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Aligarh ( (About this soundlisten); formerly Allygurh and Koil) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for its lock industries. It is the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district. It lies 307 kilometres (191 mi) northwest of Kanpur and is approximately 145 kilometres (90 mi) southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is the 8th largest city in Uttar Pradesh and 55th largest city in India.[3]

Skyline of Aligarh
Aligarh is located in Uttar Pradesh
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Aligarh is located in India
Aligarh (India)
Aligarh is located in Asia
Aligarh (Asia)
Coordinates: 27°53′N 78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08Coordinates: 27°53′N 78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
Founded bykoil-Dor Rajputs
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
 • BodyAligarh Nagar Nigam
 • MayorMohammad Furqan, (Bahujan Samaj Party)
178 m (584 ft)
 • Total1,240,896
 • Rank55
 • OfficialHindi[2]
 • Additional officialUrdu[2]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0571
Vehicle registrationUP-81



Moat at the Aligarh Fort

Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol. The history of the district up until the 12th century is obscure.[4]

Some time before the Muslim conquest, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel probably had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple. In 1194, Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched from Delhi to Kol, "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din Aibak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Kol.[citation needed]

Kol is mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, emperor of the Mongol Chinese Yuan dynasty, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341.[5] According to Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name Sabzabad or "the green country".[citation needed]

In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad.[citation needed] Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.[4]

During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of 'Umar, was the governor of Kol. He built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25. Sabit Khan, who was then the governor of this region, of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town after himself: Sabitgarh.

The Jat ruler, Surajmal, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. finally, when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured it, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the command of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.[4]

Battle of Aligarh (1803)Edit

General Lord Gerard Lake who oversaw the Battle of Ally Ghur

The Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, which was under the control of the French officer Perron, and established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district.[6]


Aligarh district is divided into five tehsils, namely Kol Tehsil, Khair Tehsil, Atrauli, Gabhana and Iglas. These tehsils are further divided into 12 blocks.

The city is administered by Nagar Nigam Aligarh (Municipal Corporation), which is responsible for performing civic administrative functions administered by Mayor and Municipal Commissioner (PCS Officer). Infrastructure development of the city is looked after by the Aligarh Development Authority (ADA) administered by Divisional Commissioner (Chairman) and Vice-Chairman (PCS Officer).

Aligarh is the headquarters of Aligarh Police Range and Aligarh Division. A DIG looks after Aligarh for legal condition and law; a Commissioner looks for four district of Aligarh Division(Aligarh, Etah, Hathras, Kasganj).



Aligarh is located at the coordinates 27°53′N 78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08.[7] It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 feet). The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The G.T. Road passes through. It is 134 km from capital of India via NH-91.


Aligarh has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, typical of north-central India. Summers start in April and are hot with temperatures peaking in May. The average temperature range is 28–38 °C (82–100 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, continuing till early October, bringing high humidity. Aligarh gets most of its annual rainfall of 800 millimetres (31 in) during these months. Temperatures then decrease, and winter sets in December, and continues till February. Temperatures range between 5–11 °C (41–52 °F). Winters in Aligarh are generally mild, but 2011–12 experienced the lowest temperature of 1 °C. The fog and cold snaps are extreme.

Climate data for Aligarh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.7
Average high °C (°F) 20.6
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15.2
Average rainy days 1.5 1.4 1.0 0.9 2.2 4.1 10.2 11.6 5.2 1.4 0.5 0.8 40.7
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[8][9]


The city is an agricultural trade centre.[10] Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important.[11]

Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.[12]

Aligarh is famous for brass hardware and sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium industries.

Aligarh is a big centre of zinc dye- casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines.[citation needed] But many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed fully automatic, computerised hot chamber machines. Indian Dye-casting Industries at Sasni Gate Area is the most renowned[peacock term] manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms.

Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as Kasimpur Power House) is 15 km from the city. Narora Atomic Power Station is located 50 km from Aligarh. Despite its proximity to two large power stations, frequent power cuts are normal in Aligarh.

Aligarh hosts Heinz-sauce manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi, Satha sugar factory on the Aligarh-Kasimpur Power House route and a cement factory of UltraTech Cement company. Indian Oil Bottling Plant exits at Andla in Khair. Wave Distillery (Kingfisher beer) located at Atrauli in Aligarh.

Hicks thermometer has manufacturing in Industrial Estate, Aligarh


Aligarh is the 55th fastest-growing city in India. Following major development projects are under construction in the city.

