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Physical representation of the devil in the Žmuidzinavičius Museum in Kaunas.
Satan (the Dragon) gives to the Beast of the sea (on the right) power represented by a sceptre in a detail of panel III.40 of the medieval French Apocalypse Tapestry, produced between 1377 and 1382.
A fresco detail from the Rila Monastery, in which demons are depicted as having grotesque images.

The Devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser")[1] is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.[2] Historically, the Devil can be defined as the personification of whatever is perceived in society as evil and the depiction consist of its cultural traditions.[3] In Christianity, the manifestation of the Devil is the Hebrew Satan; the primary opponent of God.[4][5] While in Christiany, the Devil was created by God, in Absolute dualism, the Devil is alternatively seen as an independent principle besides the good God. Proponents of such dualism can be found in Zoroastrism, Manichaeism, Albanenses and partly in Catharism. Some other religious and philosophical views, like Thomism,[6] Kabbalah,[7] Bahaism, Sufism and Ahmadiyya, hold that evil has no ontological existence and is regarded as something illusory.

In religions history, often a set of gods having been deposed by a younger generation of deities, then considered evil, like in Christianity, Roman and Greek deities became devils, Titans were replaced by the Olympic gods, Teutonic gods demonized the Giants and in Islam, the pre-Islamic status of Jinn as tutelary deities were reduced to beings subject to the judgment of the Islamic deity and if they do not submit to His law, are regarded as demons.[8]

Contents

Etymology

The Modern English word devil descends from the Middle English devel, from Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus. This in turn was borrowed from Greek: διάβολος diábolos, "slanderer",[9] from διαβάλλειν diabállein, "to slander" from διά diá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl", probably akin to the Sanskrit gurate, "he lifts up".[10]

Cosmological viewpoints on the Devil

Monism

In monistic view, God is absolute embracing both good and evil. An independent existence of the Devil is denied, the personification of Evil non-existent.[11] Sometimes, like in Hinduism, God is expressed through lesser gods, however God remains responsible for both good and evil, since every deity is just another aspect of the God.[12] Alternative monistic viewpoints regard evil as illusive, therefore just existing in humans own perspective.

Mitigated dualism

In the Mitigated dualism, evil is a secondary principle. The Devil is thought as a creature, originated in a heavenly realm, that only contains good, but somehow fell apart from this place, thus giving existence to evil. God remains as the source of evil but is now twinned into the principle of good and evil, the former as the High God, the latter as God's adversary. The split of the Devil apart from the good God is sometimes expressed by War in heaven.[8][13]

Absolute dualism

Absolute dualistic worldviews, assert that good and evil are two strictly distinct principles. Evil exist wholly independent from (the good) God. Accordingly, a principle can not embraces opposites, thus the Devil can not have been originated as a heavenly being (an angel or something of the like) or a creature of God. Therefore, both deities are both ontologically limited to their own essence: The good God can just want, create and do good; while the evil Devil can just want, create and do evil.[14][15]

Theological and philosophical beliefs about the Devil

Hinduism

The earliest Hindu texts do not offer further explanations for evil, regarding evil as something natural.[12] However, later texts offer various explanations for evil. According to an explanation given by the Brahmanists, both demons and gods spoke truth and untruth, but the demons relinquished the truth and the gods relinquished the untruth.[12] But both spirits are regarded as different aspects of one supreme god. Even some fierce deities like Kali are not thought as devils but just as darker aspects of God[16] and may even manifest benevolence.[12]

Zoroastrianism

In Zoroastrianism, good and evil derive from two ultimately opposed forces.[17] The force of good is called Ahura Mazda and the "destructive spirit" in Avestan-language called Angra Mainyu. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. They are in eternal struggle and none of these is all-powerful, especially Angra Mainyu is limited to space and time: in the end of time, he will be finally defeated. While Ahura Mazda creates that is good, Angra Mainyu is responsible for every evil and suffering in the world, such as toads and scorpians.[2]

Ancient Egypt

Apep (/ˈæpɛp, ˈɑː-/) or Apophis (/ˈæpəfɪs/; Ancient Greek: Ἄποφις; also spelled Apepi or Aapep) was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos (ı͗zft in Egyptian) and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at (order/truth). He appears in art as a giant serpent. His name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāpī, as it was written ꜥꜣpp(y) and survived in later Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph.[18]

