Malala Yousafzai (Malālah Yūsafzay: Urdu: ملالہ یوسفزئی; Pashto: ملاله یوسفزۍ [məˈlaːlə jusəf ˈzəj]; born 12 July 1997) is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate. She is known for human rights advocacy, especially education of women in her native Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Her advocacy has since grown into an international movement.
Yousafzai in October 2015
|Native name||ملاله یوسفزۍ|
12 July 1997 |
Mingora, Swat, Pakistan
|Residence||Birmingham, England, UK|
|Education||Edgbaston High School|
|Occupation||Student, humanitarian, former blogger for BBC Urdu and Activist|
|Organization||The Malala Fund|
|Known for||Activist for the right to education, especially female education|
Yousafzai was born in Mingora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Her family came to run a chain of schools in the region. Considering Jinnah and Benazir Bhutto as her role-models, she was particularly inspired by her father's thoughts and humanitarian work. In early 2009, when she was 11–12, she wrote a blog under a pseudonym for the BBC Urdu detailing her life during the Taliban occupation of Swat. The following summer, journalist Adam B. Ellick made a New York Times documentary about her life as the Pakistani military intervened in the region. She rose in prominence, giving interviews in print and on television, and she was nominated for the International Children's Peace Prize by activist Desmond Tutu.
In afternoon of 9 October 2012, Yousafzai was injured after a Taliban gunman attempted to murder her. Yousafzai remained unconscious, in critical condition at the Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology, but later her condition improved enough for her to be sent to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, UK. The murder attempt sparked a national and international outpouring of support for Yousafzai. Deutsche Welle wrote in January 2013 that she may have become "the most famous teenager in the world." Weeks after her murder attempt, a group of fifty leading Muslim clerics in Pakistan issued a fatwā against those who tried to kill her.
Since recovering, Yousafzai became a prominent education activist. Based out of Birmingham, she founded the Malala Fund, a non-profit, and in 2013 co-authored I am Malala, an international bestseller. In 2015, Yousafzai was a subject of the Oscar-shortlisted documentary He Named Me Malala. The 2013, 2014 and 2015 issues of Time magazine featured her as one of the most Influential people globally. In 2012, she was the recipient of Pakistan's first National Youth Peace Prize and the 2013 Sakharov Prize. In 2014, she was announced as the co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, along with Kailash Satyarthi, for her struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. Aged 17 at the time, she became the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate. Since March 2013, she has been a pupil at the all-girls' Edgbaston High School in Birmingham. In 2017, she was awarded honorary Canadian citizenship and became the youngest person to address the House of Commons of Canada.
Yousafzai was born on 12 July, 1997 in the Swat District of Pakistan's northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to Ziauddin Yousafzai and Tor Pekai Yousafzai. Her family is a Sunni Muslim family of Pashtun ethnicity. She was given her first name Malala (meaning "grief-stricken") after Malalai of Maiwand, a famous Pashtun poet and warrior woman from southern Afghanistan. Her last name, Yousafzai, is that of a large Pashtun tribal confederation that is predominant in Pakistan's Swat Valley, where she grew up. At her house in Mingora, she lived with her two younger brothers, Khushal and Atal, her parents, Ziauddin and Tor Pekai, and two pet chickens.
Fluent in Pashto, English, and Urdu, Yousafzai was educated mostly by her father, Ziauddin Yousafzai, who is a poet, school owner, and an educational activist himself, running a chain of private schools known as the Khushal Public School. She once stated to an interviewer that she would like to become a doctor, though later her father encouraged her to become a politician instead. Ziauddin referred to his daughter as something entirely special, allowing her to stay up at night and talk about politics after her two brothers had been sent to bed.
Inspired by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Yousafzai started speaking about education rights as early as September 2008, when her father took her to Peshawar to speak at the local press club. "How dare the Taliban take away my basic right to education?" Yousafzai asked her audience in a speech covered by newspapers and television channels throughout the region.
In 2009, Yousafzai began as a trainee and then a peer educator in the Institute for War and Peace Reporting's Open Minds Pakistan youth programme, which worked in schools in the region to help young people engage in constructive discussion on social issues through the tools of journalism, public debate and dialogue.
As a BBC bloggerEdit
In late 2008, Aamer Ahmed Khan of the BBC Urdu website and his colleagues came up with a novel way of covering the Taliban's growing influence in Swat. They decided to ask a schoolgirl to blog anonymously about her life there. Their correspondent in Peshawar, Abdul Hai Kakar, had been in touch with a local school teacher, Ziauddin Yousafzai, but could not find any students willing to do so, as it was considered too dangerous by their families. Finally, Yousafzai suggested his own daughter, 11-year-old Malala. At the time, Taliban militants led by Maulana Fazlullah were taking over the Swat Valley, banning television, music, girls' education, and women from going shopping. Bodies of beheaded policemen were being hanged in town squares. At first, a girl named Aisha from her father's school agreed to write a diary, but then the girl's parents stopped her from doing it because they feared Taliban reprisals. The only alternative was Yousafzai, four years younger than the original volunteer, and in seventh grade at the time. Editors at the BBC unanimously agreed.
