir. Al-Tustari's student, Mansur Al-Hallaj, affirms this doctrine in his book ‘’Ta Sin Al-Siraj’’.
According to Stūdīyā Islāmīkā, all Sufi orders are united in the belief of the light of Muhammad and generate practices with this concept as a foundational belief.
Multipresence of Muhammad (Hazir o Nazir)Edit
Another central doctrine of the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad can witness and be present in multiple places as the same time (Hazir-o-Nazir). The doctrine is present in various Sufi works prior to the Barelvi movement, such as Sayyid Uthman Bukhari's (d. ca. 1687) Jawahir al-Quliya (Jewels of the Friends of God), where he instructs how Sufis may have manifested to them the presence of Muhammad. Proponents of this doctrine assert that the term Shahid (Witness) in Quran 33:45 4:41 refers to this ability of Muhammad and provide various hadiths as sources to support this belief.
Muhammad's Knowledge of the Unseen (Ilm e Ghaib)Edit
A fundamental belief of the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad has knowledge of the unseen. This relates to the concept of Ummi as mentioned in the Quran 7:157. Barelvis do not see this word as referring to unlettered or illiterate, but rather see it as referring to one who is not taught by man. The consequence of this belief is that Muhammad therefore learns directly from God and his knowledge is universal in nature and encompasses the seen and unseen realms. This belief predates the Barelvi movement and can be found in Sufi books such as Rumi's Fihi Ma Fihi in which he states:
Intercession of MuhammadEdit
A fundamental belief of those within the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad helps in this life and in the afterlife. According to this doctrine, God helps through Muhammad (Tawassul). Sunni Muslims of the Barelvi movement commonly call upon Muhammad using statements such as ‘’Ya Rasool Allah’’ with the belief that any ability that Muhammad has to help others is from God, who helps through Muhammad. The help received from Muhammad is therefore considered God's help. Sunni Muslims of the Barelvi movement believe that Muhammad is a Rahmah (mercy) to all creation as mentioned in the Quran 21:107. Muhammad therefore is a means by which God expresses his attribute, Ar-Rahman, to creation. Proponents of this belief look to the Quran 4:64 as a proof that God prefers to help through Muhammad.
They also believe that in the afterlife, on the day of judgement, Muhammad will intercede on the behalf of his followers and God will forgive his nation of sins and allow them to enter Jannah (paradise).
The belief of Muhammad providing support and help is a common theme within classical Sufi literature. An example of this can be found in Fariduddin Attar’s book The Conference of the Birds in which he details the story of a Shaykh, named Sam’an, who travels to Rome where he falls deeply in love with a Christian woman. The woman after seeing his state commands him to do acts forbidden in Islam to prove himself to her and the Shaykh begins to drift away from Islam. Concerned disciples and friends of the Shaykh decide to go to Makkah to pray for the Shaykh and make many supplications for him. One of them has a vision of Muhammad who says: ‘’I have loosed the chains which bound your sheikh - your prayer is answered, go.‘’ They return to Rome to find that Shaykh Sam'an has returned to Islam and that the Christian woman whom he loved had also become a Muslim.
The belief of Muhammad interceding is found in various hadith as well.
A Bedouin of the desert visited the Prophet’s tomb and greeted the Prophet, addressing him directly as if he were alive. “Peace upon you, Messenger of God!” Then he said, “I heard the word of God ‘If, when they had wronged themselves . . .,’ I came to you seeking pardon for my mistakes, longing for your intercession with our Lord!” The Bedouin then recited a poem in praise of the Prophet and departed. The person who witnessed the story says that he fell asleep, and in a dream he saw the Prophet saying to him, “O ‘Utbi, rejoin our brother the Bedouin and announce [to] him the good news that God has pardoned him!”
- Public celebration of Muhammad's birthday.
- Veneration of dead and living saints. This consists of the intervention of an ascending, linked and unbroken chain of holy personages claimed to reach ultimately to Muhammad, who Barelvis believe intercede on their behalf with God.