  • Govt. Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Chherat
  • Super Speciality Trauma Center at AMU
  • Sports University
  • ISKCON Temple at Harduaganj
  • Shooting Range at Chherat
  • Astro Turf Hockey Stadium in AMU
  • NH-93 Kathpula-Jamalpur Crossing 4 Lane work
  • Aligarh-Khair-Palwal 4 Lane highway work is proposed (10 km. bypass at Khair City and 5 km bypass at Jattari)
  • Aligarh-Moradabad 4 Lane highway work is proposed
  • Golf Corse at AMU Aligarh
  • 5 Star Country Inn Hotel near Aligarh Junction(Will be ready in 2017)
  • A bypass railway line for Goods train
  • Defence corridor for making Defence equipments and ordinance factory


Besides the Aligarh Muslim University and Aligarh College of Engineering and Technology, the city has several colleges and schools.


Cultural landmarksEdit

Church of ascension, Aligarh

Aligarh has several popular landmarks. Most notable few of them are Aligarh fort, Another one is Khereshwar Temple which is the Birth Place of Swami Shri Haridas Ji, Teerthdham Mangalayatan Mandir and Dor fortress (1524), which is now in ruins, lies at the city's centre; its site is in the area now called Upper Fort (Balai Qila) and is occupied by an 18th-century mosque. The area Shah Jamal is very famous for a Sufi saint Syed Shah Jamal also known as Shamsul Arifeen, of whom the tomb is located at Shahjamal area and surrounded by a Graveyard and because of this famous personality the area got its name. The Sufi Saint is mentioned by Ibne Batuta in his book Travels of Ibne Batuta ; Volume 4. The saint is said to be of Sufi Chishtiya order.

The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as Numaish, is held at the exhibition ground in January and February.The Land Numaish Ground donated By Nawab Rehmat Ullah Khan Sherwani, The cultural shows takes place at 3 grand stages (Kohinoor, Krishnanjali, Muktakash). In all more than 150 stage events featuring artist from across the India takes place during a period of 28 days.[13]

Historical placesEdit

Aligarh fort, Aligarh

Places of worshipEdit

Hindu places of worshipEdit

  • Khereshwar Temple: Birth Place of Swami Shri HARIDAS JI
  • Sai Mandir: Located at Sarsol on G.T. Road
  • Tika Ram Mandir: A renowned temple of the city located at Center Point
  • Lord Shiv Temple: Khereshwar Dham is known for an ancient Lord Shiv temple and situated at Haridaspur, Aligarh (3 km from Aligarh). It is one of the famous temples in the city.
  • Shri Varshney Mandir: Located near Shri Varshney College, G.T. Road, Aligarh
  • Others: Many old Hindu temples in the city are near Achal Taal (opposite Dharma Samaj College). There are four key temples at four corners of the Achal Taal; all the four temples are Hindu Siddh Peeth.

Muslim places of worshipEdit

  • Nai Abadi Masjid
  • Umar Farooq Masjid
  • Madina Masjid
  • Nabi Karim Masjid
  • Ek Minar Masjid
  • Jama Masjid
  • Aïsha Masjid
  • Badi Masjid
  • Ahmad Nagar Masjid
  • Noor Masjid
  • Hussaini Masjid
  • Barola Masjid[14]
  • Kirmani Masjid
  • Ghausia Masjid

Another landmark is Sir Syed Masjid in Aligarh Muslim University's campus.

SS Masjid beside Strachey Hall, AMU Aligarh

The city contains tombs of Muslim saints Shah Jamal at Shah Jamal Area Barchi Bahadur was the one of the Descendants of Shah Jamal.[15] Aligarh has a very renowned tomb, Baba Barchi Bahadur, at Kath Pula. Another old Jain temple with fresco painted ceilings is located behind Khirni Gate Police Chowky at Agra Road in the main City.

A famous Jainism Teerth Dhaam "Mangalayatan Teerth Dhaam" was built at Agra Road.

Aligarh Muslim UniversityEdit

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is one of the oldest central universities. It was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind, In 1875–78 which later became Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO College). It was designed to train Muslims for government services in India and prepare them for advanced training in British universities. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. It is famous for its Law, Medical and Engineering College. Madrak ka qila


Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences maintains 'Museum on History of Medicine and Sciences' and 'Museum on Arts, Culture and Orientalism'. It was established by a family Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman and Syed Ziaur Rahman at the heart of the city and near a busy market of Dodhpur.[16][17]


By railEdit

Aligarh Junction railway station is the primary station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route. It is a A-Class railway station. It is one of the oldest railway station of this route. It connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important stations of cities such as New Delhi railway station, Mumbai Central, Kolkata, Bhopal Junction railway station, Indore, Jammu, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur Central railway station, Etawah Junction railway station, Tundla Junction railway station, Phaphund railway station, Agra Cantonment railway station and Varanasi. Aligarh railway station handles over 136 trains daily (in both directions) and serves around 204,000 passengers everyday. Aligarh has one Branch Railway Line to Bareily.

