Mujaddid

A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد‎), is an Islamic term for one who brings "renewal" (تجديد tajdid) to the religion.[3][4] According to the popular Muslim tradition, it refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, cleansing it of extraneous elements and restoring it to its pristine purity. In contemporary times, a mujaddid is looked upon as the greatest Muslim of a century.[5]

Imam Al-Shafi‘i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are the only two Madhhab founders regarded as Mujaddids.[1][2]

The concept is based on a hadith (a saying of Islamic prophet Muhammad),[6] recorded by Abu Dawood, narrated by Abu Hurairah who mentioned that Prophet Muhammad said:

Allah will raise for this community at the end of every 100 years the one who will renovate its religion for it.

— Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 37: Kitab al-Malahim [Battles], Hadith Number 4278[7]

Ikhtilaf (disagreements) exist among different hadith viewers. Scholars such as Al-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani have interpreted that the term mujaddid can also be understood as plural, thus referring to a group of people.[8][9]

Mujaddids can include prominent scholars, pious rulers and military commanders.[4]

List of claimants and potential mujaddids

Rulers and conquerors such as Saladin, Tamerlane, Shah Rukh, Mehmet II, Selim I, Suleiman, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan were often popularly heralded as mujaddids for their roles in Political Islam (Saladin, Ottoman's Selim I and Suleiman I held the title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques).[10][11][12][13][14]
 
Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), mujaddid of the 7th century, is known for his theological, political and military activities.
 
Abul A'la Maududi, one of the mujaddids of the last century.[15]

While there is no formal mechanism for designating a mujaddid in Sunni Islam, there is often a popular consensus. The Shia and Ahmadiyya[16][page needed][17] have their own list of mujaddids.[4]

First Century (after the prophetic period) (August 3, 718)

Second Century (August 10, 815)

Third Century (August 17, 912)

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)

Fifth Century (September 1, 1106)

Sixth Century (September 9, 1203)

Seventh Century (September 5, 1300)

Eighth Century (September 23, 1397)

Ninth Century (October 1, 1494)

Tenth Century (October 19, 1591)

Eleventh Century (October 26, 1688)

Mahiuddin Aurangzeb Alamgir (1618-1707)[47]

Twelfth Century (November 4, 1785)

Thirteenth Century (November 14, 1882)

Fourteenth Century (November 21, 1979)

Notes

  1. ^ Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. The Sunni-Shia mainstream and the majority of Muslims reject the Ahmadiyya as it believes in non-law bearing prophethood after Muhammad.[57][58][59]

References

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  3. ^ Faruqi, Burhan Ahmad (16 August 2010). The Mujaddid's Conception of Tawhid. p. 7. ISBN 9781446164020. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Meri, Josef W., ed. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 678. ISBN 9780415966900.
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Further reading

  • Alvi, Sajida S. "The Mujaddid and Tajdīd Traditions in the Indian Subcontinent: An Historical Overview" ("Hindistan’da Mucaddid ve Tacdîd geleneği: Tarihî bir bakış"). Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994): 1–15.
  • Friedmann, Yohanan. "Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi: An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in the Eyes of Posterity". Oxford India Paperbacks

External links