- Visiting the tombs of Muhammad, his companions and of pious Muslims, an act the Barelvis claim is supported by the Quran, Sunnah and acts of the companions, but which some opponents call "shrine-worshipping" ("grave worshiping") and consider to be un-Islamic.
- Group dhikr which involves synchronized movements of the body while chanting the names of God. Some groups, notably those in the Chishti Sufi order engage in qawwali whereas others prefer not to use musical instruments. (Sfeir 2007, p. 339)
- Leaving the beard to grow for men; the movement views a man who trims his beard to less than a fist-length as a sinner, and shaving the beard is considered abominable.
Barelvis and Sufi traditionEdit
Tasawwuf or Sufism is a fundamental aspect of the Barelvi movement. Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi himself was a part of the Qadri Sufi Tariqa and did Bayah (pledged allegiance) to Sayyid Shah Al ur-Rasul Marehrawi. Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi instructed his followers on Sufi beliefs and practices and made strong arguments in support of them. Traditional Sufi practices such as devotion to Muhammad and the veneration of the Awliya Allah remains an integral part of the movement. According to The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, Barelvis are often called Sufi because of their mystic practices, although they have little in common with the Sufism of classical Islamic mystics. Other sources say that Barelvis upheld traditional Sufi beliefs and practices and support the Sufi identity of the Barelvis.
Relations with other movementsEdit
Having formed as a reaction against the reformist Deobandi movement, relations between the two groups have often been strained. Ahmad Raza Khan, the founder of Barelvis, went as far as to declare all Deobandis infidels and apostates.
Although conflict has occurred, relations with other Muslim movements in South Asia have not always been hostile. In mid-2012, leaders of both the Barelvi and Ahl al-Hadith movements in the Kashmir Valley denied that there was any animosity between the two sects in the region, saying that Kashmiris can ill afford sectarian strife after two decades of bloodbath.
Historically, relations between the Barelvi movement and the British administration of India have been better than those of other Islamic movements. R. Upadhyay and Rajesh T. Krishnamachari of the India-based South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) have denied that a simple comparison exists between Barelvism and Deobandism on any scale of tolerance or moderation. According to the same SAAG analysis, the "Deobandi-Barelvi rivalry is also known to be rooted to their ethnic rivalry."
Conflicts with the TalibanEdit
The Barelvi movement has taken a stance against the various Taliban movements in South Asia, organising rallies and protests in India and Pakistan, condemning what they perceive as unjustified sectarian violence. The Sunni Ittehad Council (SIC), an amalgamation of eight Sunni organizations, launched the Save Pakistan Movement to stem the process of Talibanisation. Terming the Taliban a product of global anti-Islam conspiracies, the leaders of SIC charged the Taliban with playing into the hands of the United States to divide Muslims and bring a bad name to Islam.
Supporting this movement, the Pakistan Minister of Foreign Affairs, Shah Mehmood Qureshi, said: "The Sunni Tehreek has decided to activate itself against Talibanisation in the country. A national consensus against terrorism is emerging across the country."
In 2009 another prominent Islamic scholar and mufti, or jurisconsult, of the movement, the late Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi, issued a fatwa denouncing suicide bombings, as well as criticizing Taliban leader Sufi Muhammad by saying he "should wear bangles if he is hiding like a woman". Naeemi added: "Those who commit suicide attacks for attaining paradise will go to hell, as they kill many innocent people". Naeemi himself was killed by a suicide bomber.
Analysts and journalists have produced conflicting opinions about the underlying nature of the Barelvi movement, with some describing the group as moderate and peaceful, while others describe it as being affected by intolerance and radicalism in ways similar to other Islamic movements in the region. Particularly, the 'staunch Barelvis' have been criticized for their excessive use of excommunication (Takfir) against their opponents, thus creating hatred and sometimes even violence in the Muslim community.