The deity Set was originally associated with both positive and negative roles: a protector of Ra on the solar boat from the Serpent of Chaos, and a usurper who killed and mutilated his brother in order to assume the throne. However, he was later demonized and he became quite unpopular. According to Herman te Velde, the demonization of Set took place after Egypt's conquest by several foreign nations in the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. Set, who had traditionally been the god of foreigners, thus also became associated with foreign oppressors, including the Assyrian and Persian empires. It was during this time that Set was particularly vilified, and his defeat by Horus widely celebrated. Set's negative aspects were emphasized during this period. Set was the killer of Osiris, having hacked Osiris' body into pieces and dispersed it so that he could not be resurrected. The Greeks later linked Set with Typhon because both were evil forces, storm deities, and sons of the Earth that attacked the main gods.[citation needed]

Nevertheless, throughout this period, in some outlying regions of Egypt Set was still regarded as the heroic chief deity.[citation needed]

Set has also been classed as a Trickster deity who, as a god of disorder, resorts to deception to achieve bad ends.[19]

Buddhism

Buddhism contains a figure similar to the Devil, called Mara[4] (Sanskrit: māra; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Tibetan Wylie: bdud; Khmer: មារ; Burmese: မာရ်နတ်; Thai: มาร; Sinhalese: මාරයා), who is a tempter figure in Buddhism, distracting humans from practicing the spiritual life by making mundane things alluring, or the negative seem positive. He tempted Gautama Buddha by trying to seduce him with the vision of beautiful women who, in various legends, are often said to be Mara's daughters.[20] In Buddhist cosmology, Mara personifies unwholesome impulses, unskillfulness, the "death"[21] of the spiritual life.[citation needed]

Judaism

Yahweh, the god in pre-exilic Judaism, was the creator of both good and evil, like stated in Isaiah 45:7: "I create the light, I create the darkness". The Devil does not exist in Jewish scriptures yet. However under influence of Zoroastrianism during the Achaemenid Empire, evil as a separate principle were introduced to the Jewish belief-system, gradually externalized the opposition until the Hebrew term satan developed into a specific supernatural entity, changing the monistic view of Judaism into a dualistic one.[22] Later Rabbinic Judaism rejected the Enochian books, which depicted the Devil as an independent force of evil besides God,[23] written during the Second Temple period under Persian influence. After the apocalyptic period references to Satan in Tanakh are thought to be allegorical.[24]

Christianity

Christianity identifies the Devil ("Satan") with the serpent who tempted Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, and describes him as a "fallen angel" who terrorizes the world through evil,[4] is the antithesis of Truth,[25] and shall be condemned, together with the fallen angels who follow him, to eternal fire at the Last Judgement.[4] In mainstream Christianity the devil is usually referred to as Satan. Some modern Christians[who?] consider the devil to be an angel who, along with one-third of the angelic host (the demons) rebelled against God and has consequently been condemned to the Lake of Fire. He is described [attribution needed] as hating all humanity (or more accurately creation), opposing God, spreading lies and wreaking havoc on the souls of mankind. Other modern Christians[who?] consider the devil in the Bible to refer figuratively to human sin and temptation and to any immoral human system.[citation needed]

 
Horns of a goat and a ram, goat's fur and ears, nose and canines of a pig, a typical depiction of the devil in Christian art. The goat, ram and pig are consistently associated with the Devil.[26] Detail of a 16th-century painting by Jacob de Backer in the National Museum in Warsaw.

Satan is often identified[by whom?] as the serpent who convinced Eve to eat the forbidden fruit; thus, Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Though this identification is not present in the Adam and Eve narrative, this interpretation goes back at least as far as the time of the writing of the Book of Revelation, which specifically identifies Satan as being the serpent (Rev. 20:2).

In the Bible, the devil is identified with "the dragon" and "the old serpent" in the Book of Revelation 12:9, 20:2 have also been identified with Satan, as has "the prince of this world" in the Gospel of John 12:31, 14:30; and "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience" in the Epistle to the Ephesians 2:2; and "the god of this world" in 2 Corinthians 4:4.[27] He is also identified as the dragon in the Book of Revelation (e.g.[28]), and the tempter of the Gospels (e.g.[29]).

