Al Imran (Arabic: آل عمران, āl ʿimrān; meaning: The Family of Imran)[1][2] is the third chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with two hundred verses (āyāt).

Sura 3 of the Quran
آل عِمْرَان
Āl ʿImrān
The Family of Imran
ClassificationMedinan
PositionJuzʼ 3–4
No. of Rukus20
No. of verses200
No. of words3503
No. of letters14605
Opening muqaṭṭaʻātAlif Lam Meem
← Quran 2
Quran 4 →
Double-page with the beginning of the chapter Al-Imran. Text page written in gold thuluth script outlined in black, with the chapter heading overlayed in red ink. From the Qur'an commissioned by the future sultan Baibars in 1304. British Library

Imran in Islam is regarded as the father of Mary. This chapter is named after the family of Imran, which includes Imran, Saint Anne (wife of Imran), Mary, and Jesus.

Regarding the timing and contextual background of the believed revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), the chapter is believed to have been either the second or third of the Medinan surahs, as it references both the events of Badr and the Uhud. Almost all of it also belongs to the third year of the Hijra, though a minority of its verses might have been revealed during the visit of the Najrān Christian deputation at the Mubahala, which occurred around the 10th year of the Hijrah.[3]

SummaryEdit

  • 1-2 God is one and self-existent
  • 3-4 The Quran to be believed
  • 5-6 God omniscient
  • 7 Plain and obscure verses of the Quran
  • 8-9 The prayer of those versed in Quranic mystery
  • 10-12 The punishment of Pharaoh a warning to infidels
  • 13 The victory at the Battle of Badr alluded to
  • 14-18 The faithful, their character and reward
  • 19-20 Islam the true religion
  • 21-25 The punishment of unbelievers eternal
  • 26-27 God omnipotent and sovereign
  • 28-34 Obedience to God enjoined
  • 35-38 The Virgin Mary - her conception - nurtured by Zacharias
  • 39-41 John the Baptist, his birth
  • 42-57 Christ announced to the Virgin - his miracles, apostles etc
  • 58-65 Muhammad’s dispute with the Christians of Najran
  • 66-77 The hypocritical Jews reproached
  • 78-83 Prophets not to be worshipped
  • 84-91 God’s curse on infidels
  • 92 Almsgiving enjoined
  • 93-95 The Jews unlawfully forbid certain meats
  • 96-97 The Kaabah founded
  • 98-105 Muslims are warned against the friendship of Jews etc
  • 106-109 The lot of infidels and believers contrasted
  • 110-112 Muslims will defeat and humiliate the Jews and Christians
  • 113-115 Certain Jews who accepted Islam are commended for their faith
  • 116-120 Muslims not to make friends of Jews and Christians
  • 121-122 The battle of Uhud alluded to
  • 123 The narration about divine intervention from God in battle of Badr, as the number of personnel and war equipments brought by Muslims are few.[4] Muhammad al-Bukhari giving commentary about the conclusion of this verse by correlate the subsequent event about the conversation between Muhammad and Gabriel, that the help which Allah sent down to bring victory to the Muslims were in the form of the army of best angels among their kinds.[5] This were viewed as the instruction from the verse for Muslims to always fear and be thankful for Allah.[5]
  • 124 Consensus of Islamic scholars and clerics has enclosed various hadiths as interpretation material for this verse that Gabriel,[1][6] Michael, Raphael[7] [Notes 1][Notes 2] and thousands of best angels from third level of sky, all came to the battle of Badr.[11] According to a Hadith narrated by Suyuti, the third sky angels were said to rode horses.[Notes 3] Meanwhile, Mahdi Rizqullah has compiled the commentary from classical Islamic scholars, that the verse narration about the angels attendance in the battle were also supported by hadiths from hadith collection from Muslim ibn Hajjaj, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and the also from Quranic historiography work by Ibn Kathir.[13] Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani gave commentary of another supportive narration from al-Baihaqi and Ibn Ishaq, through various hadith narration chains about the testimony from several different sahabah.[13] This included the narration of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib who at that time fought on the side of Qurayshite polytheist, who testified that he has been taken captive on the aftermath of the battle by a horse rider whom he did not recognize at all from Muslims rank. According to the hadith authority from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, The captor of Abbas were confirmed by Muhammad as one of the angel who helped the muslims during this battle.[13][Notes 4]
  • 125 The angels that came to aid the Muslims in Badr has been strengthened by another five thousands of their kinds who wearing distinctive marks on their bodies, and on their horses which they rode which will be recognized by the Muslims in the battlefield.[15] The distinctive marks which are reported by some reports are said to be a white scarves, while another opinions says they are red or yellow.[15] more ️clearer source has stated that the angels has taken form of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, companion of Muhammad.[Notes 5][16] Zubayr were said usually wore yellow turban most of the time, as prophet Muhammad spoke in hadith the army of angels dressing in yellow headgear and the clothing similar to Zubayr's attire.[Notes 6][18][Notes 7]
  • 126 According to various Qur'anic Tafsir scholars, particularly those who endorsed by Religious ministry of Saudi Arabia and Indonesia, this verse affirms that the victory of Muslims in Badr were solely due to the help from God who sent His angels as sign good news and fulfilment of the promise to give them victory in battle.[20]
  • 128-129 Disheartened Muslims encouraged
  • 130-136 Usury forbidden
  • 137-138 The doom of defamers of the apostles
  • 139-144 Islam not dependent on Muhammad for success
  • 145-148 The former prophets are examples of perseverance
  • 149-151 Unbelievers to be avoided
  • 152-153 Certain Muslims disobedient at Uhud
  • 154 This verse narrates the feel drowsiness and comfort which covers the Muslims before the battle.[21] this event were agreed by both Abdul-Rahman al-Sa'di and group of contemporary scholars from Saudi Arabia, both from Islamic University of Madinah and committee of Masjid al-Haram this verse were revealed just before the battle of Uhud, based from Hadith narrated by Zubayr ibn al-Awwam.[Notes 8]
  • 155-157 The hypocrites rebuked
  • 158-159 Muslims slain at Uhud to enter paradise
  • 160-161 Mild treatment of vacillating Muslims
  • 162-165 The spoils of war to be honestly divided
  • 166-169 The faithful sifted by defeat at Uhud
  • 172 Regarding Battle of Hamra al-Asad participation of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Abu Bakar, as exegesis scholars believed that the "wounded pious warriors" depicted in Ali Imran, Ayah 172|Quran 3:172 (Translated by Shakir) were intended to be az-Zubayr and Abu Bakar, two of Sahaba who lead the vanguard of this battle, after they receiving injuries from the battle of Uhud.[22][23]
  • 173-176 Certain Muslims commended for faithfulness
  • 177-180 The fate of unbelievers
  • 181 The miser’s doom
  • 182-190 Scoffing Jews denounced—they charge Muhammad with imposture
  • 191-195 Meditations and prayers of the pious
  • 196-198 God’s answer to the prayers of the pious
  • 199 Certain believing Jews and Christians commended
  • 200 Exhortation to patience and perseverance [24]