In the 1990s and 2000s, sporadic violence resulted from disputes between the Barelvi and Deobandi movements over control of Pakistani mosques, with the conflict coming to a head in May 2001 when sectarian riots broke out after the assassination of Sunni Tehreek leader Saleem Qadri. In April 2006 in Karachi, a bomb attack on a Barelvi gathering in celebration of Muhammad's birthday killed at least 57 people, including several central leaders of the Sunni Tehreek. In April 2007, Sunni Tehreek activists attempted forcibly to gain control of a mosque in Karachi, opening fire on the mosque and those inside, killing one person and injuring three others. On 27 February 2010, militants believed to be affiliated with the Taliban and Sipah-e-Sahaba attacked Barelvis celebrating mawlid in Faisalabad and Dera Ismail Khan, again sparking tensions among the rival sects.
Stand on Blasphemy LawEdit
On 4 January 2011, the governor of Punjab, Salmaan Taseer, was assassinated by a member of the Barelvi group Dawat-e-Islami, Mumtaz Qadri, due to Taseer's opposition to the blasphemy law. Over five hundred scholars of the Barelvi movement voiced support for him and urged a boycott of Taseer's funeral. According to Time, Sunni Tehreek rewarded the assassin's family and threatened Taseer's family. Supporters attempted to prevent police from bringing Mumtaz Qadri to an anti-terrorism court, blocking the way and cheering on him, showering rose petals. In 2014 a Sunni mosque was built in Islamabad named after Mumtaz Qadri, whose admirers are Barelvis; as of 2014, the mosque was so popular that it started raising funds to double its capacity.
Barelvis have been targeted and killed by radical Deobandi groups in Pakistan such as the TTP, SSP, LeJ, etc. Suicide attacks, vandalism and destruction of sites considered holy to those in the Barelvi movement have been perpetrated by Deobandi extremist groups. This includes attacks, destruction and vandalism of Data Darbar in Lahore, Abdullah Shah Ghazi's tomb in Karachi, Khal Magasi in Balochistan, and Rahman Baba's tomb in Peshawar. The murder of various Barelvi leaders have also been committed by Deobandi terrorists.
In Pakistan, prominent Sunni Barelvi religious and political organizations include:
- Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan
- Sunni Ittehad Council
- Jamaat Ahle Sunnat
- Sunni Tehreek
- Manzar-e-Islam, Bareilly, India
- Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Uttar Pradesh, India
- Jamiatur Raza, Bareilly
- Manzar-e-Islam, Bareilly
- Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Azamgarh
- Al-Jame-atul-Islamia, Raunahi
- Jamia Nizamia, Hyderabad
- Jamia Al Barkaat Aligarh, Aligarh￼￼
- Jamia Amjadia Rizvia, Ghosi ￼￼￼￼
- Markazu Saquafathi Sunniyya, Kerla
- "Barelvi - Oxford Reference". oxfordreference.com. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World, pg. 113. Marshall Cavendish, 2011. ISBN 9780761479291
- Globalisation, Religion & Development, pg. 53. Eds. Farhang Morady and İsmail Şiriner. London: International Journal of Politics and Economics, 2011.
- Elizabeth Sirriyeh, Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World, pg. 49. London: Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-7007-1058-2.
- Rowena Robinson, Tremors of Violence: Muslim Survivors of Ethnic Strife in Western India, pg. 191. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2005. ISBN 0761934081
- Usha Sanyal. Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century. Modern Asian Studies (1998), Cambridge University Press.
- Understanding Islam: The First Ten Steps - C. T. R. Hewer - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaah". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Netton, Ian (19 December 2013). Encyclopedia of islam. Routledge. p. 88. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Roy, Oliver; Sfeir, Antoine (2007). The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism. Columbia University Press. p. 92.
They are often referred to as Sufi, because of their mystic practices, but have little in common with the Sufism of the classical Islamic mystics.
- Roy, Oliver; Sfeir, Antoine (2007). The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism. Columbia University Press., page 92: "...as distinct from the reformist construction of Deoband."
