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Kormos or Kormoz (Turkish: Körmöz or Körmös) are spirits in Turkish mythology and can also refer to ghosts or demons. "Kormos" means in Turkic languages "does not see" or "blind." "Blind" is also understood of as "mentally ill". Among Siberia Turkic mythology, Kormos is a devilish entity, living in the underworld. Since the souls after death can turn into Kormos, they are often associated with ancestral spirits.[1] Yakuts apply Yor for the unsatisfied dead, who roam the earth. Other names are used for them are Alban, Cahık, Ozor, and more.[2]

The good souls protect their families and are under Ülgens command. The evil souls, who commonly dwell in the underworld, are controlled by Erlik. A third type of ghosts are those who are neither good nor evil, but simply suffering in a pathetic state.[3]

Demonic Kormos, also called "Sokor Körmös" (blind angel),[4] are the servants sent by Erlik to harm people and attempt to pull them into the underworld. However, if good outweighs the evil in this soul, the soul can escape the Kormos and ascend to heaven.[5]

FeaturesEdit

They are all both good and evil spirits. Their chief is Kürmez Han. They are generally treated with a triple classification:

  • Souls living on the earth.
  • Souls living under water and underground.
  • Souls living in the sky.

Sometimes they are appointed by God as messengers. The demonic spirits are called Sokor Körmös (Blind Angel), probably influenced by Islamic belief of fallen angels.[6]. They are the servants sent by Erlik to harm people and attempt to pull them into the underworld. However, if good outweighs the evil in this soul, the soul can escape the Kormos and ascend to heaven.[7]

The Kormos mostly appear at sunset and at sunrise. That's why these times are considered as dangerous. It is dissuade to be awake at this time. They can capture people's souls. The concept of the blind is used for mental or mental illness.[8] In Yakutas, the wandering souls of the dead are called Uğör (Yör). The belief that the souls of the people who died have turned into Körmös is common. Obun the souls of people who died as a result of an accident, those who commit suicide are called Alban. The souls of the ancestors are called Ozor. Their leader is known as Kürmez Han. These Kormos are divided into two, sometimes divided into three types:

  • Arug (Arı) Körmös: Good spirits. They protect people and their families. They're at Ülgens command. They do good on earth.
  • Caman (Yaman) Körmös: Evil spirits. They are the servants of Erlik in the underground world. They can abduct people.
  • Kal (Gal) Körmös: Ghosts who can neither cause good nor evil, but they are simply suffering in a pathetic state.

Types of KormosEdit

YorEdit

They are believed to live underground. They are evil spirits. Sometimes they go to earth and give people various damages. They are often mentioned in the beliefs of the Yakuts.[9]

AlbanEdit

They consist of the souls of people who have committed suicide.[10] She has inverted eyes, and has long hairs.

CahikEdit

They are the spirits of damned people. They can change shape. Their bloody hands, their dry eyes and their deadly talk are considered as dangerous.

OzorEdit

Expression for the ancestors' spirits. They can come and help people. Ancestor spirits have a very important place in Turkish and Mongolian culture.


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Siberian Mythology in Elements
  2. ^ Turkish Myths Glossary (Türk Söylence Sözlüğü), Deniz Karakurt(in Turkish)
  3. ^ Turkish Myths Glossary (Türk Söylence Sözlüğü), Deniz Karakurt(in Turkish)
  4. ^ Turkish Myths Glossary (Türk Söylence Sözlüğü), Deniz Karakurt(in Turkish)
  5. ^ J. M. Hussey The Cambridge Medieval History CUP Archive 1985 p. 346
  6. ^ Turkish Myths Glossary (Türk Söylence Sözlüğü), Deniz Karakurt(in Turkish)
  7. ^ J. M. Hussey The Cambridge Medieval History CUP Archive 1985 p. 346
  8. ^ Türk Söylence Sözlüğü, Deniz Karakurt, Türkiye, 2011, (OTRS: CC BY-SA 3.0)
  9. ^ Yves Bonnefoy Asian Mythologies University of Chicago Press 1993 ISBN 9780226064567 p. 332
  10. ^ Sibirya Türklerinin Mitoloji ve İnançlarında Kötü Ruhlar, Naciye Yıldız

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