A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد tajdid) to the religion.[3][4] According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity. In contemporary times, a mujaddid is looked upon as the greatest Muslim of a century.[5]

Imam Al-Shafi‘i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are the only two Madhhab founders regarded as Mujaddids.[1][2]

The concept is based on a hadith (a saying of Islamic prophet Muhammad),[6] recorded by Abu Dawood, narrated by Abu Hurairah who mentioned that Muhammad said:

Allah will raise for this community at the end of every 100 years the one who will renovate its religion for it.

— Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 37: Kitab al-Malahim [Battles], Hadith Number 4278[7]

Ikhtilaf (disagreements) exist among different hadith viewers. Scholars such as Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani have interpreted that the term mujaddid can also be understood as plural, thus referring to a group of people.[8][9]

Mujaddids can include prominent scholars, pious rulers and military commanders.[4]

List of claimants and potential mujaddids

Rulers and conquerors such as Saladin, Tamerlane, Shah Rukh, Mehmet II, Selim I, Suleiman, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan were often popularly heralded as mujaddids for their roles in Political Islam (Saladin, Ottoman's Selim I and Suleiman I held the title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques).[10][11][12][13][14]
 
Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), mujaddid of the 7th century, is known for his theological, political and military activities.

While there is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid in Sunni Islam, there is often a popular consensus. The Shia and Ahmadiyya[15][page needed][16] have their own list of mujaddids.[4]

First century (after the prophetic period) (August 3, 718)

Second century (August 10, 815)

Third century (August 17, 912)

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)

Fifth century (September 1, 1106)

Sixth century (September 9, 1203)

Seventh century (September 5, 1300)

Eighth century (September 23, 1397)

Ninth century (October 1, 1494)

Tenth century (October 19, 1591)

Eleventh century (October 26, 1688)

Twelfth century (November 4, 1785)

Thirteenth century (November 14, 1882)

Fourteenth century (November 21, 1979)