- Riaz, Ali (2008). Faithful Education: Madrassahs in South Asia. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4345-1., page 123: "...were advanced by Imam Ahmad Reza Khan of Bareilly in 1906 as the original form of Islam and as the alternative to the austere path of the Deobandis."
- Khaled Ahmed, The Barelvi pushback. The Indian Express, 28 January 2017. Accessed 14 August 2017.
- Bad Moon Rising. The Economist, 14 April 2016. Accessed 14 August 2017.
- Geaves 2006: 148
- Roshen Dalal, The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, pg. 51. Revised edition. City of Westminster: Penguin Books, 2010. ISBN 9780143415176
- Barbara D. Metcalf, Islam in South Asia in Practice, pg. 342. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009.
- Gregory C. Doxlowski. Devotional Islam and Politics in British India: Ahmad Raza Khan Barelwi and His Movement, 1870–1920. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Oct–Dec 1999.
- Barbara Daly Metcalf, Islamic revival in British India: Deoband, 1860–1900, pg. 312. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780195660494
- Riaz 2008, p. 91.
- Riaz 2008, p. 76.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe, A History of Pakistan and Its Origins, pp. 224–225
- Anti-Islam movie: Barelvi parties call for Western boycott. The Express Tribune, 5 October 2012.
- Sandeep Unnithan and Uday Mahurkar (31 July 2008). "The radical sweep". India Today. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
- Curtis, Lisa; Mullick, Haider (4 May 2009). "Reviving Pakistan's Pluralist Traditions to Fight Extremism". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- "Pakistan plays Sufi card against jihadis | World War 4 Report". Ww4report.com. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
- Rania Abouzeid, Taliban Targets, Pakistan's Sufi Muslims Fight Back. Time, Wednesday, 10 Nov. 2010.
- Karin Brulliard, In Pakistan, even anti-violence Islamic sect lauds assassination of liberal governor. The Washington Post, Saturday, 29 January 2011; 9:55 PM.
- Bedi, Rohan (April 2006), Have Pakistanis Forgotten Their Sufi Traditions? (PDF), Singapore: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 November 2013
- Karamat Bhatty, Religious groups find lucrative sources abroad. The Express Tribune, 7 September 2011.
- Editorial: Britain, Al Qaeda and Pakistan. Thursday, 26 March 2009. Accessed Sunday, 19 May 2013.
- "Deobandi Islam vs. Barelvi Islam in South Asia". Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- http://themuslim500.com/downloads/The%20Muslim%20500%20-%202018%20Edition%20-%20Free%20eBook.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Ahmed Raza. "Noor o Bashar ::Islamic Books, Books Library". Faizaneraza.org. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Jorgen S. Nielsen, Muslims in Western Europe, Edinburgh University Press, p. 218
- The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, p. 127
- Tafsīr al-Tustarī, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, 2011, p. 213
- Stūdīyā Islāmīkā Volume 8 Issues 1-3, State Institute for Islamic Studies of Syarif Hidayatullah, p. 42
- Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan, Springer, 2016, p. 377
- Qamar-ul Huda, Striving for Divine Union: Spiritual Exercises for Suhraward Sufis, RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 103–107
- Mufti Muhammad Ameen, مسئله حاضر و ناظر, Maktaba Suhj Nur
- Allama Abul Faiz Muhammad Shareef Qadri Razavi, فیض نبوت یعنی علم غیب رسولﷺ, Akbar Booksellers Lahore
- And Muhammad Is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety, University of North Carolina Press, p. 72
- علامہ مشتاق احمد نظامی علیہ الرحمہ, وسیلہ نسبت تعظیم, Noor Masjid Ka Ghazi Bazaar - Karachi
- Fariduddin Attar (2012), The Story of Sheikh Sam'an (PDF), The Norton Anthology of World Literature, p. 72
- Ph.D, Coeli Fitzpatrick; Walker, Adam Hani (25 April 2014). Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 300–301. ISBN 9781610691789.