The devil is sometimes called Lucifer, particularly when describing him as an angel before his fall, although the reference in Isaiah 14:12 to Lucifer, or the Son of the Morning, is a reference to a Babylonian king.[30]

Beelzebub is originally the name of a Philistine god (more specifically a certain type of Baal, from Ba‘al Zebûb, lit. "Lord of Flies") but is also used in the New Testament as a synonym for Satan. A corrupted version, "Belzeboub", appears in The Divine Comedy (Inferno XXXIV).

In other, non-mainstream, Christian beliefs (e.g. the beliefs of the Christadelphians) the word "satan" in the Bible is not regarded as referring to a supernatural, personal being but to any 'adversary' and figuratively refers to human sin and temptation.[31]

Apocrypha/Deuterocanon

In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the one who brought death into the world.[32] The Second Book of Enoch contains references to a Watcher angel called Satanael,[33] describing him as the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of heaven[34] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful".[35] A similar story is found in 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is called Semjâzâ.

In the apocryphal literature, Satan rules over a host of angels.[36] Mastema, who induced God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac, is identical with Satan in both name and nature.[37] The Book of Enoch contains references to Sathariel, thought also[by whom?] to be Sataniel and Satan'el. The similar spellings mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel and Gabriel, previous to his expulsion from Heaven.[citation needed]

Mandaean

According to Mandaean mythology, Ruha Qadishta fell apart from the "world of light" and gave birth to the "Lord of Darkness" (malka dhshuka)[38] named Ur. According to one tradition, Ur is an androgyne lion-headed dragon with the wings of an eagle. Together they create serveral evil demons, liliths and vampires. Ruha Qadishta is described as a liar and sorcerer. Several Abrahamitic prophets are regarded as servants of these devils or their subordinates such as Adonai, including Moses.[39] Jesus appears as another son of Ruha Qadishta and Ur, who distorted the Baptism-ritual thaught by John the Baptist.[40][41] Eventually Ruha will be rehabilitated and return to the world of light.

Islam

 
Iblis (top right on the picture) refuses to prostrate before the newly created Adam

In Islam, the principle of evil is expressed by two terms referring to the same entity:[42][43] Shaitan (meaning astray, distant or devil) and Iblis. Iblis is the proper name of the Devil representing the characteristics of evil.[44] Iblis is mentioned in the Quranic narrative about the creation of humanity: Then God created Adam, He ordered the angels to prostrate themselves before him. All did, but Iblis refused and claimed to be superior to Adam out of pride (7:12). Therefore, pride but also envy became a sign of "unbelief" in Islam.[45] Thereafter Iblis was condemned to hell, but God granted him a request to lead humanity astray[46], knowing the righteous will resist Iblis' attempts to misguide them. In Islam, both good and evil are ultimately created by God. But since God's will is good, the evil in the world must be part of God's plan.[47] Actually, God allowed the Devil to seduce mankind. Evil and suffering are regarded as a test or a chance to proof confidence in God.[48] Some philosophers and mystics emphasised Iblis himself as a rolemodel of confidence in God: Then God ordered the angels to prostrate themselves, Iblis was forced to choose between God's command or God's will (not to praise someone else than God). He successfully passed the test, yet his disobedience caused his punishment and therefore suffering. However, he stays patient and is rewarded in the end.[49]

Like in Christianity, Iblis was once a pious creature of God, but later cast out of heaven, due to his pride. However, to maintain God's absolute sovereignty[50], Islam adaps the line taken by Irenaeus, instead of the later Christian concens, that the Devil did not rebelled against God, but against humanity.[8][51] Further, although Iblis is generally regarded as a real bodily entity,[52] he plays a less significant role as the personification of evil than in Christianity. Iblis is merely a tempter, notable for inciting humans into sin by whispering into humans minds (waswās), akin to the Jewish idea of the Devil as yetzer hara.[53][54]

