Ashure (Turkish: Aşure) or Noah's Pudding is a Turkish dessert porridge that is made of a mixture consisting of grains, fruits, dried fruits and nuts. In Turkey it is made all the year and served especially during Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar, as the 10th of Muharrem corresponds to the Day of Ashure. ("Ashura" is Arabic for "tenth".)
|Place of origin||Turkey|
|Main ingredients||Grains, fruits and nuts|
Ashure is one of the limited set of Turkish desserts which contain no animal products. One reason behind it is arguably protesting all kinds of violence and bloodshed. Alevis in Turkey are the prominent group to promote this pudding, traditionally cooking and sharing it following the days of fasting (coinciding Battle of Karbala) in which they abstain from eating meat. In said battle, Hussein ibn Ali and his followers embraced martyrdom.
Traditionally, Ashure is made in large quantities to commemorate the ark's landing and is distributed to friends, relatives, neighbors, colleagues, classmates, among others, without regard to the recipient's religion or belief system as an offering of peace and love. Ashure was traditionally made and eaten during the colder months of the year as it is calorie rich fare, but now it is enjoyed year-round.
The word Ashure come from Arabic word Ashura Arabic: عاشوراء ʻĀshūrā’ . It means tenth. In Turkish tradition, this dish is made mostly on 10th of Muharram or after 10th of Muharram in Islamic Lunar Calendar. Not only Islamic believing, but also pre-islamic believes related with some semitic stories also connected by Muharram month.
Also in Turkish, Ash(Aş) represents mixed porridge. It is derived from Persian word "Ashur" meaning mixing. Evliya Çelebi defines the Ashure in his travelbook, "Ashure is a porridge (aş) that should be cooked at the tenth of Muharram." 
Ashure porridge does not have a single recipe, as recipes vary between regions and families.
Traditionally, it is said to have at least seven ingredients. Some say at least ten ingredients in keeping with the theme of "tenth", while Alevis always use twelve. Among these are wheat, barley, rice, white beans, chickpeas, sugar (or other sweetener) such as molasses produced from grapes, dates, pomegranates to beets, dried fruits, such as (apples, apricots, currants, dates, figs, pears, raisins), and nuts like almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts, though there are many variants. However, many renditions add orange and lemon peel to add depth to the pudding. Anise seed, sesame seeds, pine nuts, black cumin seeds, prunus mahaleb, pomegranate kernels, pistachios, almonds, walnuts, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg and allspice may be used as garnish, and some variations are flavored with anise liqueur, rose water and/or orange blossom water.
In most cases, it is vegan, and it is one of the well-known and the most popular vegan desserts in Turkish cuisine.
History and traditionsEdit
In anecdotal history, it is claimed that when Noah's Ark came to rest on Mount Ararat, Noah's family celebrated with a special dish. Since their supplies were nearly exhausted, what was left (primarily grains, dried fruits and the like) was cooked together to form a pudding, what is now call ashure.
The Day of Ashure is an important day in the Muslim year, corresponding to the Mosaic Yom Kippur observed by Jews, and is observed by Muslims world over in honor of the prophet Moses. The Tenth of Muharrem Day of Ashura also marks the end of the Battle of Karbala and is a special day of observance in Shia Islam. Among Turkish and Balkan Sufis (especially Bektashi), the ashure pudding is prepared with special prayers for health, healing, safety, success and spiritual nourishment.
Ashure represents many cultures' beliefs, Islamic and pre-Islamic alike, and therefore is celebrated to commemorate many spiritual events believed to have happened on this day; for example, it is believed that:
- The prophet Adam was accepted by God because of his repentance.
- Noah's ark came to rest and the passengers survived.
- The sea was divided, and the nation of Israel was delivered from captivity, while the Pharaoh's army was destroyed.
- Jesus was raised to the heavens, etc.
- Martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali
The Armenian version is called anuşabur. Armenians serve it during Christmas and on New Year's Eve. Like ashure it may be garnished with pomegranate seeds and flavored with rose water, and the pudding is shared with neighbors during the Christmas season. The festive pudding is the centerpiece of the New Year's table, which is often decorated with dried fruits, nuts and pomegranates.
Turkish author Elif Şafak has scenes involving ashure in The Flea Palace and The Bastard of Istanbul. In The Flea Palace Şafak writes, "As they boiled there on the stove, all the ingredients prattled on in unison but each in its own language," and in The Bastard of Istanbul Mustafa recalls childhood memories of eating the bowls of dessert he had been entrusted to distribute to his neighbors.
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