- Ibn Kathir (1983). Tafsir al-Qur'an al-'Azim. Beirut: Dar al-Ma'rifa. pp. 1:521.
- al-Nawawi, Yahya ibn Sharaf. al-Majmu: sharh al-Muhadhdhab. Medina: al-Maktaba al-Salafiyya. pp. 8:256.
- Sirriyeh 1999: 49
- Sirriyeh 2004: 111
- Martin Parsons (1 January 2006). Unveiling God: Contextualizing Christology for Islamic Culture. William Carey Library. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-0-87808-454-8. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Abdulkader, Tayob. Muslim Schools and Education. Waxxman Verlag. p. 76. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities - N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities - N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "outlookindia.com". M.outlookindia.com. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Curriculum in Today's World: Configuring Knowledge, Identities, Work and ... - Lyn Yates, Madeleine Grumet - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Tremors of Violence: Muslim Survivors of Ethnic Strife in Western India - Rowena Robinson - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Urban Terrorism: Myths and Realities - N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Indian Defence Review: April - June 2007 - Bharat Verma - Google Books. Books.google.com.my. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Bruinessen, Martin van; Allievi, Stefano (17 June 2013). "Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe". Routledge. Retrieved 30 January 2019 – via Google Books.
- Arun Shourie, The World of Fatwas or the Sharia in Action, pg. 135. ASA Publications, 1995. ISBN 9788190019958
- Dr. Muhyuddin al-Alwayi, AN ISLĀMIC PERSONALITY OF INDIA – IMĀM AḤMED RIḌĀ KHĀN, Al-Azhar University, p. 2
- Sufi Ritual: The Parallel Universe, Routledge, 2000, p. 14
- South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny, Bloomsbury, p. 271
- Carl W. Ernst, The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Muḥammad as the Pole of Existence, Cambridge University Press, p. 130
- The World's Religions, G.K. Hall, p. 380,
the Barelvis under Maulana Ahmad Raza Khan (1856-1921), who upheld traditional Sufi beliefs and practices
- Sufis and Salafis in the Contemporary Age, Bloomsbury, p. 22
- Islamic Reform in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p. 67
- Islamic Reform in South Asia, Department of Religious Studies, University of Ibadan, p. 32
- Kenneth W. Jones, Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India, Part 3, vol. 1, pg. 71. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
- Sheikh Qayoom, Kashmir’s Barelvi, Ahle Hadith leaders deny sectarian tension. Thaindian, courtesy of Indo-Asian News Service: Saturday, 28 April 2012.
- R. Upadhyay, Barelvis and Deobandhis: "Birds of the Same Feather".
- Tembarai Krishnamachari, Rajesh. "Myths blown away by Taseer killing", South Asia Analysis Group, New Delhi, 12 January 2011.
- Indian Muslims protest against Talibani terrorism. TwoCircles.net 17 June 2009
- Pakistan’s Sunnis unite against Talibanisation. Thaindian News. 9 May 2009
- Clashing interpretations of Islam. Daily Times (Pakistan), 5 May 2009
- "Bombers target two Pakistani cities". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Anti-Taliban views cost Mufti Naeemi his life – Daily Times". Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Barelvi Activism Against Terrorism. Viewpoint Online.
- Manjari Mishra, moderates Barelvis take on Deobandis over religious property. The Times of India, 6 January 2010.
- Graeme Smith, Pakistan's Sufis end their silence. The Globe and Mail, 9 July 2010.
- Zeeshan Haider, Pakistan clerics speak out against Taliban. Mail & Guardian, 13 May 2009.
- Syed Hamad Ali, Why are Pakistan's 'moderate' clerics defending Salman Taseer's murderer? The Guardian, Wednesday 12 October 2011.
- The Jamestown Foundation, Sufi Militants Struggle with Deobandi Jihadists in Pakistan, 24 February 2011. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Terrorism Monitor Volume: 9 Issue: 8. Accessed 11 March 2013.
