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Jannah (Arabic: جنّةJannah; plural: Jannat), lit. "garden", is the final abode of the righteous[1] and the Islamic believers, but also the Garden of Eden, where Adam and Hawwa dwelt. Firdaws (Arabic: فردوس) is the literal term meaning paradise, but the Quran generally uses the term Jannah symbolically referring to paradise. However "Firdaus" also designates the highest layer of heaven.[2]

In contrast to Jannah, the words Jahannam, Dozukh, and Nār are used to refer to the concept of hell. There are many words in the Arabic language for both Heaven and Hell and those words also appear in the Quran and ahadith. Most of them have become part of the Islamic traditions.[3]

Jannah is often compared to Christian concepts of Heaven.

Contents

Heaven and JannahEdit

While Jannah in the Quran is often translated as "Heaven" in the sense of an abode where believers are rewarded in afterlife, سماء sama' (usually pl. samawat) is also translated as "heaven" in the sense of the sky,[4] sometimes referred to as "seven firmament"[4] (2:29) or "seven strong" (78:12).[5][6] The seven layers of heaven are thought to be analogous to the seven layers of Jahannam (hell).

Some sources connect the two in some way. According to Sufi cosmology, Paradise is often depicted over the seven heavens, between the 8th and the 9th heaven.[7] In some modern interpretations, based on Surah 21:30 and 67:5, the lowest heaven is also interpreted as the observable universe, with the other 6 heavens beyond, once were a mess together[clarification needed] with the earths and later expanded.[8][7]

Images and descriptions of JannahEdit

 
An artists representation of "Muhammed's Paradise". A Persian miniature from The History of Mohammed, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.

The Paradise is described as surrounded by eight principal gates, each level generally being divided into a hundred degrees guarded by angels (in some traditions Ridwan). The highest level is known as firdaws (sometimes called Eden) or Illiyin. Entrants will be greeted by angels with salutations of peace or As-Salamu Alaykum.[9] Furthermore, paradise is considered to be "as vast as the heavens and the earth".[10]

In the Quran, "the Garden" is described with material delights, such as beautiful maidens, precious stones, delicious foods, and constantly flowing water—the latter especially appealing to the desert dwelling Arabs, who spend most of their life in arid lands. The Islamic texts describes life for its immortal inhabitants as: one that is happy—without hurt, sorrow, fear or shame—where every wish is fulfilled. Traditions relate that inhabitants will be of the same age (33 years), and of the same standing. Their life is one of bliss including wearing sumptuous robes, bracelets and perfumes as they partake in exquisite banquets served in priceless vessels by immortal youths (Houri), as they recline on couches inlaid with gold or precious stones.

According to Muslim belief, everything one longs for in this world will be there in Paradise.[11]

They will eat delicious food and drink, and every bowl will have a new taste. They will take eructation which will digest the food and there will be perfumed sweating for the digestion of water. Inhabitants will rejoice in the company of their parents, spouses, and children (provided they were admitted to paradise)—conversing and recalling the past.[12]

The food in Jannah never rotting and so delicious it will make any person on earth live without feeling hunger forever. The dwellings for inhabitants will be pleasant, with lofty gardens, shady valleys, fountains scented with camphor or ginger; rivers of water, milk, honey and Sharab-un-Tahoora (pure drink); delicious fruits of all seasons without thorns;

One day in paradise is considered equal to a thousand years on earth. Palaces are made from bricks of gold, silver, pearls, among other things. Traditions also note the presence of horses and camels of "dazzling whiteness", along with other creatures. Large trees whose shades are ever deepening, mountains made of musk, between which rivers flow in valleys of pearl and ruby.[9]

The names of four rivers are Saihan (Syr Darya), Jaihan (Amu Darya), Furat (Euphrates) and Nil (Nile).[13] Salsabil is the name of a spring that is the source of the rivers of Rahma (mercy) and Al-Kawthar (abundance).[14] Sidrat al-Muntaha is a Lote tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass.[citation needed]

In spite of the goodly dwellings given to the inhabitants of paradise, the approval of God and nearness to him is considered greater. According to the Quran, God will bring the elect near to his throne (‘arsh), a day on which "some faces shall be shining in contemplating their Lord." The vision of God is regarded as the greatest of all rewards, surpassing all other joys.[9] The true beauty of paradise is also understood as the joy of beholding God, the creator.[15][16]

Besides the material notion of the paradise, those descriptions are also interpreted as allegories, explaining the state of joy people will get. For some theologicans, seeing God is not a question of sight, but of awareness of Gods presence.[17] The Persian theologian Al-Ghazali said:

This life belongs to the world of earth and the world of visibility; the hereafter belongs to the world of transcendental and the world of beings. By this life I understand your state before death, by hereafter I understand your state after death ... However, it is impossible to explain the world of beings in this life by any other means than allegories.