"We had been covering the violence and politics in Swat in detail but we didn't know much about how ordinary people lived under the Taliban," Mirza Waheed, the former editor of BBC Urdu, said. Because they were concerned about Yousafzai's safety, BBC editors insisted that she use a pseudonym. Her blog was published under the byline "Gul Makai" ("cornflower" in Urdu), a name taken from a character in a Pashtun folktale.
On 3 January 2009, Yousafzai's first entry was posted to the BBC Urdu blog. She would hand-write notes and then pass them on to a reporter who would scan and e-mail them. The blog records Yousafzai's thoughts during the First Battle of Swat, as military operations take place, fewer girls show up to school, and finally, her school shuts down.
In Mingora, the Taliban had set an edict that no girls could attend school after 15 January 2009. The group had already blown up more than a hundred girls' schools. The night before the ban took effect was filled with the noise of artillery fire, waking Yousafzai several times. The following day, Yousafzai also read for the first time excerpts from her blog that had been published in a local newspaper.
Banned from schoolEdit
After the ban, the Taliban continued to destroy schools in the area. Five days later in her blog, Yousafzai wrote that she was still studying for her exams: "Our annual exams are due after the vacations but this will only be possible if the Taliban allow girls to go to school. We were told to prepare certain chapters for the exam but I do not feel like studying."
In February 2009, girls' schools were still closed. In solidarity, private schools for boys had decided not to open until 9 February, and notices appeared saying so. On 7 February, Yousafzai and her brother returned to their hometown of Mingora, where the streets were deserted, and there was an "eerie silence". "We went to the supermarket to buy a gift for our mother but it was closed, whereas earlier it used to remain open till late. Many other shops were also closed", she wrote in her blog. Their home had been robbed and their television was stolen.
After boys' schools reopened, the Taliban lifted restrictions on girls' primary education, where there was co-education. Girls-only schools were still closed. Yousafzai wrote that only 70 pupils attended, out of 700 pupils who were enrolled.
On 15 February, gunshots could be heard in the streets of Mingora, but Yousafzai's father reassured her, saying "don't be scared – this is firing for peace". Her father had read in the newspaper that the government and the militants were going to sign a peace deal the next day. Later that night, when the Taliban announced the peace deal on their FM Radio studio, another round of stronger firing started outside. Yousafzai spoke out against the Taliban on the national current affairs show Capital Talk on 18 February. Three days later, local Taliban leader Maulana Fazlulla announced on his FM radio station that he was lifting the ban on women's education, and girls would be allowed to attend school until exams were held on 17 March, but they had to wear burqas.
Girls' schools reopenEdit
On 25 February, Yousafzai wrote on her blog that she and her classmates "played a lot in class and enjoyed ourselves like we used to before". Attendance at Yousafzai's class was up to 19 of 27 pupils by 1 March, but the Taliban were still active in the area. Shelling continued, and relief goods meant for displaced people were looted. Only two days later, Yousafzai wrote that there was a skirmish between the military and Taliban, and the sounds of mortar shells could be heard: "People are again scared that the peace may not last for long. Some people are saying that the peace agreement is not permanent, it is just a break in fighting".
On 9 March, Yousafzai wrote about a science paper that she performed well on, and added that the Taliban were no longer searching vehicles as they once did. Her blog ended on 12 March 2009.
As a displaced personEdit
After the BBC diary ended, Yousafzai and her father were approached by New York Times reporter Adam B. Ellick about filming a documentary. In May, the Pakistani Army moved into the region to regain control during the Second Battle of Swat. Mingora was evacuated and Yousafzai's family was displaced and separated. Her father went to Peshawar to protest and lobby for support, while she was sent into the countryside to live with relatives. "I'm really bored because I have no books to read," Yousafzai is filmed saying in the documentary.
That month, after criticising militants at a press conference, Yousafzai's father received a death threat over the radio by a Taliban commander. Yousafzai was deeply inspired in her activism by her father. That summer, for the first time, she committed to becoming a politician and not a doctor, as she had once aspired to be.
By early July, refugee camps were filled to capacity. The prime minister made a long-awaited announcement saying that it was safe to return to the Swat Valley. The Pakistani military had pushed the Taliban out of the cities and into the countryside. Yousafzai's family reunited, and on 24 July 2009 they headed home. They made one stop first – to meet with a group of other grassroots activists that had been invited to see United States President Barack Obama's special representative to Afghanistan and Pakistan, Richard Holbrooke. Yousafzai pleaded with Holbrooke to intervene in the situation, saying, "Respected ambassador, if you can help us in our education, so please help us." When her family finally did return home, they found it had not been damaged, and her school had sustained only light damage.
Following the documentary, Yousafzai was interviewed on the national Pashto-language station AVT Khyber, the Urdu-language Daily Aaj, and Canada's Toronto Star. She made a second appearance on Capital Talk on 19 August 2009. Her BBC blogging identity was being revealed in articles by December 2009. She also began appearing on television to publicly advocate for female education.
