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Moinuddin Chishti (1142–1236), Shrine of Moinuddin Chishti, mujaddid[according to whom?] of the seventh century.
Ibn Arabi (1165–1240), mujaddid[according to whom?] of the seventh century.
Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905), mujaddid[according to whom?] of the thirteenth century.

A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد tajdid) to the religion.[1][2] According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity.[3]

The concept is based not on the Quran but on a hadith (a saying of Islamic prophet Muhammad),[original research?] recorded by Abu Dawood, Abu Hurairah narrated that Muhammad said:

Allah will raise for this community at the end of every hundred years the one who will renovate its religion for it.

— Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 37: Kitab al-Malahim [Battles], Hadith Number 4278[4]

Mujaddids tend to come from the most prominent Islamic scholars of the time, although they are sometimes pious rulers.[2]

Contents

List of claimants and potential mujaddids

While there is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid, there is often a popular consensus. The Shia and Ahmadiyya[5][page needed][6] have their own list of mujaddids.[2]

First Century (after the prophetic period) (August 3, 718)

Second Century (August 10, 815)

Third Century (August 17, 912)

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)

Fifth Century (September 1, 1106)

Sixth Century (September 9, 1203)

Seventh Century (September 5, 1300)

Eighth Century (September 23, 1397)

Ninth Century (October 1, 1494)

Tenth Century (October 19, 1591)

Eleventh Century (October 26, 1688)

Twelfth Century (November 4, 1785)

Thirteenth Century (November 14, 1882)

Fourteenth Century (November 21, 1979)

Notes

  1. ^ Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is the founder of the Ahmadiyya sect of Islam. The Sunni mainstream and the majority of Muslims reject the sect as it believes in prophethood after Muhammad;[30][31][32] see also Persecution of Ahmadis on this topic.

References

  1. ^ Faruqi, Burhan Ahmad. The Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid. p. 7. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b c Meri, Josef W. (ed.). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678.
  3. ^ "Mujaddid - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  4. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 37:4278
  5. ^ "Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures". ABC-CLIO, LLC.
  6. ^ Jesudas M. Athyal, Religion in Southeast Asia: An Encyclopedia of Faiths and Cultures, (ABC-CLIO, LLC 2015), p 1. ISBN 9781610692496.
  7. ^ a b c "Mujaddid Ulema". Living Islam.
  8. ^ a b c d Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  9. ^ a b c Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0521539064.
  10. ^ a b c Waliullah, Shah. Izalatul Khafa'an Khilafatul Khulafa. p. 77, part 7.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O.van (1997). Paradise Lost: Reflections on the Struggle for Authenticity in the Middle East. p. 24. ISBN 90 04 10672 3.
  12. ^ a b Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906
  13. ^ Ihya Ulum Ad Din, Dar Al Minhaj: Volume 1. p. 403.
  14. ^ "Imam Ghazali: The Sun of the Fifth Century Hujjat al-Islam". The Pen. February 1, 2011.
  15. ^ Jane I. Smith, Islam in America, p 36. ISBN 0231519990
  16. ^ Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566
  17. ^ Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421
  18. ^ "al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (1149-1209)". Muslim Philosophy.
  19. ^ "Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani". Hanafi.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2004-09-02.
  20. ^ a b Azra, Azyumardi (2004). The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia part of the ASAA Southeast Asia Publications Series. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780824828486.
  21. ^ Glasse, Cyril (1997). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 432. ISBN 90 04 10672 3.
  22. ^ "A Short Biographical Sketch of Mawlana al-Haddad". Iqra Islamic Publications. Archived from the original on 2011-05-27.
  23. ^ Kunju, Saifudheen (2012). "Shah Waliullah al-Dehlawi: Thoughts and Contributions": 1. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  24. ^ "Gyarwee Sharif". al-mukhtar books. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26.
  25. ^ O. Hunwick, John (1995). African And Islamic Revival in Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources. p. 6.
  26. ^ Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. p. 282.
  27. ^ Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford University Press.
  28. ^ Gugler, Thomas K (2015). Ridgeon, Lloyd, ed. Sufis and Salafis in the Contemporary Age. Bloomsbury. pp. 171–189. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  29. ^ Adil Hussain Khan, From Sufism to Ahmadiyya: A Muslim Minority Movement in South Asia, Indiana University Press, 6 April 2015, p. 42.
  30. ^ "Ahmadis - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03. Controversial messianic movement founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian, Punjab (British-controlled India), in 1889. Founder claimed to be a “nonlegislating” prophet (thus not in opposition to the mainstream belief in the finality of Muhammad 's “legislative” prophecy) with a divine mandate for the revival and renewal of Islam ... Rejected by the majority of Muslims as heretical since it believes in ongoing prophethood after the death of Muhammad.
  31. ^ "The Ahmadiyyah Movement - Islamic Studies - Oxford Bibliographies - obo". Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  32. ^ "Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-09-08. Founder of Ahmadi movement in Punjab, India, in 1889... The movement is labeled non-Muslim and fiercely opposed by Muslims, although the group considers itself Muslim.

Further reading

  • Alvi, Sajida S. "The Mujaddid and Tajdīd Traditions in the Indian Subcontinent: An Historical Overview" ("Hindistan’da Mucaddid ve Tacdîd geleneği: Tarihî bir bakış"). Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994): 1–15.
  • Friedmann, Yohanan. "Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity". Oxford India Paperbacks

External links