References

  1. ^ a b c d Waliullah, Shah. Izalatul Khafa'an Khilafatul Khulafa. p. 77, part 7.
  2. ^ Mohammed M. I. Ghaly, "Writings on Disability in Islam: The 16th Century Polemic on Ibn Fahd's 'al-Nukat al-Ziraf'", The Arab Studies Journal, Vol. 13/14, No. 2/1 (Fall 2005/Spring 2006), p. 26, note 98
  3. ^ Faruqi, Burhan Ahmad (16 August 2010). The Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid. p. 7. ISBN 9781446164020. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Meri, Josef W., ed. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678. ISBN 9780415966900.
  5. ^ "Mujaddid – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  6. ^ Neal Robinson (2013), Islam: A Concise Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0878402243, Chapter 7, pp. 85–89
  7. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 37:4278
  8. ^ Fath al-Baari (13/295)
  9. ^ Taareekh al-Islam (23/180)
  10. ^ Jackson, Roy (2010). Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and the Islamic State. Routledge. ISBN 9781136950360.
  11. ^ B. N. Pande (1996). Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan: Evaluation of Their Religious Policies. University of Michigan. ISBN 9788185220383.
  12. ^ Advocate of Dialogue: Fethullah Gulen by Ali Unal and Alphonse Williams, 10 June 2000; ISBN 978-0970437013
  13. ^ Akgunduz, Ahmed; Ozturk, Said (2011). Ottoman History - Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-90-26108-9. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  14. ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, p. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8
  15. ^ Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures. ABC-CLIO, LLC. 10 March 2015. ISBN 9781610692502.
  16. ^ Jesudas M. Athyal, Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures, (ABC-CLIO, LLC 2015), p 1. ISBN 9781610692496.
  17. ^ a b c "Mujaddid Ulema". Living Islam.
  18. ^ a b c d Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  19. ^ a b c Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0521539064.
  20. ^ a b c Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O.van (1997). Paradise Lost: Reflections on the Struggle for Authenticity in the Middle East. p. 24. ISBN 90-04-10672-3.
  21. ^ Mohammed M. I. Ghaly, "Writings on Disability in Islam: The 16th Century Polemic on Ibn Fahd's "al-Nukat al-Ziraf"," The Arab Studies Journal, Vol. 13/14, No. 2/1 (Fall 2005/Spring 2006), p. 26, note 98
  22. ^ a b Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906
  23. ^ Ihya Ulum Ad Din, Dar Al Minhaj: Volume 1. p. 403.
  24. ^ The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Din Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy, Page 133 Rebecca Skreslet Hernandez
  25. ^ "Imam Ghazali: The Sun of the Fifth century Hujjat al-Islam". The Pen. February 1, 2011.
  26. ^ Jane I. Smith, Islam in America, p 36. ISBN 0231519990
  27. ^ Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566
  28. ^ Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421
  29. ^ Advocate of Dialogue: Fethullah Gulen by Ali Unal and Alphonse Williams, 10 June 2000; ISBN 978-0970437013
  30. ^ "al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (1149–1209)". Muslim Philosophy.
  31. ^ Sufi Movements in Eastern India – Page 194
  32. ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 227–228
  33. ^ The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Din Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy, Page 133 Rebecca Skreslet Hernandez
  34. ^ The Legal Thought of Jalāl Al-Din Al-Suyūṭī: Authority and Legacy, Page 133 Rebecca Skreslet Hernandez
  35. ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, p. 214. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8
  36. ^ "Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani". Hanafi.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2004-09-02.
  37. ^ a b Azra, Azyumardi (2004). The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia part of the ASAA Southeast Asia Publications Series. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780824828486.
  38. ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, p. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8
  39. ^ Advocate of Dialogue: Fethullah Gulen by Ali Unal and Alphonse Williams, 10 June 2000; ISBN 978-0970437013
  40. ^ Akgunduz, Ahmed; Ozturk, Said (2011). Ottoman History – Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-90-90-26108-9. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  41. ^ Transactions of the Royal Historical Society: Volume 12: Sixth Series By Royal Historical Society
  42. ^ Glasse, Cyril (1997). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 432. ISBN 90-04-10672-3.
  43. ^ "A Short Biographical Sketch of Mawlana al-Haddad". Iqra Islamic Publications. Archived from the original on 2011-05-27.
  44. ^ The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam – Page 286
  45. ^ The Fundamental Principles of Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy by Reza Akbarian
  46. ^ Kunju, Saifudheen (2012). "Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi: Thoughts and Contributions": 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  47. ^ Kunju, Saifudheen (2012). "Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi: Thoughts and Contributions": 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  48. ^ Haykel, Bernard (2013). "Ibn ‛Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad (1703–92)". In Böwering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Kadi, Wadad; Mirza, Mahan; Stewart, Devin J.; Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (eds.). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-0691134840.
  49. ^ "Gyarwee Sharif". al-mukhtar books. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26.
  50. ^ O. Hunwick, John (1995). African And Islamic Revival in Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources. p. 6.
  51. ^ Muslims and India's freedom movement, Shan Muhammad, Institute of Objective Studies (New Delhi, India), Institute of Objective Studies and the University of Michigan, 2002; ISBN 9788185220581
  52. ^ Ahmad, M. (1975). Saiyid Ahmad barevali: His Life and Mission (No. 93). Lucknow: Academy of Islamic Research and Publications. Page 27.
  53. ^ Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. p. 282.
  54. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Thompson Gale (2004)
  55. ^ "Shaikhul-Hind Mahmood Hasan: symbol of freedom struggle". 12 February 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  56. ^ Adrawi Asir. Hazrat Shaykh al-Hind: Hayāt awr kārnāme [Shaykh al-Hind: Life and works] (in Urdu). Shaykhul Hind Academy. pp. 304–305.
  57. ^ M.Sıddık Gümüş (1 March 2014). Islam's Reformers. Hakikat Kitabevi. ASIN B000BZYZOQ.
  58. ^ Dr.Muhammad Masood Ahmad (1995). The Reformer Of The Muslim World. Al-Mukhtar Publications.
  59. ^ Mian, Ali Altaf (2015). "Surviving Modernity: Ashraf 'Ali Thanvi (1863–1943) and the Making of Muslim Orthodoxy in Colonial India". Duke University.
  60. ^ Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford University Press. 4 January 1996. ISBN 9780195357110.

Further reading

  • Alvi, Sajida S. "The Mujaddid and Tajdīd Traditions in the Indian Subcontinent: An Historical Overview" ("Hindistan’da Mucaddid ve Tacdîd geleneği: Tarihî bir bakış"). Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994): 1–15.
  • Friedmann, Yohanan. Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity. Oxford India Paperbacks

External links