Ramadan (calendar month)
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Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month is spent by Muslims fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to sunset. According to Islam, the Quran was sent down to the lowest heaven during this month, thus being prepared for gradual revelation by Jibreel (Gabriel) to Muhammad. Therefore, Muhammad told his followers that the gates of Heaven would be open for the entire month and the gates of Hell (Jahannam) would be closed. The first day of the next month, Shawwal, is spent in celebration and is observed as the "Festival of Breaking Fast" or Eid al-Fitr.
The calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 10 to 11 days shorter than the solar year and contains no intercalation, Ramadan migrates throughout the seasons. The Islamic day starts after sunset. The estimated start and end dates for Ramadan, based on the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia, are:
|AH||First day (CE/AD)||Last day (CE/AD)|
|1439||17 May 2018||14 June 2018|
|1440||6 May 2019||3 June 2019|
|1441||24 April 2020||23 May 2020|
|1442||13 April 2021||12 May 2021|
|1443||2 April 2022||1 May 2022|
|1444||23 March 2023||20 April 2023|
Many Muslims insist on the local physical sighting of the moon to mark the beginning of Ramadan, but others use the calculated time of the new moon or the Saudi Arabian declaration to determine the start of the month. Since the new moon is not in the same state at the same time globally, the beginning and ending dates of Ramadan depend on what lunar sightings are received in each respective location. As a result, Ramadan dates vary in different countries, but usually only by a day. This is due to the cycle of the moon. The moon travels the same path all year round and when the moon is seen in the east, it is then seen traveling towards the west. All the countries around the world see the moon within a 24-hour period once spotted by one country in the east.
Each year, Ramadan begins about eleven days earlier than in the previous year. Astronomical projections that approximate the start of Ramadan are available. 33 Islamic years are approximately equal to 32 tropical years, with six days over.
Ramadan is observed by Muslims during the entire lunar month by the same name. The month of religious observances consists of fasting and extra prayers. Some important historical events during this month are generally believed to include:
- 1 Ramadan, birth of Sayyid Abdul-Qadir Gilani
- 2 Ramadan, the Torah (Tawrat) was bestowed on Moses (Musa)
- 10 Ramadan, death of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid – first wife of Muhammad
- 10 Ramadan, in 1973, Operation Badr took place, starting the Yom Kippur War
- 12 Ramadan, the Gospel (Injil) was bestowed on Jesus (Isa)
- 15 Ramadan, birth of Hasan ibn Ali
- 15 Ramadan, In the Ottoman Empire, the sultan presented trays of baklava to the Janissaries in a ceremonial procession called the Baklava Alayı
- 17 Ramadan, birth of Ibn ʿArabi
- 17 Ramadan, death of Aisha bint Abu Bakr – third wife of Muhammad
- 17 Ramadan, death of Ruqayyah daughter of Muhammad and Khadija, wife of Uthman
- 17 Ramadan, the Battle of Badr was won by the Muslims
- 18 Ramadan, the Psalms (Zabur) were bestowed on David (Dawood)
- 19 Ramadan, Ali bin Abu Talib was struck on the head by a sword
- 20 Ramadan, the Conquest of Mecca by Muhammad
- 21 Ramadan, Ali bin Abu Talib died due to injuries he sustained by a sword
- 27 Ramadan, the Dominion of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27 Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic calendar)
Laylat al-Qadr is observed during one of the last ten days of the month (typically the odd nights). Muslims believe that this night which is also known as "The Night of Power" is better than a thousand months. This is often interpreted as praying throughout this night is rewarded equally with praying for a thousand months (just over 83 years i.e., a lifetime). Many Muslims spend the entire night in prayer.
- Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said:
There will be an Ayah (sign) in (the month of) Ramadan. Then, there will 'isabah (splitting into groups) in Shawwal. Then, there will be fighting in (the month of) Dhu al-Qi'dah. Then, the pilgrim will be robbed in (the month of) Dhu al-Hijjah. Then, the prohibitions will be violated in (the month of) al-Muharram. Then, there will be sound in (the month of) Safar, then the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal & Rabi' al-thani. Then, the most amazing thing will happen between (the months of) Jumada and Rajab. Then, a well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress (castle) sheltering a thousand (people).[not specific enough to verify]
- Hadith al-Bukhari 3:123 Hadith Collection
- Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia
- "What is the Islamic calendar?". FAQ - For Muslims. Ramadan Awareness Campaign.
- "Ramadan and Eidian". Committee For Crescent Observation. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- http://www.pakistan.gov.pk Archived 2006-01-27 at the Wayback Machine
- Al-Haakim, Naim ibn Hammad, Kitab Al-Fitan