- Omar Waraich, Why Pakistan's Taliban Target the Muslim Majority. Time, Thursday, 7 Apr. 2011.
- Pervez Hoodbhoy, A long, sad year after Salman Taseer's killing. The Hindu, 4 January 2012.
- Shah, Syed Talha (20 November 2018). "TTP and TLP: different labels, similar ideology?". Daily Times. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- Rana Tanveer, Rites and wrongs: Mosque sealed after Barelvi-Deobandi clash. The Express Tribune, 20 September 2011.
- "Serious threat to Pakistan's civil society". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 April 2006.
- Bomb carnage at Karachi prayers, BBC Online, 11 April 2006
- Special Coverage of Nishtar Park bombing Archived 31 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Jang Group Online
- "One dead as ST tries to take control of Ahle Hadith mosque" Daily Times (Pakistan), 11 April 2007
- Sectarian clashes kill seven in Pakistan, Agence France-Presse via Sydney Morning Herald, 28 February 2010
- "Assassin linked with Dawat-i-Islami". Dawn. 4 January 2011.
- See also:
- Carlotta Gall, Assassination Deepens Divide in Pakistan. The New York Times, 5 January 2011.
- Ayesha Nasir, Pakistan's Police and Army: How Many Enemies Within? Time Online, Saturday, 8 Jan. 2011.
- Hardline stance: Religious bloc condones murder. The Express Tribune.
- ST offers Rs200m blood money for Qadri's release Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Nation, 8 October 2011.
- PPI, Sunni Tehreek rejects capital punishment to Mumtaz Qadri. Dawn, 1 October 2011.
- Taseer's daughter warned to back off, The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 January 2011.
- Rana Tanveer, Shahbaz Taseer abduction splits Barelvi group. The Express Tribute, 4 September 2011.
- "Demonstrators Prevent Court Appearance of Alleged Pakistani Assassin". Voice of America. 6 January 2011.
- Jon Boone (30 April 2014). "Pakistan mosque built to honour politician's killer to double in size". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- The Assertion of Barelvi Extremism Archived 9 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Current Trends.
- Taseer no blasphmer, claim Barelvi ulema Archived 8 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Nation, 14 October 2011.
- Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan, Springer, 2016, p. 371
- "The Potential for a New Strand of Islamist Extremism in Pakistan". Jamestown. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "Dawateislami - Islamic Website of an Islamic Organization". dawateislami.net. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Riaz, Ali (2008). Faithful Education: Madrassahs in South Asia. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4345-1.
- Geaves, Ron (2006). "Learning the lessons from the neo-revivalist and Wahhabi movements: the counterattack of the new Sufi movements in the UK". In Malik, Jamal; Hinnells, John R. (eds.). Sufism in the West. Routledge. pp. 142–157.
- Jones, Kenneth W. (1989). Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India, Part 3. 1. Cambridge University Press.
- Malik, Jamal, ed. (2008). Madrasas in South Asia: Teaching terror?. Routledge.
- Roy, Olivier; Sfeir, Antoine (2007). The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14640-1.
- Sanyal, Usha (2008). "Ahl-i Sunnat Madrasas: the Madrasa Manzar-i Islam, Bareilly, and Jamia Ashrafiyya, Mubarakpur". In Malik, Jamal (ed.). Madrasas in South Asia: Teaching terror?. Routledge. pp. 23–44.
- Sanyal, Usha (2005). Ahmed Riza Khan Barelwi: In the Path of the Prophet. Makers of the Muslim World. Oxford: Oneworld.
- Sirriyeh, Elizabeth (1999). Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1058-2.
- Sirriyeh, Elizabeth (2004). "Sufi Thought and its Reconstruction". In Taji-Farouki, Suha; Nafi, Basheer M. (eds.). Islamic Thought in the Twentieth Century. I.B. Tauris. pp. 104–127. ISBN 1-85043-751-3.