Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Muhammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albanī (1914 – October 2, 1999) (Arabic: مُحَمَّد نَاصِر ٱلدِّيْن ٱلْأَلْبَانِي) was a Syrian Islamic scholar of Albanian origin who specialized in the fields of hadith and fiqh. He established his reputation in Syria, where his family had moved when he was a child and where he was educated.
Muhammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albanī
مُحَمَّد نَاصِر ٱلدِّيْن ٱلْأَلْبَانِي
|Died||October 2, 1999 (aged 85)|
|Main interest(s)||Ahadith |
|Occupation||Muhaddith, Faqih, historiographer, bibliographer, watchmaker|
|Awards||King Faisal International Prize, 1999|
Albani is considered to be a major figure of the Salafi methodology of Islam. Al-Albani did not advocate violence, preferring quietism and obedience to established governments. A watchmaker by trade, Al-Albani was active as a writer, publishing chiefly on ahadith and its sciences. He also lectured widely in the Middle East, Spain and the United Kingdom on the Salafist movement.
Albani was born into a poor Muslim family in the city of Shkodër in northern Albania in 1914. During the reign of the secularist Albanian leader Ahmet Zogu, Al-Albani's family migrated to Damascus, Syria. In Damascus, Albani completed his early education – initially taught by his father – in the Quran, Tajwid, Arabic linguistic sciences, Hanafi Fiqh and further branches of the Islamic faith, also helped by native Syrian scholars.:63 In the meantime, he earned a modest living as a carpenter before joining his father as a watchmaker.
Studies in hadithsEdit
Albani began to specialize in hadith studies in the 1930s. Though he was largely self-taught,:63:119 he transcribed and commented on Abd al-Rahim ibn al-Husain al-'Iraqi's Al-Mughnee 'an-hamlil-Asfar fil-Asfar fee takhrej maa fil-lhyaa min al-Akhbar. He followed this writing a series of lectures and books, as well as publishing articles in Al-Manar magazine.
Later life and deathEdit
Starting in 1954, Albani began delivering informal weekly lessons. By 1960, his popularity began to worry the government of Syria, and he was placed under surveillance by the government of Hafez al-Assad. He was imprisoned twice in 1969. He was placed under house arrest more than once in the 1970s by the Ba'ath regime of Hafez al-Assad. The Syrian government accused Albani of "promoting the Wahhabi da'wa, which distorted Islam and confused Muslims."[additional citation(s) needed]
After a number of his works were published, Albani was invited to teach ahadith at the Islamic University of Madinah in Saudi Arabia by the University's then-vice president, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz. Shortly upon his arrival, Albani angered the Wahhabi elite in Saudi Arabia, who did not like his anti-traditionalist stances in Muslim jurisprudence. They were alarmed by Albani's intellectual challenges to the ruling Hanbali school of law but were unable to challenge him openly due to his popularity. When Albani wrote a book supporting his view that the Niqab, or full face-veil, was not a binding obligation upon Muslim women, he caused a minor uproar in the country. His opponents ensured that his contract with the university was allowed to lapse without renewal.:66
In 1963, Albani left Saudi Arabia and returned to his studies and work in the Az-Zahiriyah library in Syria. He left his watch shop in the hands of one of his brothers.
Albani visited various countries for preaching and lectures – amongst them Qatar, Egypt, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Spain, and the United Kingdom. He moved a number of times between Syria and a couple of cities in Jordan. He also lived in the UAE. After Bin Baz's intervention with Saudi educational management, Albani was invited to Saudi Arabia a second time in order to serve as the head of higher education in Islamic law in Mecca.:67 This did not last due to controversy among the Saudi establishment regarding Albani's views.
Albani returned to Syria, where he was briefly jailed again in 1979. He moved to Jordan, living there for the remainder of his time. He died in 1999 at the age of 85.
Albani was a proponent of Salafism, and is considered one of the movement's primary figureheads in the 20th century. Albani criticized the four mainstream schools of Islamic law and rejected the traditional Sunni view that Muslims should automatically turn to a Madhhab for fiqh (jurisprudence). Instead, he spent much of his life critically re-evaluating hadith literature and felt that numerous previously accepted hadiths were unsound. This led him to produce rulings that were at odds with the Islamic majority. Although Salafism has frequently been associated with Wahhabism, Albani distinguished between the two movements, and he criticized the latter while supporting the former. He had a complex relationship to each movement.:68:220
Albani was amongst some leading Salafi scholars who were preaching for decades against what they considered the warped literalism of extremists. Politically they were quietists who rejected vigilantism and rebellion against the state. They believed that Muslims should focus on purifying their beliefs and practice and that, in time, "God would bring victory over the forces of falsehood and unbelief."