In October 2011, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a South African activist, nominated Yousafzai for the International Children's Peace Prize of the Dutch international children's advocacy group KidsRights Foundation. She was the first Pakistani girl to be nominated for the award. The announcement said, "Malala dared to stand up for herself and other girls and used national and international media to let the world know girls should also have the right to go to school". The award was won by Michaela Mycroft of South Africa.
Her public profile rose even further when she was awarded Pakistan's first National Youth Peace Prize two months later in December. On 19 December 2011, Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani awarded her the National Peace Award for Youth. At the proceedings in her honour, Yousafzai stated that she was not a member of any political party, but hoped to found a national party of her own to promote education. The prime minister directed the authorities to set up an IT campus in the Swat Degree College for Women at Yousafzai's request, and a secondary school was renamed in her honour. By 2012, Yousafzai was planning to organise the Malala Education Foundation, which would help poor girls go to school.
As Yousafzai became more recognised, the dangers facing her increased. Death threats against her were published in newspapers and slipped under her door. On Facebook, where she was an active user, she began to receive threats and fake profiles were created under her name. When none of this worked, a Taliban spokesman says they were "forced" to act. In a meeting held in the summer of 2012, Taliban leaders unanimously agreed to kill her.
On 9 October 2012, a Taliban gunman shot Yousafzai as she rode home on a bus after taking an exam in Pakistan's Swat Valley. The masked gunman shouted "Which one of you is Malala? Speak up, otherwise I will shoot you all", and, on her being identified, shot at her. She was hit with one bullet, which went through her head, neck, and ended in her shoulder. Two other girls were also wounded in the shooting: Kainat Riaz and Shazia Ramzan, both of whom were stable enough to speak to reporters and provide details of the attack.
After the shooting, Yousafzai was airlifted to a military hospital in Peshawar, where doctors were forced to begin operating after swelling developed in the left portion of her brain, which had been damaged by the bullet when it passed through her head. After a five-hour operation, doctors successfully removed the bullet, which had lodged in her shoulder near her spinal cord. The day following the attack, doctors performed a decompressive craniectomy, in which part of the skull is removed to allow room for the brain to swell.
On 11 October 2012, a panel of Pakistani and British doctors decided to move Yousafzai to the Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology in Rawalpindi. Mumtaz Khan, a doctor, said that she had a 70% chance of survival. Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that Yousafzai would be moved to Germany, where she could receive the best medical treatment, as soon as she was stable enough to travel. A team of doctors would travel with her, and the government would bear the expenditures of her treatment. Doctors reduced Yousafzai's sedation on 13 October, and she moved all four limbs.
Offers to treat Yousafzai came from around the world. On 15 October, Yousafzai travelled to the United Kingdom for further treatment, approved by both her doctors and family. Her plane landed in Abu Dhabi for refuelling and then continued to Birmingham, England where she was treated at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, one of the specialties of this hospital being the treatment of military personnel injured in conflict. According to the UK Government "The Pakistani government is paying all transport, migration, medical, accommodation and subsistence costs for Malala and her party".
Yousafzai had come out of her coma by 17 October 2012, was responding well to treatment, and was said to have a good chance of fully recovering without any brain damage. Later updates on 20 and 21 October stated that she was stable, but was still battling an infection. By 8 November, she was photographed sitting up in bed.
On 3 January 2013, Yousafzai was discharged from the hospital to continue her rehabilitation at her family's temporary home in the West Midlands. She underwent a five-hour long operation on 2 February to reconstruct her skull and restore her hearing with a cochlear implant, after which she was reported to be in stable condition.
The murder attempt received worldwide media coverage and produced an outpouring of sympathy and anger. Protests against the shooting were held in several Pakistani cities the day after the attack, and over 2 million people signed the Right to Education campaign's petition, which led to ratification of the first Right to Education Bill in Pakistan. Pakistani officials offered a 10 million rupee (US$105,000) reward for information leading to the arrest of the attackers. Responding to concerns about his safety, Yousafzai's father said, "We wouldn't leave our country if my daughter survives or not. We have an ideology that advocates peace. The Taliban cannot stop all independent voices through the force of bullets."
Pakistan's president Asif Ali Zardari described the shooting as an attack on "civilized people". UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called it a "heinous and cowardly act". United States President Barack Obama found the attack "reprehensible, disgusting and tragic", while Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said Yousafzai had been "very brave in standing up for the rights of girls" and that the attackers had been "threatened by that kind of empowerment". British Foreign Secretary William Hague called the shooting "barbaric" and that it had "shocked Pakistan and the world".
American singer Madonna dedicated her song "Human Nature" to Yousafzai at a concert in Los Angeles the day of the attack, as well had a temporary Malala tattoo on her back. American actress Angelina Jolie wrote an article about explaining the event to her children and answering questions like "Why did those men think they needed to kill Malala?" Jolie later donated $200,000 to The Malala Fund for girls education. Former First Lady of the United States Laura Bush wrote an op-ed piece in The Washington Post in which she compared Yousafzai to Holocaust diarist Anne Frank. Indian director Amjad Khan announced that he would be making a biographical film based on Yousafzai.