3:33 The family of ImranEdit

The chapter takes its name from the family of Imran mentioned in verse 3:33.[25]

According to Christian tradition, Joachim is the husband of Saint Anne and the father of Mary, the mother of Jesus.

According to Iraqi scholar and translator, N.J. Dawood, the Quran confuses Mary mother of Jesus with Mary the sister of Moses, by referring to Mary, the mother of Jesus' father as Imran, which is the Arabic version of Amram, who in Exodus 6:20, is shown to be the father of Moses.[26] Dawood, in a note to Surah 19:28, where Mary the Mother of Jesus is referred to as the "Sister of Aaron", and Aaron was the brother of Mary sister of Moses, states: "It Appears that Miriam, Aaron's sister, and Maryam (Mary), mother of Jesus, were according to the Quran, the same person."[27] Although Islamic studies of the beginning of the 20th century tended to note genealogical discrepancies, in more recent Islamic Studies of the 21st century the general consensus is, according to Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai and Michael Marx, that the Quran does not make a genealogical error but instead makes use of typology.[28] This is, following Wensinck's conclusion, supported by the figurative speech of the Quran and the Islamic tradition:

Maryam is called a sister of Hārūn, and the use of these three names ‘Imrān, Hārūn, and Maryam has led to the supposition that the Kur'ān does not clearly distinguish between the two Maryams, of the Old and the New Testaments. ... It is not necessary to assume that these kinship links are to be interpreted in modern terms. The words "sister" and "daughter", like their male counterparts, in Arabic usage, can indicate extended kinship, descendance or spiritual affinity. ... Muslim tradition is clear that there are eighteen centuries between the Biblical ‘Amram and the father of Maryam.[29][30]

Similarly, Stowasser concludes that "to confuse Mary the mother of Jesus with Mary the sister of Moses and Aaron in Torah is completely wrong and in contradiction to the sound Hadith and the Qur'anic text as we have established".[31][32]

This matter has been explained in the following Hadith:

Mughira ibn Shu’ba reported: When I came to Najran, the Christian monks asked me, “You recite the verse, ‘O sister of Aaron,’ (19:28) but Moses was born long before Jesus by many years.” When I came back to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, I asked him about it and he said, “Verily, they would name people with the names of prophets and righteous people who had passed before them.”