Albani's own views on jurisprudence and dogma have been a matter of debate and discussion. During a 1989 visit to Saudi Arabia, Albani was asked if he adhered to the lesser-known Zahiri school of Islamic law; he responded affirmatively. Albani's opponents among the mainstream have affirmed this as a point of criticism. A number of Albani's students have denied his association with any formal school of jurisprudence.
Albani openly criticized Syed Qutb after the leader was executed. He claimed that Qutb had deviated in creed and held the belief of Oneness of Being. Further, Albani accused Hassan al-Banna, the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, of not being a religious scholar and holding "positions contrary to the Sunna".:86
Prayer (Salah) FormulaEdit
Albani wrote a book in which he redefined the proper gestures and formula that constitute the Muslim prayer ritual "According to the Prophet's sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallams practice." These were contrary to the prescriptions of all established schools of jurisprudence.
As he argued that several details of the concrete prayer that have been taught from generation to generation were based on dubious hadith, his book caused considerable unease. Albani's descriptions for the performance of the Tahajjud and Taraweeh prayers deviated considerably from established practice.
- his view that mihrabs – the niche found in a mosques indicating the direction of Mecca – were bid'ah (innovation).
- his view that it was permissible to pray in a mosque with one's shoes.
- his call for Palestinians to leave the occupied territories since, according to him, they were unable to practice their faith there as they should.:87 This view was also controversial within the Salafi movement.
- his view that it is prohibited for women to wear gold bracelets.
- his view that it was not necessary for women to cover their faces.
- his view that the Muslim ruler must be from the tribe of Quraysh.
Indeed, I have concluded that his methods disagree with those of the jurists and hadith scholars, and that his methods are creating great disarray and evident disruption in the proofs of jurisprudence both generally and specifically. He lacks trust in the Imams of law and hadith, as well as in the rich hadith and law tradition handed down to us, in which the umma has taken great pride.
Syrian hadith scholar Nur al-Din 'Itr rebutted some of al-Albani's views. His contemporary, the Syrian scholar Said Ramadan Al-Bouti, took issue with Albani's well-known call for all Palestinians to leave Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. He wrote two rebuttals of al-Albani entitled Anti-Madhabism: the dangers of an innovation that threaten the Sharia and Salafiyya: a blessed historical period, not a school of fiqh.
Lebanese scholar Gibril Fouad Haddad dubbed al-Albani "the chief innovator of our time" and accused him of bid'ah. The "reformed" jihadist Sayyed Imam Al-Sharif considered Albani to be "wrapped in evil" and "not suitable to be a sheikh" for his alleged claim that Jihad is defined as forgiveness, education and prayer.
Albani was awarded the King Faisal International Prize in 1999 before his death for his contributions to Islamic studies. The award committee described him as "considered by many academics as probably the greatest Islamic scholar of the 20th Century."
Over a period of sixty years, Albani's lectures and published books were highly influential in the field of Islamic studies, and many of his works became widely referred to by other Islamic scholars. Muhibb-ud-Deen Al-Khatib, a contemporary scholar, said of him:
And from the callers to the Sunnah who devoted their lives to reviving it was our brother Muhammad Nasiruddin Nooh Najati Al-Albani.— Al-Khatib
In 2015, the Huffington Post remarked that Albani's movement of 'Quietist Salafism' "with its strong opposition to takfirism (doctrine of excommunication and declaring other Muslims of being heretics) and violence may provide the rhetoric that could prevent youth from being drawn to the apocalyptic rubbish of ISIS."
|At-Targhib wa't-Tarhib||Volumes 1–4|
|At-Tawassulu: Anwa'uhu wa Ahkamuhu||Tawassul: Its Types & Its Rulings) (link to english translation)|
|Irwa al-Ghalil||Volumes 1–9|
|Talkhis Ahkam al-Jana'iz|
|Sahih wa Da'if Sunan Abu Dawood||Volumes 1–4|
|Sahih wa Da'if Sunan at-Tirmidhi||Volumes 1–4|
|Sahih wa Da'if Sunan Ibn Majah||Volumes 1–4|
|Al-Aqidah at-Tahawiyyah Sharh wa Ta'liq|
|Sifatu Salati An-Nabiyy||(link to English translation)|
|Silsalat al-Hadith ad-Da'ifah||Volumes 1–14|
|Silsalat al-Hadith as-Sahihah||Volumes 1–11|
|Salat ut-Tarawih||Later an abridgment of this book was published by al-Albani – Qiyamu Ramadhan|
- Al-Albani (1989), Shareet al-Khobar, Khobar, Saudi Arabia
- Lauzière, Henri (2015). "Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century". The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. Columbia University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780231540179. JSTOR 10.7312/lauz17550 – via De Gruyter.