Ehsanullah Ehsan, chief spokesman for the Pakistani Taliban, claimed responsibility for the attack, saying that Yousafzai "is the symbol of the infidels and obscenity," adding that if she survived, the group would target her again. In the days following the attack, the Taliban reiterated its justification, saying Yousafzai had been brainwashed by her father: "We warned him several times to stop his daughter from using dirty language against us, but he didn't listen and forced us to take this extreme step". The Taliban also justified its attack as part of religious scripture, stating that the Quran says that "people propagating against Islam and Islamic forces would be killed", going on to say that "Sharia says that even a child can be killed if he is propagating against Islam".
On 12 October 2012, a group of 50 Islamic clerics in Pakistan issued a fatwā – a ruling of Islamic law – against the Taliban gunmen who tried to kill Yousafzai. Islamic scholars from the Sunni Ittehad Council publicly denounced attempts by the Pakistani Taliban to mount religious justifications for the shooting of Yousafzai and two of her classmates.
Although the attack was roundly condemned in Pakistan, "some fringe Pakistani political parties and extremist outfits" have aired conspiracy theories, such as the shooting being staged by the American Central Intelligence Agency to provide an excuse for continuing drone attacks. The Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and some other pro-Taliban elements branded Yousafzai as an "American spy".
United Nations petitionEdit
On 15 October 2012, UN Special Envoy for Global Education Gordon Brown, a former British Prime Minister, visited Yousafzai while she was in the hospital, and launched a petition in her name and "in support of what Malala fought for". Using the slogan "I am Malala", the petition's main demand was that there be no child left out of school by 2015, with the hope that "girls like Malala everywhere will soon be going to school". Brown said he would hand the petition to President Zardari in Islamabad in November.
The petition contains three demands:
- We call on Pakistan to agree to a plan to deliver education for every child.
- We call on all countries to outlaw discrimination against girls.
- We call on international organisations to ensure the world's 61 million out-of-school children are in education by the end of 2015.
Criminal investigation, arrests, and acquittalsEdit
The day after the shooting, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik stated that the Taliban gunman who shot Yousafzai had been identified. Police named 23-year-old Atta Ullah Khan, a graduate student in chemistry, as the gunman in the attack. As of 2015 he remained at large, possibly in Afghanistan.
The police also arrested six men for involvement in the attack, but they were later released for lack of evidence. As of 7 November 2012, Mullah Fazlullah, the cleric who ordered the attack on Yousafzai, was confirmed to be hiding in Eastern Afghanistan by US sources there.
On 12 September 2014, ISPR Director, Major General Asim Bajwa, told a media briefing in Islamabad that the 10 attackers belong to a militant group called "Shura". General Bajwa said that Israrur Rehman was the first militant group member who was identified and apprehended by the troops. Acting upon the information received during his interrogation, all other members of the militant group were arrested. It was an intelligence-based joint operation conducted by ISI, police, and military.
In April 2015, the ten who were arrested were sentenced to life in prison by Judge Mohammad Amin Kundi, a counterterrorism judge, with the chance of eligibility for parole, and possible release, after 25 years. It is not known if the actual would-be murderers were among the ten sentenced. In June 2015, it was revealed that eight of the ten men tried in-camera for the attack had in fact been secretly acquitted, insiders revealed one of the men acquitted and freed was the murder bid's mastermind. It is believed that all other men who shot Yousafzai fled to Afghanistan afterwards and were never even captured. The information about the release of suspects came to light after the London Daily Mirror attempted to locate the men in prison. Senior police official Salim Khan stated that the eight men were released because there was not enough evidence to connect them to the attack.
Yousafzai spoke before the United Nations in July 2013, and met Queen Elizabeth II in Buckingham Palace. In September she spoke at Harvard University, and in October she met with US President Barack Obama and his family; during that meeting, she confronted him on his use of drone strikes in Pakistan. In December she addressed the Oxford Union. In July 2014 Yousafzai spoke at the Girl Summit in London, advocating for rights for girls. In October 2014, after receiving the World Children's Prize for the rights of the child in Mariefred, Sweden, she announced donating $50,000 through the UNRWA, to help rebuild 65 schools in Gaza.
Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown arranged for Yousafzai's appearance before the United Nations in July 2013. Brown also requested that McKinsey consultant Shiza Shahid, a friend of the Yousafzai family, chair Yousafzai's charity fund, which had gained the support of Angelina Jolie. Google's vice-president Megan Smith also sits on the fund's board.
In November 2012 the consulting firm Edelman began work for Yousafzai on a pro bono basis, which according to the firm "involves providing a press office function for Malala." The office employs five people, and is headed by speechwriter Jamie Lundie. McKinsey also continues to provide assistance to Yousafzai.
On 12 July 2013, Yousafzai's 16th birthday, she spoke at the UN to call for worldwide access to education. The UN dubbed the event "Malala Day". It was her first public speech since the attack, leading the first ever Youth Takeover of the UN, with an audience of over 500 young education advocates from around the world.