— Sahih Muslim 2135

Ibn Kathir (d.1373) also commented on this in his Quranic exegesis (tafsir), recalling the Arab tradition of addressing a person as the brother or sister of their notable ancestor:

“This is like saying to somebody from the Tamimi tribe: O brother of Tamim, or to somebody from the Mudari tribe: O brother of Mudar.”

— Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir 19:28

AppendixEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ found in Mustadrak al Sahihayn.[8] The complete narration from Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri were:... Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yaqoub has reported from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al-Saadi, who told us Muhammad bin Khalid bin Uthma, told us Musa bin Yaqoub, told me Abu Al-Huwairith, that Muhammad bin Jubayr bin Mut’im told him, that he heard Ali - may God be pleased with him - addresses the people, and he said: While I was leaving from the well of Badr, a strong wind came, the like of which I had never seen, then it left, then came a strong wind, the like of which I have never seen except for the one before it, then it went, then came a strong wind that I did not see before. I have never seen anything like it except for the one before it, and the first wind was Gabriel descended among a thousand angels with the Messenger of God - may God bless him and grant him peace - and the second wind was Michael who descended among a thousand angels to the right of the Messenger of God - may God bless him and his family and grant them peace - and Abu Bakr was On his right, and the third wind was Israfil. He descended with a thousand angels on the side of the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - and I was on the right side. When God Almighty defeated his enemies, the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - carried me on his horse, I blew up, and I fell On my heels, I prayed to God Almighty... Ibn al Mulqin [id], Hadith scholar from Cordoba of 13-14 AD century, evaluate this hadith tha he found weaknesses in Musa ibn Yaqoub and Abu al Huwairith chain, so he deemed there is weakness about this hadith.[9] However, recent scholarship from Ali Hasan al-Halabi has noted there is another hadith which supported the participation of Raphael in Badr[7]
  2. ^ According to Islamic belief in weak chain of Hadith, Israfil were acknowledged as angel who were tasked to blower of Armageddon trumpet.[10] Suyuti mentioned Israfil as Muezzin among angels, possessed four wings, while Suyuti also mentioned another narrator Israfil possessed twelve wings instead.[11] Israfil also mentioned by Suyuti as Muezzin among angels and a member of a group of biggest archangels who bear the Throne of God on their back.[11] However, Abu Bakar al-Hudhali opined the angel who blowing horn were different from Israfil, while Abu Said Al-Khudri mentioned the blower of horn were in fact consisted of two angels, while he supported the opinion that Israfil were also one of the blower.[11] However, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani analized the hadith were Hadith_terminology#Munkar and should not be trusted.[12]
  3. ^ The mystical horses rode by angels were mentioned in the Hadith of Muhammad were mentioned the name of one of the angel horses.[11]
  4. ^ Biography of the Prophet An Analytical Study Based on Authentic Sources by Mahdi Rizqullah which published in Indonesian language were praised by Jonathan E. Brockopp from Cambridge University Press for providing more details of Prophetic biography narration which does not offered by Mohammed Hussein Heikal biography works.[14]
  5. ^ According to one Hadith, Muhammad were told that the angels that appeared in the battle of Badr were highest in status and the "best of angels" according to Gabriel.[5]
  6. ^ Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri recorded in his Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn in a narration which deemed authentic by Bawazier in his Marwiyyat Ghazwatul Badr[17] Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani authorized it as authentic through Kitāb aṭ-Tabaqāt al-Kabīr written by Ibn Sa'd[18]