Inhabitants of JannahEdit

According to the Quran, the basic criterion for salvation in the afterlife is the belief in the oneness of God (tawḥīd), Angels of God, revealed books of God, all messengers of God, as well as repentance to God, and doing good deeds. Though one must do good deeds and believe in God, salvation can only be attained through God's judgment.[18]

Regarding salvation from hell, according to hadith literature, Muhammad said, “Surely a time will come over hell when its gates shall be blown by wind, there shall be none in it, and this shall be after they have remained therein for many years.”[19] Still in the Hadith literature, Muhammad is reported to have said, "Allah will bring out people from the Fire and admit them into Paradise."[20] Otherwise some hadiths indicate, that the majority of mankind will not access heaven.[21] According to Sunni Islam, a Muslim, even if condemned to hell, will eventually enter Heaven.[22]

As in life there are many trials which one must face. This is also a condition individuals must encounter in order to enter Jannah.

Or do ye think that ye shall enter the Garden (of bliss) without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They encountered suffering and adversity, and were so shaken in spirit that even the Messenger and those of faith who were with him cried: "When (will come) the help of Allah?" Ah! Verily, the help of Allah is (always) near!

— Qur'an, sura 2 (al-Baqarah), ayah 214[23]

Did ye think that ye would enter Heaven without Allah testing those of you who fought hard (In His Cause) and remained steadfast?

— Qur'an, sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayah 142[24]

Non-Muslims in JannahEdit

There are different opinions among scholars in regard whether Non-Muslims could enter Jannah. Some Muslims and Islamic scholars argued Surah 2:62 indicates Jannah is not exclusively for Muslims.

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans—those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness—will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.2:62

On the other hand, other scholars hold this verse is abrogated by Surah 3:85 and just applied until the arrival of Muhammad.[25][26] For example, before Jesus was born, Jewish will enter Jannah alike Christians, who lived before Muhammad enter Jannah, but every religious group needs to accept the newest prophet.[27]

And whoever desires other than Islam as religion—never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.3:85

Scholars like Ibn Arabi did not hold the first to be abrogated by the latter, since "Islam" in this context, does not apply to Islam as a religious tradition, but to "submission".[28][29] Ghazali distinguished between the "saved" and "those who will attain success". Therefore, righteous Non-Muslims will neither enter hell nor Jannah, but will stay in Araf.[30]

Further those, who regard Jannah as exclusively for Muslims argue, that Islam is the "completed" and "perfected" religion and it is necessary to believe in the whole teaching of God, the prophets and the angels that just can be done by a Muslim.[31]

According to the Islamic theologican Süleyman Ateş, argues Muslims had made a mistake Jewish and Christians made before by claiming paradise being exclusive for Muslims. Further he states, that those who believes in God without associating any partners with Him, believes in the hereafter without any doubt and do good and useful deeds can enter paradise, conditions several religions offer. He also refers to the Quran 5:66 that there are good and bad people among any religion, and even not all Muslims may enter paradise.[32]

Finally, most scholars agree that Non-Muslims who did not hear the message of Islam and Non-Muslims who died in childhood are eligible for Jannah as well[33]:

… And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).17:15

Number of people who will enter JannahEdit

Several precise numbers are mentioned in the hadith literature which show the extremely small number of humanity that will qualify for Jannah. For instance, a small select elite group of 70,000 people from the followers of Muhammad will initially enter Jannah without any accountability of their sins.[21]

After the above group, only 1 out of 1,000 people from the rest of humanity (Muslim and Non-Muslim) would qualify for Jannah. Was it to be assumed that all of these would be Muslims, that would mean roughly only 1 out of every 300 Muslims would end up in Jannah.[34]

Quranic names of JannahEdit

Layers of JannahEdit

Doors of JannahEdit

According to hadith, there are eight doors of Jannah. Their names are as following:[53]

  1. Bāb al-Ṣalāh: For those who were punctual in prayer
  2. Bāb al-Jihād: For those who took part in jihad
  3. Bāb al-Ṣadaqah: For those who gave charity more often
  4. Bāb al-Rayyān: For those who fasted (siyam)
  5. Bāb al-Ḥajj: For those participated in the annual pilgrimage
  6. Bāb al-Kāẓimīn al-Ghayẓ wa-al-‘Āfīn ‘an al-Nās: For those who withheld their anger and forgave others
  7. Bāb al-Aymān: For those who by virtue of their faith are saved from reckoning and chastisement
  8. Bāb al-Dhikr: For those who showed zeal in remembering God