On the other hand, Shaitan refers unilaterally to forces of evil, including the Devil Iblis, then he causes mischief[55]. Shaitan is also linked to humans psychological nature, appearing in dreams, causing anger or interrupting the mental preparation for prayer.[56] Furthermore, the term Shaitan also refers to beings, who follow the evil suggestions of Iblis. Furthermore, the principle of "Shaitan" is in many ways a symbol of spiritual impurity, representing humans own deficits, in contrast to a "true Muslim", who is free from anger, lust and other devilish desires.[57]

In Sufism and Mysticsm

In contrast to Occidental philosophy, the Sufi idea of seeing "Many as One" and considering the creation in their essence as the Absolute, leads to the idea of the dissolution of any dualism between the ego substance and the "external" substinantial objects. The rebellion against God, mentioned in the Quran, takes place on the level of the psyche, that must be trained and disciplined for its union with the spirit that is pure. Since psyche drives the body, flesh is not the obstacle to human, but an unawarness that allowed the impulsive forces to cause rebellion against God on the level of the psyche. Yet, it is not a dualism between body, psyche and spirit, since the spirit embraces both psyche and corperal aspects of human.[58] Since the world is hold as the mirror in which God's attributes are reflected, participation in worldly affairs is not necessarily seen as opposed to God.[59] The Devil activates the selfish desires of the psyche, leading him astray from the Divine.[60]

In Salafism

Salafi strands of Islam commonly emphasize a dualistic worldview between the believers and the unbelievers,[61] with the Devil as the enemy of God's path. Even though the Devil will be finally defeated by God, he is a serious and dangerous opponent of humans[62]. While in classical hadiths, the demons (Shayateen) and the jinn are responsible for impurity and possibly endanger people, in Salafi thought, it is the Devil himself, who lurks on the believers,[63] always striving to lead them astray from God. The Devil is regarded as an omnipresent entity, permanently inciting humans into sin, but can be pushed away by remembering the name God.[64] The Devil is regarded as an external entity, threatening the everyday life of the believer, even in social aspects of life.[65] Thus for example, it is the Devil, who is responsible for Western emancipation.[66]

Yazidism

According to Yazidism there is no entity in Yazidism which represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis[67] and evil regarded as non-existent.[68] Yazidis adhere to strict monism prohibiting to pronounce the word "devil" and everything that is related to hell,[69] regarding even mentioning such words as blasphemous.

Bahá'í Faith

In the Bahá'í Faith, a malevolent, superhuman entity such as a devil or satan is not believed to exist.[70] These terms do, however, appear in the Bahá'í writings, where they are used as metaphors for the lower nature of man. Human beings are seen to have free will, and are thus able to turn towards God and develop spiritual qualities or turn away from God and become immersed in their self-centered desires. Individuals who follow the temptations of the self and do not develop spiritual virtues are often described in the Bahá'í writings with the word satanic.[70] The Bahá'í writings also state that the devil is a metaphor for the "insistent self" or "lower self" which is a self-serving inclination within each individual. Those who follow their lower nature are also described as followers of "the Evil One".[71][72]

Other names

Demons

 
The Baphomet, adopted symbol of some Left-Hand Path systems, including Theistic Satanism.

In some religions and traditions, these titles are separate demons; others identify these names as guises of the devil. Even when thought of as individual demons, some are often thought of being under the Devil's direct control. This identifies only those thought of as the devil; List of demons has a more general listing.

(2 Corinthians 6:15)

Titles

A list of liturgical names for the devil may be found in Jeffrey Burton Russell, Lucifer, the Devil in the Middle Ages (Cornell University Press, 1986), p. 128, note 76 online.

These are titles that almost always refer to devil-figures.