- "اغتيال قائد جيش الإسلام زهران علوش بغارة يعتقد أنها روسية". أنا برس. December 25, 2015.
- "الشيخ المجاهد "زهران علوش".. سيرة قائد طلب الشهادة فنالها". هيئة الشام الإسلامية. January 28, 2016.
- Hamdeh, Emad (July 2016). "The Formative Years of an Iconoclastic Salafi Scholar". The Muslim World. 106 (3): 411–432. doi:10.1111/muwo.12157. ISSN 0027-4909.
- Haykel, Bernard (2009). "Salafī Groups". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135.
- Adis Duderija (January 2010). "Constructing the religious Self and the Other: neo-traditional Salafi manhaj". Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations. 21 (1). pp. 75–93. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
In addition, Salafism is a term that has a broader base in Islamic tradition and is more encompassing than Ahl-Hadith, which has more sectarian implications. Among the most influential exponents of NTS are some contemporary Middle Eastern Muslim scholars such as Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani (d. 1999), ‘Abd al-‘Aziz bin Baz (d. 1999), Muhammad Salih al-‘Uthaymin (d. 2001), and Yahya al-Hajuri, to name but a few, who held senior positions on religious councils responsible for issuing fatwas (legal opinions) and/or were lecturers in Islamic sciences at traditional Islamic institutions such as the Universities of Medina and Riyadh.
- Joas Wagemakers (2016). Salafism in Jordan: Political Islam in a Quietist Community. Cambridge, the UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-10716-366-9.
- Sheikh Mohammad Nasir Ad-Din Al-Albani, King Faisal International Prize official website. Accessed November 26, 2014.
- Meijer, Roel (October 1, 2009). Global Salafism: Islam's new religious movement. New York, the USA: C. Hurst & Co., Columbia University Press. pp. 63–68.
In this way he became a self-taught expert on Islam, learning from the books rather than the ulema. One of his biographers even states that al-Albani was distinguished in religious circles by how few ijazats (certificates) he possessed.
- Lacroix, Stephane; Holoch, George (August 15, 2011). Awakening Islam. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–220. ISBN 978-0-6740-6107-1.
- Bruinessen, Martin van; Allievi, Stefano (June 17, 2013). Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-1369-3286-1.
- Jacob Olidort (February 2015), The Politics of "Quietist" Salafism, Brookings Institution, p. 14
- Abu Rumman, Mohammad; Abu Hanieh, Hassan (2011). Jordanian Salafism: A Strategy for the "Islamization of Society"and an Ambiguous Relationship with the State (PDF). Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-6740-4964-2. Dec 2010
- Hamdeh, Emad (June 9, 2017). "Qurʾān and Sunna or the Madhhabs?: A Salafi Polemic Against Islamic Legal Tradition". Islamic Law and Society. 24 (3): 211–253. doi:10.1163/15685195-00240A01. ISSN 1568-5195.
- Inge, Anabel (January 1, 2016). The Making of a Salafi Muslim Woman: Paths to Conversion. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780-1-9061-1675.
- A. C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. p. 129. ISBN 978-1780744209.
- Stephane Lacroix (Spring 2008), Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith (PDF), Leiden University's ISIM Review, p. 6
- Batrawi, Samar (October 28, 2015). "What ISIS Talks About When It Talks About Palestine". Foreign Affairs. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Brown, Jonathan (June 5, 2007). The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Brill. p. 325. ISBN 978-9004158399.
- Kahn, Jonathan; Lloyd, Vincent (March 22, 2016). Race and Secularism in America. Columbia University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-2315-4127-5.
- Lav, Daniel (February 29, 2012). Radical Islam and the Revival of Medieval Theology. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-1070-0964-6.
- Brown, Jonathan (June 5, 2007). The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Brill. p. 327. ISBN 978-9004158399.
- Brown, Jonathan (June 5, 2007). The Canonization of Al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Brill. p. 328. ISBN 978-9004158399.
- Pierret, Thomas (March 25, 2013). Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-1070-2641-4.
- Cook, David (September 1, 2015). Understanding Jihad. University of California Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-5209-6249-1.
- Brachman, Jarret M. (September 3, 2008). Global Jihadism: Theory and Practice. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-1340-5541-8.
- ["Albani 1999 KFIP winner"]
- Al-Khatib, Muhibbud-Din, Al-Asalaah, pp. 76–77
- Tariq, Khwaja Khusro (December 17, 2015). "Want to Defeat ISIS? Try Muslim Ownership – Part 2" (1). Huffington Post. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Bruinessen, Martin van; Allievi, Stefano (June 17, 2013). Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and dissemination in Western Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-1369-3285-4.