Aligarh City has following railway stations:

  • Aligarh Junction: a A-Class Railway Station
  • Somna (Gabhana) railway station
  • Mahrawal railway station
  • Kalua railway station
  • Daudkhan railway station
  • Mandrak railway station
  • Harduaganj railway station (Satha, near Kasimpur Power House)
  • Manjoorgarhi railway station (Chherat)

By roadEdit

Aligarh is 140 km from New Delhi. It is one of the Division of UPSRTC. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.

Aligarh City has two UPSRTC bus stations:

  • Aligarh Depot bus station.
  • Masoodabad (Budh Vihar) Depot bus station
  • ISBT Rasualabad Sarsaul under construction.

There are buses plying from Aligarh to Delhi at frequent intervals via

1) Khair, Tappal, Palval, faridabad, delhi. the route is under construction between Khair and Palval and should be strictly avoided for cars. No toll charges.

2) Khair, Tappal, Yamuna expressway, G Noida, Noida, Delhi, Gurgaon. - Best and recommended Route for Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon. Toll Charges are 120 rs between aligarh and delhi.

3) Old GT Road, Bulandshahr, Ghaziabad, Delhi. NH 91, it is a four lane highway (Toll road). Toll charges 190 Rs.

Following Highways are connected to Aligarh.

  • National Highway 91- It connects Kolkata to National capital New Delhi. Ghaziabad-Bulandshahr-Aligarh section is 4 Lane Highway.
  • National Highway 93- It connects Moradabad to Taj Nagri Agra via Aligarh. Aligarh-Agra section is constructed as Brijbhoomi Expressway.
  • Yamuna Expressway- It is 6 Lane Expressway Noida-Agra crossing at Tappal in Khair Tehsil from where Khair City is 30 km.

Aligarh City has Mahanagar Bus Service (City Bus Service) which provides local transport to Aligarh.

  • Route-1 J N Medical-Uperkot
  • Route-2 Gandhi Park-Sarsaul
  • Route-3 Ghantarbagh-Quarsi
  • Route-4 Gandhi Park-Boner
  • Route-5 Etah Chungi-Collectrate

By airEdit

The nearest international airport from Aligarh is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi. It is 140 km from Aligarh.

Aligarh Airport is in under construction, it is in Dhanipur on NH 91. Dhanipur Air Strip is used as Flying Club. The Government of Uttar Pradesh signed a MoU with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in February 2014 for the development of the airport.The land acquisition for airport will be initiated soon and after its development flight will start under regional connectivity scheme.

Inter-city transportEdit

The government has proposed to operate city buses in Aligarh with following routes:

  • Aligarh Fort–Law Faculty–Firdaus Nagar–Shamshad–Collectorate–University Circle–Lal Diggi Lake–Amir Nishan–Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing–Chungi/Ramghat Road–Quarsi Crossing–Indrapuri/Great Mall–Mahaveer Nagar–DPS Civil Lines–St. Fidelis–Heritage–UPSIDC Harduaganj
  • Bannadevi Crossing–Methodist Church–Exhibition Ground–RMPS Park–Ghantaghar–Centre Point–Melrose-Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing
  • Railway Station–Ghantaghar Circle–Tibiyya College–Lal Diggi Lake–Amir Nishan–Marris Road Crossing–Kela Nagar Crossing–Chungi/Ramghat–Quarsi Crossing–Jeevangarh–Dhorra–Jamalpur–Ayesha Tarin School

Notable PeopleEdit


Faculty of Arts, Aligarh Muslim University

Writers, poets and publishersEdit


Victoria gate

Film actorsEdit

ZHCET's View at Night

Sports personsEdit


Medical professionalsEdit

Social activistsEdit


  1. ^ "Aligarh City Population Census 2011 | Uttar Pradesh". Retrieved 2015-11-06.
  2. ^ a b "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Top cities of India by population, Census 2011". Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  4. ^ a b c "Histor11". Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
  5. ^ The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, by Ross E. Dunn, p. 215
  6. ^ Edwin T. Atkinson (1875). Descriptive and Historical Account of the Aligarh District. p. 348. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Aligarh". Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  8. ^ "Aligarh Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  9. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  10. ^ "". 7 June 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  11. ^ "Britannica". Britannica. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  12. ^ Pawan JainPawan Jain (3 June 2003). "Times of India". Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  13. ^ "Dainik Jagran". 29 January 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  14. ^ "aligarh new masjid - Google Search". Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  15. ^ Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica (India). ISBN 0852297602. OCLC 45086947.
  16. ^ "World's 10 weirdest medical museums". Bryan Pirolli for CNN, Travel (May 24, 2013).
  17. ^ "Ibn Sina Academy". Eram Agha for CNN-News18, (November 5, 2017).

Further readingEdit

  • Aligarh in My Days (Interviews of former Vice-Chancellors of Aligarh Muslim University), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students' Centre, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1997.
  • Atkinson, Edward (2010) [1875]. Descriptive And Historical Account of the Aligarh District. Nabu Press. ISBN 1-147-42719-4.