  • Angra Mainyu, Ahriman: "malign spirit", "unholy spirit"
  • Der Leibhaftige [Teufel] (German): "[the devil] in the flesh, corporeal"[73]
  • Diabolus, Diabolos (Greek: Διάβολος)
  • The Evil One
  • Father of Lies (John 8:44), in contrast to Jesus ("I am the truth").
  • Iblis, the devil in Islam
  • Lord of the underworld / Lord of Hell / Lord of this World
  • Lucifer / The Morning Star (Greek and Roman): bringer of light, illuminator; the planet Venus, often portrayed as Satan's name before he fell
  • Mephistopheles
  • Old Scratch, The Stranger, Old Nick: a colloquialism for the devil, as indicated by the name of the character in the story The Devil and Tom Walker
  • Prince of Darkness / Air
  • Satan / The Adversary, Accuser, Prosecutor
  • (The ancient/old/crooked/coiling) Serpent
  • Shaitan, an Arabic name for Satan
  • Kölski (Iceland)[74]
  • Voland (fictional character in Goethe's Faust)

The devil as Creator-deity

Several religious authors throughout history have advanced the notion that the god of the Old Testament is consistent in character with the devil. They make the case that the Biblical God is a divine force that wreaks suffering, death and destruction and that tempts or commands humanity into committing mayhem and genocide. Tertullian accuses Marcion of Sinope, the first great heretic of Christianity in the 1st century, that he

[held that] the Old Testament was a scandal to the faithful … and … accounted for it by postulating [that Jehovah was] a secondary deity, a demiurgus, who was god, in a sense, but not the supreme God; he was just, rigidly just, he had his good qualities, but he was not the good god, who was Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ.[75]

The Church condemned his writings as heretical. John Arendzen (1909) in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) mentions that Eusebius accused Apelles, the 2nd-century AD Gnostic, of considering the Inspirer of Old-Testament prophecies to be not a god, but an evil angel.[76] Hegemonius (4th century) accuses the Persian prophet Mani, founder of the Manichaean sect in the 3rd century AD, identified Jehovah as "the devil god which created the world"[77] and said that "he who spoke with Moses, the Jews, and the priests … is the [Prince] of Darkness, … not the god of truth."[78][79]