The terrorists thought they would change my aims and stop my ambitions, but nothing changed in my life except this: weakness, fear and hopelessness died. Strength, power and courage was born ... I am not against anyone, neither am I here to speak in terms of personal revenge against the Taliban or any other terrorist group. I'm here to speak up for the right of education for every child. I want education for the sons and daughters of the Taliban and all terrorists and extremists.
Yousafzai received several standing ovations. Ban Ki-moon, who also spoke at the session, described her as "our hero". Yousafzai also presented the chamber with "The Education We Want", a Youth Resolution of education demands written by Youth for Youth, in a process co-ordinated by the UN Global Education First Youth Advocacy Group, telling her audience:
Malala day is not my day. Today is the day of every woman, every boy and every girl who have raised their voice for their rights.
Nobel Peace PrizeEdit
|Nobel Lecture by Malala Yousafzai|
On 10 October 2014, Yousafzai was announced as the co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize for her struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. Having received the prize at the age of 17, Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel laureate. Yousafzai shared the prize with Kailash Satyarthi, a children's rights activist from India. She is the second Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize after 1979 Physics laureate Abdus Salam.
After she won the Nobel Peace Prize, there was praise, but also some disapproval of the decision to award it to her. A Norwegian jurist, Fredrik Heffermehl, commented on the winning of her Nobel Prize: "This is not for fine people who have done nice things and are glad to receive it. All of that is irrelevant. What Nobel wanted was a prize that promoted global disarmament."
A young Mexican man interrupted Yousafzai's Nobel Peace Prize award ceremony in protest for the 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping in Mexico, but was quickly taken away by security personnel. Yousafzai later sympathised, and acknowledged that problems are faced by young people all over the world, saying "there are problems in Mexico, there are problems even in America, even here in Norway, and it is really important that children raise their voices".
School for Syrian refugee girlsEdit
On 12 July 2015, her 18th birthday, Yousafzai opened a school in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanon, near the Syrian border, for Syrian refugees. The school, funded by the not-for-profit Malala Fund, offers education and training to girls aged 14 to 18 years. Yousafzai called on world leaders to invest in "books, not bullets".
Yousafzai's memoir I Am Malala: The Story of the Girl Who Stood Up for Education and was Shot by the Taliban, co-written with British journalist Christina Lamb, was published in October 2013 by Little, Brown and Company in the US and by Weidenfeld & Nicolson in the UK A reviewer for The Guardian called the book "fearless" and stated that "the haters and conspiracy theorists would do well to read this book", though she criticised "the stiff, know-it-all voice of a foreign correspondent" that is interwoven with Yousafzai's. A reviewer for The Washington Post called the book "riveting" and wrote that "It is difficult to imagine a chronicle of a war more moving, apart from perhaps the diary of Anne Frank." Entertainment Weekly gave the book a "B+", writing that "Malala's bravely eager voice can seem a little thin here, in I Am Malala, likely thanks to her co-writer, but her powerful message remains undiluted."
The All Pakistan Private School's Federation announced that the book would be banned in its 152,000 member institutions, stating that it disrespected Islam and could have a "negative" influence. Pakistani investigative editor Ansar Abbasi described her work as "providing her critics something 'concrete' to prove her as an 'agent' of the West against Islam and Pakistan".
A children's edition of the memoir was published in 2014 under the title I Am Malala: How One Girl Stood Up for Education and Changed the World. The audio book edition, narrated by Neela Vaswani, won the 2015 Grammy Award for Best Children's Album. In February 2014, she was nominated for the World Children's Prize in Sweden. Even though she was fighting for women's rights as well as children's rights, she did not describe herself as feminist when asked on Forbes Under 30 Summit in 2014. In 2015, however, Yousafzai told Emma Watson she decided to call herself a feminist after hearing Watson's speech at the UN launching the HeForShe campaign. In May 2014, Yousafzai was granted an honorary doctorate by the University of King's College in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Later in 2014, she was announced as the co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize, along with Kailash Satyarthi, for her struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. Aged 17 at the time, she became the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate. She was the subject of Oscar-shortlisted 2015 documentary He Named Me Malala. Since March 2013, she has been a pupil at the all-girls' Edgbaston High School in Birmingham. On 20 August 2015, she achieved a string of A's and A*s in her GCSE exams. She plans to study in the Politics, Philosophy, and Economics program of study at Lady Margaret Hall at the University of Oxford in the autumn of 2017, contingent on earning three As in her A-levels; Oxford is where one of her most admired individuals, the late assassinated Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, attended, and, according to "I Am Malala", Yousafzai was given one of Bhutto's shawls as a gift by her sons during her hospital stay, which she wore to the UN.