  7. ^ According to one narration, during the battle, Muhammad has found an angel whom he though as Zubayr standing next to him, which then prompted Muhammad to command him to attack, which the angel, in Zubayr appearance, simply replied, "I am not Zubayr." Thus, according to Hadith expert this another indication that the angels truly came down with the appearance of Zubayr during Badr.[19] According to commentary from the interpretation expert by comparing the hadiths, this are deemed as Zubayr special virtue and honor according to Islamic belief.[17]
  8. ^ Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, personal bodyguard of Muhammad and participant of battle of Uhud, testified that just before the battle, he experienced a heavy drowsiness which also felt by entire Muslims. This Hadith strengthened by another Hadith from Abu Talha which recorded in sahih al-Bukhari.[21]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Ibn Kathir (d.1373). "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Ale Imran". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  2. ^ P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs, eds. (2012). "Āl ʿImrān". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/2214-871X_ei1_SIM_0553.(subscription required)
  3. ^ Maududi, Abdul Alaa. Tafhim-ul-Quran.
  4. ^ Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina (2016). "Surat Ali-Imran ayat 123". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  5. ^ a b c Qadhi, Yasir (2016). "Lives Of The Sahaba 39 – Az-Zubayr Ibn Al-Awwam – PT 01". Muslim Central Audio. Muslim Central Audio. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  6. ^ al-Misri, Mahmud (2015). Sahabat-Sahabat Rasulullah vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam [Companion of the Prophet vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam] (in Indonesian and Arabic). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir. p. Shaja'ah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam Radhiyallahu anh (bravery of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam; by Mahmud al-Misri [ar]; official Book review by Basalamah; quoting various supplementary sources such as Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Siyar A'lam Nubala, Al-Tirmidhi, Prophetic biography of Ibn Hisham, etc. ISBN 9789791294386. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  7. ^ a b Hakim, Saifuddin (2015). "Apakah Malaikat Israfil Bertugas Meniup Sangkakala pada Hari Kiamat? (1)". Muslim.or.id (in Indonesian). Muslim.or.id. Retrieved 14 December 2021. [ يا آدم بر حجك ] " ما يروى عن آدم -عليه السلام- أنه لما حج قالت له الملائكة: «يا آدم بر حجك»: غير ثابت. " [من فوائد جلسة مع طلبة العلم /16/ذو الحجة/1432 ] __________________ " ... فهل يحسن بنا وقد أنضينا قرائحنا في تعلم هذه السنة المطهرة، وبذلنا في العمل بها جهد المستطيع، وركبنا المخاطر في الدعوة إليها؛ هل يحسن بنا بعد هذا كله أن نسكت لهؤلاء عن هذه الدعوى الباطلة، ونوليهم منا ما تولوا ونبلعهم ريقهم، وهل يحسن بنا أن لا يكون لنا في الدفاع عنها ما كان منا في الدعوة إليها؟ إنا إذن لمقصرون!..."
  8. ^ al-Nishapuri, al-Hakim. "Kitabu Ma'rifat Shahabatu Radhiyallahu Anhum: Gabriel, Michael and Israfil descend in the Battle of Badr.". al Mustadrak ala Sahihayn. Islamweb: Islamweb. Retrieved 13 December 2021. 4488 - Narrated Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ya'kub, through Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al Saadi , on the authority of Muhammad bin Khalid bin Athmah, on the authority of Musa bin Yaqub , who reported Abu Huwayrith , that Muhammad bin Jabir bin Mut'im, told him
  9. ^ Abu Hafs Umar bin Ali bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Anshari Al-Wadi Asyi Al-Andalusi At-Tukuruwi Al-Mishri Asy-Syafi`i, Sirajuddin. "كتاب مختصر تلخيص الذهبي" [kitab mukhtasar talkhis aldhahabii]. Islamweb. Islamweb. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  10. ^ Hakim, Saifuddin (2015). "Apakah Malaikat Israfil Bertugas Meniup Sangkakala pada Hari Kiamat? (2)" [Does angel Raphael tasked to blow the trumpet of Armageddon in the day of judgment? (2)]. Muslim.or.id (in Indonesian). Muslim.or.id. Retrieved 14 December 2021. Tafsir Al-Qurthubi, 7/20 (Maktabah Syamilah); At-Tadzkirah bi Ahwaalil Mauta wa Umuuril Akhirah, 1/488 (Maktabah Syamilah).; Fathul Baari 11/368 (Maktabah Syamilah); see Al-Imaan bimaa Ba’dal Maut, p. 112. ; Syarh Al-Ibanah: Al-Imaan bin Nafkhi Ash-Shuur, 5/33.; Syarh Al-‘Aqidah Al-Washithiyyah, 1/59-60 (Maktabah Asy-Syamilah). while in another book: وذلك أن الله سبحانه وتعالى يأمر اسرافيل وهو أحد الملائكة الموكلين بحمل العرش أن ينفخ في الصور (Syarh Al-‘Aqidah As-Safariyaniyyah, 1/467).