These writings refer to the Jewish God variously as "a demiurgus",[75] "an evil angel",[76] "the devil god",[77] "the Prince of Darkness",[78][79] "the source of all evil",[80] "the Devil",[81] "a demon",[82] "a cruel, wrathful, warlike tyrant",[83] "Satan"[84] and "the first beast of the book of Revelation".[85]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "devil". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 29 June 2007. 
  2. ^ a b Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 34
  3. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 46
  4. ^ a b c d Leeming, David (2005-11-17). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780195156690. 
  5. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 174
  6. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 36
  7. ^ Byron L. Sherwin Kabbalah: An Introduction to Jewish Mysticism Rowman & Littlefield 2006 ISBN 978-0-742-54364-5 page 73
  8. ^ a b c Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 58
  9. ^ διάβολος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  10. ^ "Definition of DEVIL". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-04-23. 
  11. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 36
  12. ^ a b c d Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 56
  13. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 187
  14. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 752-154
  15. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 187
  16. ^ Seema Mohanty, Seema The Book of Kali Penguin Books India 2009 ISBN 978-0-143-06764-1 page 115
  17. ^ John R. Hinnells The Zoroastrian Diaspora: Religion and Migration OUP Oxford 2005 ISBN 978-0-191-51350-3 page 108
  18. ^ Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow, eds. 1926–1953. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. 6 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'schen Buchhandlungen. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH, 1971).
  19. ^ Dean Andrew Nicholas (2009). "The Trickster Revisited: Deception as a Motif in the Pentateuch". Studies in Biblical Literature. 117: 16–17. ISSN 1089-0645. 
  20. ^ See, for instance, SN 4.25, entitled, "Māra's Daughters" (Bodhi, 2000, pp. 217-20), as well as Sn 835 (Saddhatissa, 1998, page 98). In each of these texts, Mara's daughters (Māradhītā) are personified by sensual Craving (taṇhā), Aversion (arati) and Passion (rāga).
  21. ^ Mara-the god of death
  22. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 58
  23. ^ Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International. pp. 2–4. ISBN 0826470890
  24. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity Cornell University Press 1987 ISBN 978-0-801-49409-3 page 29
  25. ^ "Definition of DEVIL". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12. 
  26. ^ Fritscher, Jack (2004). Popular Witchcraft: Straight from the Witch's Mouth. Popular Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-299-20304-2. The pig, goat, ram — all of these creatures are consistently associated with the Devil. 
  27. ^ 2 Corinthians 2:2
  28. ^ Rev. 12:9
  29. ^ Mat. 4:1
  30. ^ See, for example, the entries in Nave's Topical Bible, the Holman Bible Dictionary and the Adam Clarke Commentary.
  31. ^ "Do you Believe in a Devil? Bible Teaching on Temptation". Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  32. ^ "But by the envy of the devil, death came into the world" - Book of Wisdom II. 24
  33. ^ 2 Enoch 18:3
  34. ^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air continuously above the bottomless" - 2 Enoch 29:4
  35. ^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" - 2 Enoch 31:4
  36. ^ Martyrdom of Isaiah, 2:2; Vita Adæ et Evæ, 16)
  37. ^ Book of Jubilees, xvii. 18
  38. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 552
  39. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 553
  40. ^ Nesta H. Webster Secret Societies and Subversive Movements Book Tree 2000 ISBN 978-1-585-09092-1 page 71
  41. ^ Kurt Rudolph Mandaeism. [Mit Fig.] BRILL 1978 ISBN 978-9-004-05252-9 page 4
  42. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 57
  43. ^ Benjamin W. McCraw, Robert Arp Philosophical Approaches to the Devil Routledge 2015 ISBN 9781317392217
  44. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 250
  45. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 250
  46. ^ [Quran 17:62]
  47. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 249
  48. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 249
  49. ^ Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik M. Vroom Probing the Depths of Evil and Good: Multireligious Views and Case Studies Rodopi 2007 ISBN 9789042022317 page 254-255
  50. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 45
  51. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press 1986 ISBN 978-0-801-49429-1 page 57
  52. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1399
  53. ^ Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 page 79
  54. ^ Nils G. Holm The Human Symbolic Construction of Reality: A Psycho-Phenomenological Study LIT Verlag Münster 2014 ISBN 978-3-643-90526-0 page 54
  55. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/shaitan
  56. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1399
  57. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 74
  58. ^ Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 page 81-82
  59. ^ Fereshteh Ahmadi, Nader Ahmadi Iranian Islam: The Concept of the Individual Springer 1998 ISBN 978-0-230-37349-5 page 79
  60. ^ John O'Kane, Bernd Radtke The Concept of Sainthood in Early Islamic Mysticism: Two Works by Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidhi - An Annotated Translation with Introduction Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-79309-7 page 48
  61. ^ Thorsten Gerald Schneiders Salafismus in Deutschland: Ursprünge und Gefahren einer islamisch-fundamentalistischen Bewegung transcript Verlag 2014 ISBN 9783839427118 page p. 392 (German)
  62. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 67
  63. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 68
  64. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 9780710313560 page 69
  65. ^ Michael Kiefer, Jörg Hüttermann, Bacem Dziri, Rauf Ceylan, Viktoria Roth, Fabian Srowig, Andreas Zick „Lasset uns in shaʼa Allah ein Plan machen“: Fallgestützte Analyse der Radikalisierung einer WhatsApp-Gruppe Springer-Verlag 2017 ISBN 9783658179502 page 111
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References

  • The Origin of Satan, by Elaine Pagels (Vintage Books, New York 1995) explores the development, the "demonization" of the character of Satan against the background of the bitter struggle between the early Church and the Synagogue to be the legitimate heir of ancient Hebrew religious tradition. She discusses how Satan becomes a figure that reflects our own hatreds and prejudices, and the struggle between our loving selves and our fearful, combative selves.
  • The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth, by Neil Forsyth (Princeton, New Jersey, 1987) seeks to show how Satan emerged from ancient mythological traditions and is best understood not as a principle of evil, but as a narrative character in the context of "the Combat Myth". Forsyth tells the Devil's story from the Epic of Gilgamesh through to the writings of St. Augustine.
  • The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, by Jeffrey Burton Russell (Meridian, New York 1977) is "a history of the personification of evil" which, to make things clear, he calls "the Devil". Accessible and engaging, full of photographs illustrating the text, this is the first of a four volume series on the history of the concept of the Devil. The following volumes are, Satan: The Early Christian Tradition, Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages, and Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World.
  • The Devil in Legend and Literature, by Maximilian Rudwin (Open Court, La Salle, Illinois, 1931, 1959) is a compendium of "the secular and sacred adventures of Satan."

External links