Reception in PakistanEdit
Reception of Yousafzai in Pakistan is mixed. Dawn columnist Huma Yusuf summarized three main complaints of Yousafzai's critics: "Her fame highlights Pakistan's most negative aspect (rampant militancy); her education campaign echoes Western agendas; and the West's admiration of her is hypocritical because it overlooks the plight of other innocent victims, like the casualties of U.S. drone strikes." Another Dawn journalist, Cyril Almeida, addressed the public's lack of rage against the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), blaming the failing state government. Journalist Assed Baig described her as being used to justify Western imperialism as "the perfect candidate for the white man to relieve his burden and save the native". Yousafzai was also accused on social media of being a CIA spy.
However, Yousafzai does have some support in Pakistani media; Farman Nawaz (editor Border Times Pakistan) argues that Yousafzai would have gained more fame in Pakistan if she belonged to the province of Punjab. His opinion was not given importance by the mainstream media of Pakistan but his views in this regard were published by Daily Outlook Afghanistan.
Awards and honoursEdit
Yousafzai has been awarded the following national and international honours:
- 2011: International Children's Peace Prize (nominee)
- 2011: National Youth Peace Prize
- Anne Frank Award for Moral Courage, January 2012
- Sitara-e-Shujaat, Pakistan's third-highest civilian bravery award, October 2012
- Foreign Policy magazine top 100 global thinker, November 2012
- 2012: Time magazine Person of the Year shortlist
- Mother Teresa Awards for Social Justice, November 2012[a]
- Rome Prize for Peace and Humanitarian Action, December 2012
- 2012: Top Name in Annual Survey of Global English, January 2013
- Simone de Beauvoir Prize, January 2013
- Memminger Freiheitspreis 1525, March 2013 (conferred on 7 December 2013 in Oxford)
- Doughty Street Advocacy award of Index on Censorship, March 2013
- Fred and Anne Jarvis Award of the UK National Union of Teachers, March 2013
- Vital Voices Global Leadership Awards, Global Trailblazer, April 2013
- One of Time's "100 Most Influential People in the World", April 2013
- Premi Internacional Catalunya Award of Catalonia, May 2013
- Annual Award for Development of the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), June 2013
- International Campaigner of the Year, 2013 Observer Ethical Awards, June 2013
- 2012: Tipperary International Peace Award, Ireland Tipperary Peace Convention, August 2013
- Portrait of Yousafzai by Jonathan Yeo displayed at National Portrait Gallery, London (2013)
- Ambassador of Conscience Award from Amnesty International
- 2013: International Children's Peace Prize, KidsRights Foundation 
- 2013: Clinton Global Citizen Awards from Clinton Foundation
- Harvard Foundation's Peter Gomes Humanitarian Award from Harvard University
- 2013: Anna Politkovskaya Award – Reach All Women in War
- 2013: Reflections of Hope Award – Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum
- 2013: Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought – awarded by the European Parliament
- 2013: Honorary Master of Arts degree awarded by the University of Edinburgh
- 2013: Pride of Britain (October)
- 2013: Glamour magazine Woman of the Year
- 2013: GG2 Hammer Award at GG2 Leadership Awards (November)
- 2013: International Prize for Equality and Non-Discrimination
- 2014: Nominee for World Children's Prize also known as Children's Nobel Prize
- 2014: Awarded Honorary Life Membership by the PSEU (Ireland)
- 2014: Skoll Global Treasure Award
- 2014: Honorary Doctor of Civil Law, University of King's College, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
- 2014: Nobel Peace Prize, shared with Kailash Satyarthi
- 2014: Philadelphia Liberty Medal
- 2014: One of Time Magazine "The 25 Most Influential Teens of 2014"
- 2014: Honorary Canadian citizenship
- 2015: Grammy Award for Best Children's Album
- 2015: Asteroid 316201 Malala named in her honour.
- 2016: Honorary president of the students union of the University of Sheffield
- 2016: DAWN newspaper reported that Yousafzai's biography page on Wikipedia was the most read of the year amongst Pakistani personalities.
- 2017: Youngest ever United Nations Messenger of Peace
- 2017: Received honorary doctorate from the University of Ottawa
- 2017: Ellis Island International Medal of Honor
In popular cultureEdit
A fictionalised version of Yousafzai appears at Herb Kazzaz's funeral in "Still Broken", an episode of the Netflix series BoJack Horseman. She is referred to as "That Pakistani girl who keeps winning Nobel Prizes."
- Yousafzai's family was denied permission to attend the award ceremony in India by Pakistani authorities over security concerns, so the award was smuggled to her father by British-Pakistani film maker Sevy Ali.
- امنسټي انټرنېشنل پر ملاله یوسفزۍ برید وغانده (in Pashto). BBC Pashto. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Adam B. Ellick (2009). Class Dismissed. The New York Times (documentary). Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Malala Yousafzai Becomes Youngest-Ever Nobel Prize Winner". 10 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Following in Benazir's footsteps, Malala aspires to become PM of Pakistan - The Express Tribune". 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
- Schifrin, Nick (7 October 2013). "The 72 Hours That Saved Malala: Doctors Reveal for the First Time How Close She Came to Death". Good Morning America. Yahoo News. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- Kyle McKinnon (18 January 2013). "Will Malala's Influence Stretch to Europe?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Quiet Progress for Education in Pakistan". Brookings Institution. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "$7 million from Malala Fund for education project in remote areas". DAWN.COM. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- "Best Sellers - November 3, 2013 - The New York Times". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- "Malala Yousafzai Receiving Honorary Canadian Citizenship Wednesday". Huffington Post. The Canadian Press. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "Nobel Laureates by Age". nobelprize.org. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Malala Yousafzai becomes youngest-ever Nobel Prize winner". The Express Tribune. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2014" (Press release). Oslo: Nobel Media AB. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Malala Yousafzai attends first day at Edgbaston High School in Birmingham". BBC News. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Malala Yousafzai awarded honorary Canadian citizenship". DAWN.COM. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Thomas, Rebecca (6 November 2015). "Malala Yousafzai: Her father's daughter". BBC News.
- Saleem Ali (14 October 2012). "Malala and Sharbat Gula: Pashtun Icons of Hope". National Geographic. University of Queensland, Australia. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "Diary of a Pakistani schoolgirl". BBC News. 19 January 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Bacha Khan's philosophy of non-violence and Benazir Bhutto's charisma inspires Malala". The Express Tribune. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Tooley, James. "Malala for free schools: Why does the media hide the fact that she's for educational choice — as are so many developing nations?". The Spectator. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Coulson, Andrew J. "Why Malala Didn't Go to Public School". Cato Institute. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Owais Tohid (11 October 2012). "My conversations with Malala Yousafzai, the girl who stood up to the Taliban". The Christian Science Monitor. p. 3. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Adam B. Ellick (9 October 2012). "My 'Small Video Star' Fights for Her Life". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Following in Benazir's footsteps, Malala aspires to become PM of Pakistan - The Express Tribune". 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
- Westhead, Rick (26 October 2009). "Brave defiance in Pakistan's Swat Valley". Toronto Star. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Young Journalist Inspires Fellow Students". Institute for War and Peace Reporting. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Pakistani Heroine: How Malala Yousafzai Emerged from Anonymity". Time World. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- Peer, Basharat (10 October 2012). "The Girl Who Wanted To Go To School". The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Malala Yousafzai: Portrait of the girl blogger". BBC News. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Young Pakistani Journalist Inspires Fellow Students". Institute of War & Peace Reporting. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Jon Boone (9 October 2012). "Malala Yousafzai: Pakistan Taliban causes revulsion by shooting girl who spoke out". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Ali, Manzoor (12 October 2012). "Where it all started: 'A diary that highlighted Swat's human tragedy'". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
The name Gul Makai – a heroine of Pakhtun folktale – was chosen as an apt pseudonym meant to strike a chord with the local population so they could easily identify with Malala's blog, he added.
- Rose, H.A. (1911). A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. 1. p. 56. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
Yet another legend of Yusufzai origin is often recited by the Kurram Dums. It enshrines the lives of Musa Khan and Gulmakai, their quarrels and final reconciliation. It is very well known I believe on the Peshawar side, and has probably been already recorded.
- "Swat: Diary of a Pakistani schoolgirl (Malala Yousafzai) – BBC". original Urdu and English translation of Yousufzai's blog. LUBP. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
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- Malala Yousufzai. "(Part 10 of Yousfzai's blog)" (in Urdu). BBC Urdu. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "Capital Talk on Wednesday, August 19, 2009". Pakistan Herald. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
- "Young Journalist Inspires Fellow Students". Institute for War & Peace Reporting. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- van Gilder Cooke, Sonia (23 October 2012). "Pakistani Heroine: How Malala Yousafzai Emerged from Anonymity". Time. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Desmond Tutu announces nominees Children's Peace Prize 2011". The International Children's Peace Prize. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Michaela Mycroft winner of International Children's Peace Prize 2011". International Children's Peace Prize. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- "Malala in the House, plans to launch political party". Dawn. Pakistan. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Sumera Khan (20 December 2011). "National peace prize named after Malala Yousafzai". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Mehsud, Saud (10 October 2012). "Malala Yousufzai: Pakistani schoolgirl had defied threats from Taliban for years (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "'Radio Mullah' sent hit squad after Malala Yousafzai". The Express Tribune. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Asma Ali Zain (4 November 2012). "Malala will soon undergo reconstructive surgery". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Declan Walsh (12 October 2012). "Taliban Reiterate Vow to Kill Pakistani Girl". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Mushtaq Yusufza (9 October 2012). "Pakistani teen blogger shot by Taliban 'critical' after surgery". NBC News. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Robert Mackey; Adam B. Ellick (11 October 2012). "Pakistani Girl Airlifted to Military Hospital". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Nasir Habib; Reza Sayah (11 October 2012). "Official: Pakistani teen blogger's shooting a 'wake-up call' to 'clear ... danger'". CNN. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Malala to be shifted to Germany: Malik". Associated Press of Pakistan. 11 October 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Palash R. Ghosh (10 October 2012). "Malala Yousafzai: Family Refuses To Cower In Fear As Girl Remains In Critical Condition". International Business Times. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Palmer, Elizabeth (13 October 2012). "Indications of hope for shot Pakistani girl". CBS. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Walsh, Declan (15 October 2012). "Global Outpouring to Help Pakistani Schoolgirl/Girl Shot by Taliban Arrives in Britain for Treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
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- Bennett, Dashiell (17 October 2012). "Malala Yousufzai Comes Out of Her Coma". Atlantic Wire. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
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- "Girl shot by Taliban in stable condition after two operations to reconstruct skull and restore hearing". New York Post. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
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- Yusuf, Huma (16 November 2012). "Ghost Education". The New York Times.