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Joseph Hell Die Religion des Islam Motilal Banarsidass Publishe 1915
  2. ^ Asad, Muhammad (1984). The Message of the Qu'rán (PDF). Gibraltar, Spain: Dar al-Andalus Limited. pp. 712–713. ISBN 1904510000. 
  3. ^ Asad, Muhammad (1984). The Message of the Qu'rán (PDF). Gibraltar, Spain: Dar al-Andalus Limited. p. 531. ISBN 1904510000. 
  4. ^ a b Saalih al-Munajjid, General Supervisor, Muhammad (3 May 2015). "70217: Which was created first, the heavens or the earth?". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  5. ^ "Surah Nabaa, Chapter 78". al-Islam. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  6. ^ "english tafsir. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an. 78. Surah An Naba (The News)". englishtafsir.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  7. ^ a b Sachiko Murata The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought SUNY Press 1992 ISBN 978-0-791-40913-8 page 127
  8. ^ Muzaffar Iqbal Contemporary Issues in Islam and Science, Band 2 Routledge 2017 ISBN 978-1-351-94915-6
  9. ^ a b c "Jannah", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  10. ^ "Quran". Quran.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017. 
  11. ^ Annemarie Schimmel. Islam and The Wonders of Creation: The Animal Kingdom. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2003. Page 46
  12. ^ Quran 55:56-58, 56:15-25
  13. ^ Hughes, Patrick (1995). "EDEN". A Dictionary of Islam. New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services. p. 106. ISBN 9788120606722. ISBN 81-206-0672-8. 
  14. ^ Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi (2004). Divine sayings (Mishkat al-Anwar). Oxford, UK: Anqa Publishing. pp. 105, note 7. ISBN 0-9534513-5-6. 
  15. ^ Mouhanad Khorchide, Sarah Hartmann Islam is Mercy: Essential Features of a Modern Religion Verlag Herder GmbH ISBN 978-3-451-80286-7 chapter 2.4
  16. ^ Farnáz Maʻsúmián Life After Death: A Study of the Afterlife in World Religions Kalimat Press 1995 page 81
  17. ^ Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith The New Encyclopedia of Islam Rowman Altamira 2003 ISBN 978-0-759-10190-6 page 237
  18. ^ Moiz Amjad. "Will Christians enter Paradise or go to Hell? Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.". Renaissance - Monthly Islamic journal 11(6), June, 2001.
  19. ^ Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in Mujma Al Kabir
  20. ^ "Allah will bring out people from the Fire and admit them into Paradise". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  21. ^ a b "4203: How many will enter Paradise? - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-07. 
  22. ^ A F Klein Religion Of Islam Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-09954-0 page 92
  23. ^ Quran 2:214
  24. ^ Quran 3:142
  25. ^ David Marshall Communicating the Word: Revelation, Translation, and Interpretation in Christianity and Islam Georgetown University Press 2011 ISBN 978-1-589-01803-7 p. 8
  26. ^ Lloyd Ridgeon Islamic Interpretations of Christianity Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-84020-3
  27. ^ "Who are the Jews and Christians who will enter Paradise? - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-04. As far as the Jews are concerned, their faith meant believing in the Tawraat (original Torah) and following the way of Moosa (peace be upon him) until ‘Eesa came, after which whoever continued to follow the Torah and the way of Moosa, and did not leave this and follow ‘Eesa, was doomed. As far as the Christians are concerned, their faith meant believing in the Injeel (original Gospel) and following the laws of ‘Eesa; whoever did this was a believer whose faith was acceptable to Allah, until Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came, after which whoever did not follow Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and leave the way of ‘Eesa and the Injeel that he had been following before, was doomed. 
  28. ^ Robert McKim Religious Perspectives on Religious Diversity Philosophy of Religion - World Religions BRILL 2016 ISBN 978-9-004-33043-6 page 155
  29. ^ William C. Chittick The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination SUNY Press 1989 ISBN 978-088-706885-0 page 197
  30. ^ Mohammad Hassan Khalil Islam and the Fate of Others: The Salvation Question Oxford University Press, USA 2012 ISBN 978-0-199-79666-3 page 45-46
  31. ^ Sinasi Gündüz, Sinasi Gunduz, Cafer S. Yaran Change and Essence: Dialectical Relations Between Change and Continuity in the Turkish Intellectual Tradition CRVP 2005 ISBN 978-1-565-18222-6 p. 12
  32. ^ Sinasi Gündüz, Sinasi Gunduz, Cafer S. Yaran Change and Essence: Dialectical Relations Between Change and Continuity in the Turkish Intellectual Tradition CRVP 2005 ISBN 978-1-565-18222-6 p. 9
  33. ^ "The fate of kuffaar who did not hear the message of Islam - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-04. 
  34. ^ "22836: The ratio of people of Paradise to people of Hell - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-07. 
  35. ^ Quran 18:107
  36. ^ Quran 23:11
  37. ^ Quran 35:35
  38. ^ Quran 10:25
  39. ^ Quran 6:127
  40. ^ Quran 29:64
  41. ^ Quran 2:35
  42. ^ Quran 3:133
  43. ^ Quran 5:72
  44. ^ Quran 3:72
  45. ^ Quran 13:23
  46. ^ Quran 25:15
  47. ^ Quran 53:15
  48. ^ Quran 5:65
  49. ^ Quran 10:9
  50. ^ Quran 22:56
  51. ^ Quran 54:55
  52. ^ Quran 44:51
  53. ^ The Eight Doors of Jannah Archived 2010-06-05 at the Wayback Machine.