  11. ^ a b c d e Al-Suyuti (2021). Muhammad as Said Basyuni, Abu Hajir; Yasir, Muhammad (eds.). Misteri Alam Malaikat (Religion / Islam / General) (in Indonesian). Translated by Mishabul Munir. Pustaka al-Kautsar. pp. 29–33, 172. Retrieved 6 February 2022. Quoting Ibnul Mubarak from a book of az-Zuhd; ad Durr al-Manshur, chain narration from Ibnul Mubarak to Ibn SHihab (1/92)
  12. ^ Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (2001). جامع الأحاديث والآثار التي خرجها وحكم عليها فضيلة الشيخ محمد ناصر الدين الألباني، رحمه الله، في جميع كتبه [Collector of Hadiths and Traces : Which was brought out and judged by His Eminence Sheikh Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani, may God have mercy on him, in all his books] (Hadith -- Texts -- Authorities -- Criticism, Textual -- Hermeneutics) (in Arabic). Maktaba al Islam. p. 12. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  13. ^ a b c Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad; Anis Maftukhin; Yessi HM. Basyaruddin (2017). Maftukhin, Anis (ed.). Biografi Rasulullah Sebuah Studi Analitis Berdasarkan Sumber-sumber yang Otentik [Biography of the Prophet An Analytical Study Based on Authentic Sources] (ebook) (Biography & Autobiography / Religious, Religion / Islam / General, Muhammad, Prophet, d. 632 -- Biography) (in Indonesian). Qisthi Press. pp. 441–443. ISBN 9789793715568. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  14. ^ Jonathan E. Brockopp (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad (ebook) (History / Middle East / General, Religion / Islam / General, Social Science / Islamic Studies). Cambridge University Press. p. 257. ISBN 9781139828383. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  15. ^ a b Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina (2016). "Surat Ali-Imran ayat 125". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  16. ^ Bin Al-Hassan & Al-Dimashqi (2012, p. 622, Al-Zubayr told us, he said: And Abu Al-Makarram Uqbah bin Makram Al-Dhabi told me, Musab bin Salam Al-Tamimi told me, on the authority of Saad bin Tarif, on the authority of Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Ali, he said: On the day of Badr, Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam had a yellow turban)
  17. ^ a b Rizqullah 2005, p. 410.
  18. ^ a b Abasoomar & Abasoomar 2016.
  19. ^ Ahmad Ath-Thahir, Hamid (2017). Kisah Teladan 20 Shahabat Nabi untuk Anak (Doctor) (in Indonesian). Hikam Pustaka. p. 103. ISBN 9786236843703. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  20. ^ Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina (2016). "Surat Ali-Imran ayat 126". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  21. ^ a b Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina; Abdul-Rahman al-Sa'di (2016). "Ali imran 154". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  22. ^ Rizqullah Ahmad, Maftukhin & Basyaruddin (2017, p. 526, Bukhari and Muslim reported this narration which ended on Aisha as authentic.)
  23. ^ al-'Asqalani 1500, p. 2, Sahih al-Bukhari 3849.
  24. ^ Wherry, Elwood Morris (1896). A Complete Index to Sale's Text, Preliminary Discourse, and Notes. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  25. ^ M.A.S. Abdel Haleem (2005). The Qur'an. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-19-157407-8 – via Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
  26. ^ Dawood, N J (1956). The Koran. London: Penguin Books. p. 53. ISBN 9780141393841.
  27. ^ Dawood, N J (1956). The Koran. London: Penguin Books. p. 306. ISBN 9780141393841.
  28. ^ Michael Marx: Glimpses of a Mariology in the Qur'an; in: A. Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, Michael Marx (Hrsg.): The Qur'ān in Context. Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qur'ānic Milieu. Leiden 2011. pp. 533–563. pp. 533–563.
  29. ^ Arent Jan Wensinck: Maryam. In: A. J. Wensinck, J. H. Kramers (Hrsg.): Handwörterbuch des Islam. pp. 421–423.
  30. ^ J. Wensinck (Penelope Johnstone), "Maryam" in C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs & Ch. Pellat (Eds.), The Encyclopaedia Of Islam (New Edition), 1991, Volume VI, p. 630.
  31. ^ Stowasser, B. F. (1994). Women In The Qur'an, Traditions, And Interpretation. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 393–394.
  32. ^ Schleifer, Aliah (1998). Mary The Blessed Virgin Of Islam, op. cit. p. 36.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit