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The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic: حديث الغدير; Persian: رویداد غدیر خم) refers to a sermon delivered by the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly before his death in 632 CE. In the sermon, attended by over one hundred thousand people,[4] Muhammad announced Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. After that announcement, the final verse of the Quran was revealed, proclaiming the perfection of the religion of Islam.

Event of Ghadir Khumm
Mosque at Johfa.JPG
Mosque at Johfah near Rabigh in Hejaz, Saudi Arabia. The event is reported to have occurred somewhere here.
Also calledEid Al-Ghadeer
Observed byMuslims, mostly Shia's
TypeIslam
SignificanceAppointment of Ali as the successor of Muhammad; completion of the message of Islam
ObservancesPrayers, gift-giving, festive meals, as well as reciting the Du'a Nudba
2018 date30 August[1]

The event of Ghadir Khumm occurred while the Muslims were returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage. A verse of the Quran was revealed instructing Muhammad to deliver an important message. The Muslims were gathered and Muhammad delivered a lengthy sermon. The speech included the famous statement by Muhammad that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla;" Muhammad also described Ali with the leadership titles Imam, Ameer, and Khalifah in the lengthy speech.[5] After Muhammad announced Ali as his successor, the following verse of the Quran was revealed: "This day I have perfected your Religion for you: Completed My favor upon you, and have chosen For you Islam as your Religion."[6] This verse (the third verse of Surah Maidah, the fifth chapter of the Quran) was the last verse of the Quran to be revealed.[7] Towards the end of the sermon, Muhammad instructed the Muslims to pledge allegiance to Ali.[8]

The event of Ghadir Khumm has been widely reported by Muslims, both Shia and Sunni.[9] It is considered to mark the completion of Islam[10] and is known as the official appointment of Ali as Muhammad's successor.[11] The day's anniversary in the Islamic calendar (18 Dhu al-Hijjah) is celebrated by Muslims (primarily Shia Muslims) as Eid-e-Ghadeer.[12]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Ten years after the migration and on the last days of Dhu al-Qi'dah (coinciding with 632 in the Gregorian calendar), Muhammad moved from Medina to Mecca accompanied by thousands of his followers. He only once attended Hajj rituals, a few months before he died. Since this Hajj took place in the last year of his life, he made his farewells to people. Ali was in Yemen, preaching Islam, when he was informed about Muhammad's Hajj, so he moved towards Mecca together with some people and joined Muhammad before rituals began. When the rituals of Hajj were finished, Muhammad left Mecca for Medina together with other Muslims.[13][14]

EventEdit

Revelation of the verse of announcementEdit

On Thursday the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah in the year 10 A.H. (March 632), after the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Muslims arrived at Ghadir Khumm. The following verse of the Quran was revealed:

O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith (5:67).[15]

According to the verse, Muhammad was obliged to proclaim an important message. The verse clearly denotes the importance of the message, by saying that if he does not announce it, then he has not performed his mission. After revelation of the verse, Muhammad ordered the caravan to stop, and ordered those who had passed Ghadir Khumm to return, and for them to wait there until the arrival of those who were still on their way.[16][17]

Both Shia and Sunni sources state that this verse relates to the event of Ghadir Khumm. According to Sunni traditional narratives, this verse was revealed during the event,[18][16][17][19] and over 360 Sunnis traditional scholars have mentioned about Ghadir and its connection with the mentioned verse.[20]

The sermonEdit

On the way back to Medina from Mecca, Muhammad ordered his companions to stop at Ghadir Khum and delivered a lengthy sermon. The most well-known part of the sermon occurred when he raised Ali's hand and said, "whomever I am his Mawla, this Ali is his Mawla."[21][22] When Abu Bakr and Umar heard this, they said to Ali: "O son of Abu Talib, you have become the Mawla of every male and every female believer, morning and evening, congratulations."[23][24][25]

A portion of a part of sermon is as follows:

O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who had preceded him. I think I am about to be called (to die) and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are responsible, then what do you say?' They said, 'We witness that you have informed, advised and striven. May Allah bless you.' He said, 'Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?' They said, 'Yes, we bear witness.' He said, 'O Allah, bear witness.' Then he said, 'O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of believers than themselves. Of whomsoever I had been Mawla, Ali here is to be his Mawla.[a] O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him and divert the Truth to Ali.'

O people, I will go ahead of you and you will arrive at my Pond (in Heaven) which is wider than the distance between Basra and San'a. It has receptacles as numerous as the stars, and two cups of gold and two of silver. I will ask you about the two weighty things that I have left for you when you come to me to see how you dealt with them. The greater weighty thing is Allah's book—the Holy Qur'an. One end is in Allah's hand and the other is in your hands. Keep it and you will not deviate. That other weighty thing is my family (Ahl al-Bayt) and my descendents. The Most Kind the Omniscient had told me that both of them, would not separate until they come to my Pond.

Another similar narration of part of the sermon is as follows:

Behold! Whosoever I am his master, this Ali is his master. O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him. O people! This Ali is my brother, the executor of my [affairs], the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, and over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and the true inviter to its [implications]. He is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, and advises against His disobedience. Surely, He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, and the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, and the apostates. I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed.[26]

Revelation of the verse of Ikmal al-DinEdit

According to Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini's work Al-Ghadir, immediately after Muhammad had finished his speech, the following verse of the Quran was revealed:[27][28][29]

This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3).

Sunni Muslims believe this verse was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet Muhammad on the Day of Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul Hijja.[30]

Oath of allegianceEdit

Only then, Muhammad left the rostrum, and gave the order for the establishment of a tent in which Ali would sit to receive the allegiance oath of Muslims. Thousands of people, group by group, including women, went to him and saluted and congratulated him as Amir al-Mu'minin, commander of the faithful. Umar ibn Al-Khattab was the first to offer congratulations.[13][31][32]

On the completion of Muhammad's sermon, Umar said, "Congratulations to you, Ali! This morning has brought you a great blessing. Today you have become the Mawla of all believing men and women." At a later occasion when Umar was asked about his special treatment to Ali as compared to other companions, his reply was, "He is my master."[33][34][35][36] Shias believe that, with Muhammad's approbation he recited verses in honour of Ali. The verse are recorded in Ibn Shahrashoub and affirms that ʿAlī was named as the successor of Muhammad on the day of Ghadir Khum.[21]

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, writes in his book, Mawaddat al-Qurba in Mawadda 5, that many companions quoted Umar in different places as having said that Muhammad made Ali the chief and leader of the nation and that Muhammad announced publicly that Ali was their master. Umar was also quoted saying that on the day of that announcement, a handsome youth was sitting besides him and that the youth said to him, "Surely, the Prophet has bound a covenant which none but a hypocrite would break. So Umar! Avoid breaking it." When Umar told Muhammad about the incident, Muhammad said that the youth was not of Adam's (Adem) progeny but was Gabriel (Jibril) and was stressing the point about Ali.

It is also reported that Abu Bakr said to Ali, "Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the leader (Mawla) of all believing men and women." Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman are all said to have given their allegiance to Ali, a fact that is reported by both Shia and Sunni sources.[37][38][39]

Interpretation and analysisEdit

The word mawla is significant in the first narration of this hadith, and can refer to a leader, client, patron, friend, partner, ally or numerous other similar relationships.[40] Twenty-seven (27) different meanings are given for the word mawla and hence the exact meaning should be derived from their syntactical and situational contexts.[41]

Unlike the words "Imam, Ameer, Khalifah, Ulil-Amr, Sultan" which are very clear words to describe leader, the word "Mawla" is more ambiguous.[42][43][citation needed] However, Shias argue that the context of the sermon makes it clear that the word Mawla is meant as leader.[44] In addition, Muhammad did use the words "Imam," "Ameer," and "Khalifah" to describe Ali elsewhere in the sermon.[5][45]

It is also noteworthy that the Prophet used many titles for Ali in the sermon. The words "Wali," "Mawla," and "Imam" were used over 27 times, indicating that Ali as the successor to Muhammad in a spiritual sense, as well as a political sense (as the word "Khalifa" was used three times in the sermon).[5] Hence, the sermon established Ali's right as the political and spiritual successor to Muhammad.

According to some, the event of Ghadir Khumm took place because of a dispute between Ali and two sahaba in Yemen prior to the Farewell Pilgrimage.[46] When Muhammad found out about this dispute, he ordered his companions to never anger Ali. The dispute was thus resolved with Muhammad's statement before the Farewell Pilgrimage. This indicates that there was no need to gather over a hundred thousand people around to discuss the dispute after the pilgrimage, as the dispute had already been settled.[47] However, it is also noted in a key Shia text of Shaykh al-Mufid that the complaints against Ali had not ended and not settled until the declaration of Ghadir Khumm and are thus recorded under the section 'The Prophets Farewell Pilgrimage and the Declaration at Ghadir Khumm." Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad (trans. IKA Howard),p. 122.

Narrators and citationsEdit

The event of Ghadir Khumm has been revealed in both Shia and Sunni sources. Narrators of the Hadith of Ghadir Khumm are many, including:

This Hadith is considered to be Hasan by many scholars, and some consider it Sahih. Furthermore, all Shia Hadith scholars, and some great Sunni scholars, consider this Hadith to be Mutawatir. Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini collected all the references for the event of Ghadir Khum from Sunni sources and issued them together with all other reasons for this event in eleven volumes in of his book Al-Ghadir.[32]

The above hadith have been cited in various Sunni sources including:

AftermathEdit

Rashidun CaliphateEdit

After the death of Muhammad, a gathering at Saqifah elected Abu Bakr, rather than Ali, to be the successor of Muhammad as the first Rashidun Caliph. This choice was disputed by some Muslims, who believed that Ali had been appointed as successor. This dispute led to the schism between Sunnis and Shias.

Umayyad CaliphateEdit

After the First Fitnah, during the days of the Umayyad Caliphate, when Muawiyah arrived (in Mecca) during one of his pilgrimages, accordingly, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas came to see him, and they happened to mention Ali. Muawiyah disparaged Ali. As a result, Sa`d became angry and said: "You are speaking of this man! I have heard the Messenger of Allah—peace and salutation of Allah be upon him—declare (On the day of Ghadir): "Of whomsoever I am the Mawla, then Ali is his Mawla." I have (also) heard him say: 'You Ali are to me in position that Harun was to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me (See Hadith of position)." And I have heard him announce: "Today I am indeed going to hand over the banner to a person who loves Allah and his Messenger, and Allah and his Messenger also loves him."[235]

Eid al-GhadeerEdit

Shia Muslims celebrate the occasion of Muhammad declaring Ali as his successor on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah.[21][236] Fasting, doing Ghusl (ritual bath), reciting the Du'a Nudba,[237] and giving food to believers is among recommended practice of Eid al-Ghadeer.[238] It is a public holiday[239] in countries such as: Iran,[240][241] India, Azerbaijan,[242] Saudi Arabia,[243][244]Iraq,[245][246] UAE, Yemen, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Bahrain and Syria. The Shia Muslim also celebrate Eid Ghadir in Europe and Americas, among in: The U.S., England, Germany, France,[247] and so on.[248][249]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Man kunṫu mawlāhu fa-ʿAlī mawlāh (Arabic: مَـن كُـنـت مَـولاه فَـعَـلي مَـولاه‎).[21]

ReferencesEdit

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  123. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq, from al-Bara' bin Aazib and Zayd bin Arqam vol. 2 p. 52
  124. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, vol. 2 p. 30
  125. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Al-Husayn bin Ali, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 26
  126. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Umar bin Ali, from Imam Ali, vol. 2 p. 28
  127. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Abu at-Tufayl, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 20
  128. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Zayd bin Arqam, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 20
  129. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ibn Umar, vol. 2 p. 83
  130. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Habba bin Juwayn al-Urani, vol. 1 p. 376
  131. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Jundu' bin Amr bin Mazin, vol. 1 p. 308
  132. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la bin Murra, vol. 3 p. 233
  133. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Ayyub, vol. 5 p. 6
  134. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu at-Tufeil, from Abu Qudama, vol. 5 p. 276
  135. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la, from Aamir bin Leyla, vol. 3 p. 93
  136. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la bin Murra, from Yazid or Zayd bin Shuraheel, vol. 2 p. 233
  137. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Hudhayfa bin Usayd and Aamir bin Leyla bin Zamra, vol. 3 p. 92
  138. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Aamir bin Leyla from another chain of narrators, vol. 3 p. 93
  139. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Amra, from Amr bin Mahz, vol. 3 p. 307
  140. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Zaynab, vol. 3 p. 307
  141. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Sahl bin Hunayf, vol. 3 p. 307
  142. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Khuzayma bin Thabit, vol. 3 p. 307
  143. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abdullah bin Thabit al-Ansari, vol. 3 p. 307
  144. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Habashi bin Junada, vol. 3 p. 307
  145. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ubayd bin Aazib, vol. 3 p. 307
  146. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Nu'Man bin Ajlan, vol. 3 p. 307
  147. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Thabit bin Wadi'a, vol. 3 p. 307
  148. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Fuzala al-Ansari, vol. 3 p. 307
  149. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Najiya bin Amr al-Khuza'i, vol. 5 p. 6
  150. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Miqdad bin Amr, vol. 5 p. 6
  151. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Al-Asbagh, from Ubayd bin Aazib al-Ansari, vol. 3 p. 307 and vol. 5 p. 205
  152. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Habib bin Badil bin Warqa', vol. 1 p. 368
  153. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Qays bin Thabit bin Shamaas, vol. 1 p. 367
  154. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Hashim bin Utba, vol. 1 p. 368
  155. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abd Khayr, Amr Dhi Mur and Habbatul-Urani, from twelve people, p. 20
  156. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Hamid at-Tawil, from Anas
  157. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abu Salama, from Muhammad bin al-Munkadir, p. 25
  158. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Al-Hakam bin Abu Sulayman, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 23
  159. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abuz-Zuha, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 20
  160. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Zayd's wife, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 16
  161. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Abdullah bin Mas'ud, p. 23
  162. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Atiyah, from ibn Abu Awfa, p. 24
  163. ^ Ibnul-Maghazili's Manaqib, narrated by Umayra bin Sa'd, p. 26
  164. ^ Sunan ibn Majah, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 1 p. 55
  165. ^ Sunan ibn Majah, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Saabit, from Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, vol. 1, p. 58
  166. ^ Majma al-Zawa'id, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab, from thirteen persons vol. 9
  167. ^ Majma al-Zawa'id, narrated by Abu Hurayra, Anas and Abu Sa'id, from nine persons and others, vol. 9 p. 708
  168. ^ Majma al-Zawa'id, narrated by Hamid bin Imara, vol. 9p. 107
  169. ^ Kifayat at-Talib, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab and Zayd bin Yathigh, from some persons p. 18
  170. ^ Kifayat at-Talib, narrated by Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Aqil, from Muhammad bin al-Munkadir, p. 14
  171. ^ Kifayat at-Talib, narrated by From another direction to Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 13–14
  172. ^ Al-Isaba, narrated by Abu-Tufayl, from seventeen persons, vol. 4 p. 156
  173. ^ Al-Isaba, narrated by Al-Asbagh bin Nabata, from some persons, vol. 4 p. 80
  174. ^ Al-Isaba, narrated by Abdullah bin Bamil, vol. 2 p. 374
  175. ^ Sharh Nahjul Balagha, narrated by Abu Zumayla, from some persons
  176. ^ Hilyat al-awliya, narrated by Umayra bin Sa'd, from twelve persons, vol. 5 p. 26
  177. ^ Hilyat al-awliya, narrated by Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, from some persons, vol. 5 p. 364
  178. ^ Hilyat al-awliya, narrated To Tawus, from Burayda, vol. 4 p. 23
  179. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Umayra, from eighteen persons, vol. 2 p. 13
  180. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Umayra, from other eight sources, vol. 2 p. 13
  181. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Musa bin Ayyub, from Abu Hurayra, vol. 8 p. 290
  182. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Al-Mansur, from his father, from his grandfather, from Ibn Abbas, vol. 12 p. 343
  183. ^ Tarikh Baghdad, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla, vol. 14 p. 236
  184. ^ Al-Kuna wa al-Asma, narrated by Abu Qulaba, from more than ten people, vol. 2 p. 61
  185. ^ Al-Kuna wa al-Asma, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq as-Subay'i, from al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 1 p. 160
  186. ^ Mushkil ul-Athar, narrated by Abu 'Ishaq as-Subay'i, from more than ten people, vol. 2 p. 307
  187. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi, narrated by Salama from Hudhayfa bin Usayd, vol. 13 p. 165
  188. ^ Muwazihul-Awham, narrated by As'ad bin Zurara, from his father, vol. 1 p. 91
  189. ^ Al-Kafi ash-Shafi, narrated by Isa bin Talha, from Talha bin Abdullah, p. 95
  190. ^ Talha, p. 95
  191. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Leyla from another direction, vol 2 p. 14
  192. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin abu Leyla, vol. 2 p. 14
  193. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by To Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 14
  194. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, narrated by Zayd bin Wahhab and Abd Khayr, from Imam Ali, vol. 2, p. 14
  195. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Habashi bin Junada, p. 127
  196. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Bishr bin Harb, from Jarir, p. 127
  197. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Abu Ayyub, p. 157
  198. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated to Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam, p. 127 (Manuscript)
  199. ^ Al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, narrated by Hudhayfa bin Usayd or Zayd bin Arqam, p. 157 (Manuscript)
  200. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, vol. 5 p. 210
  201. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Bint Ka'b (Ka'b's daughter) from Abu Sa'id, vol. 5 p. 208
  202. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Abu Maryam or Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 7 p. 348
  203. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Yazid bin Talha, vol. 5 p. 108
  204. ^ a b Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 5 p. 208
  205. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Al Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 5 p. 208
  206. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated by Umar bin Ali, from Imam Ali, vol. 5, p. 221
  207. ^ Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya, narrated From another direction to 'Aa'isha bint Sa'd from Sa'd bin abu Waqqas, vol. 5 p. 208
  208. ^ Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, narrated by Sa'd bin Malik, vol. 3 p. 116
  209. ^ Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, narrated by Ibn Wathila, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 3 p. 109
  210. ^ Talkhis al-Mustadrak, narrated by Aamir bin Wathila, vol. 3 p. 109
  211. ^ Arjah ul-Matalib, narrated by Abul-Hamra', p. 581
  212. ^ Arjah ul-Matalib, narrated by Fatima binte Muhammad p. 448 and 571
  213. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Al-Bazzar, from Abu Hurayra, p. 94
  214. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Al-Abdi, from Abu Sa'id
  215. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Abd bin Thabit, from al-Bara' bin Aazib, p. 93
  216. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Aamir bin Wathila, from Imam Ali, vol. 1, p. 41
  217. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Salman, from Imam Ali, vol. 1 p. 41
  218. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Amr bin al-Aas, p. 125
  219. ^ Al-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, narrated by Amr bin al-Aas-Khawarizmi's Manaqib, p. 126
  220. ^ Al-Mu'jam As-Saghir, narrated by Tawus, from Burayda, vol. 1 p. 71
  221. ^ Al-Jarh wa at-Ta'dil, narrated by Abu Leyla bin Sa'id, from his father, vol. 4 p. 431
  222. ^ The History of Islam, narrated by Shu'ba, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 2 p. 196
  223. ^ The History of Islam, narrated by Aamir bin Sa'd, from Sa'd bin Abu Waqqas, vol. 2
  224. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib, vol. 1 p. 64
  225. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from another direction, vol. 1 p. 65
  226. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Ammar bin Yasir, vol. 1 p. 195
  227. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, from Imam Ali, vol. 1, p. 67
  228. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Sulaym bin Qays, from some persons, one of them was Abu Dharr, vol. 1 p. 315
  229. ^ Fara'id al-Simtayn, narrated by Hasan bin Thabit, vol. 1 p. 73
  230. ^ Du'atul-Hudat, from Hudhayfa bin al-Yaman
  231. ^ Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa, from Amr bin al-Aas p. 93
  232. ^ Salama, abu at-Tufeil from Hudhayfa bin Useid al-Ghifari
  233. ^ Tawus, from his father, Ahmad bin Hanbal's Manaqib, (Manuscript)
  234. ^ Mizanul-I'tidal, Amr Dhi Mur, from Imam Ali, vol. 2 p. 303.
  235. ^ Ibn Majah, Sunan, Volume 1 Page 45, Cairo, 1952 CE,
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  237. ^ Practices in Eid Ghadir Khum yjc.ir
  238. ^ Eid (Feast) Ghadir Khum hawzah.net
  239. ^ The Feast (Eid) Ghadir Khum yjc.ir
  240. ^ Ghadir Khum (Eid) farsnews.com
  241. ^ Ghadir celebration, Ahwaz, Iran aparat.com
  242. ^ Islamic countries, Eid Ghadir Khum hawzah.net
  243. ^ Eid Ghadir Khum, in diverse countries shafaqna.com Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  244. ^ Mecca, Eid Ghadir Khum alkawthartv.com Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  245. ^ Iraq, Eid Ghadir-Khum alalam.ir Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  246. ^ Eid Ghadir Khum, Iraq shia-news.com Retrieved 22 Sep 2018
  247. ^ Ghadir Khum, celebration alkawthartv.com
  248. ^ Eid Ghadir-Khum, in Georgia iribnews.ir
  249. ^ The celebration of Ghadir, in Saudi Arabia shia-news.com

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