- "Education is now compulsory for Pakistani children". NDTV.com. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Malala Yousafzai: Pakistan girl 'strong' – doctors". BBC News. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "UN chief strongly condemns 'heinous and cowardly' attack on Pakistani schoolgirl". UN News Service. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Pakistani teen still critical, Obama calls attack tragic". Yahoo News. Indo Asian News Service. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Malala Yousafzai: Reward offered for arrest of attackers". BBC News. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Teen girl Malala Yousafzai shot by Taliban has a 'good chance' of recovery". The Australian. Agence France-Presse. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Seth Abramovitch (11 October 2012). "Madonna Dedicates L.A. Performance to Child Activist Shot in Pakistan". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Madonna Strips For Malala Yousafzai, Dedicates Song To Young Pakistani Woman Shot By Taliban". The Huffington Post. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- Jolie, Angelina (16 October 2012). "Angelina Jolie: We All Are Malala". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
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- Bush, Laura (10 October 2012). "A girl's courage challenges us to act". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Indian director to make biopic on Malala Yousufzai". The Express Tribune. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Richard Leiby; Michele Langevine Leiby (10 October 2012). "Taliban says it shot Pakistani teen for advocating girls' rights". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Malala Yousafzai deserved to die, say Taliban". The Guardian. London. 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Jon Boone (12 October 2012). "Malala Yousafzai: 'fatwa' issued against gunmen". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Taliban threat worries Pakistan media". BBC. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Venky Vembu (15 October 2012). "How Pak jihadi minds justify attack on Malala: Perversely". firstpost.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "TTP labels Malala as 'an American spy'". The News. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Mackey, Robert (16 October 2012). "After a Bullet in the Head, Assaults on a Pakistani Schoolgirl's Character Follow". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Taqi, Mohammad (18 October 2012). "Malala and anti-Malala Pakistan". Daily Times. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Walsh, Declan (18 October 2012). "Pakistani Police Detain Family of Suspect in Attack on Girl". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Malala Inc: Global operation surrounds teenage activist". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "Malala Yousafzai: Taliban shooting victim flown to UK". BBC. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "A World at School". The Office of the UN Special Envoy for Global Education. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Pakistani Interior Minister: Taliban Gunman Who Shot 14-Year-Old Girl Identified". VOA News. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Arrests made in shooting of Pakistani schoolgirl Malala". CNN. 28 October 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
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- Zahir Shah; Greg Botelho (30 April 2015). "Pakistan: 10 sentenced to life in prison for attack on Malala Yousafzai". CNN.
- "Mullah Fazlullah hiding in Afghanistan: US officials". The Express Tribune. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "Malala Yousafzai's attackers arrested: ISPR". Pakistan Today. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- Dockterman, Eliana (12 September 2014). "Malala's Attackers Arrested in Pakistan". Time. Reuters. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Hughes, Chris. "Brave Malala's hitmen secretly FREED just weeks after their 25-year prison sentences". Daily Mirror. MGN Ltd. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "Pakistan court frees eight men charged with attack on schoolgirl Malala". Reuters. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- Emma Batha (23 July 2014). "Malala tells Girl Summit education is key to ending child marriage". Thompson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- "Malala Confronts Obama". CNN. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "Malala, une entreprise". Le Point. Agence France-Presse. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
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- "Freida Pinto speaks at girls' rights summit in UK". The Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. 22 July 2014. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014.
- "Malala Yousafzai gives $50,000 to reconstruction of Gaza schools". The Guardian. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Mackinnon, Mark (8 October 2013). "One year after being shot by the Taliban, Malala Yousafzai is a mighty machine". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
- "Shot Pakistan schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai addresses UN". BBC News. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
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- "The Education We Want" (PDF). United Nations Global Education First Initiative. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
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- Ghafour, Hamida (19 June 2013). "Malala Yousafzai: Backlash against Pakistani teen activist spreads in her homeland". Toronto Star. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
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- "A Look at the Top 10 Youngest Nobel Laureates". Yahoo!-ABC News Network. 10 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Cowell, Alan; Walshoct, Declan (10 October 2014). "Nobel Peace Prize for Malala Yousafzai and Kailash Satyarthi". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
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- "Malala Yousafzai: Mixed Reaction in Pakistan to Teenage Activists Nobel Prize Award". International Business Times. 11 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Walsh, Declan (10 October 2014). "Two Champions of Children Are Given Nobel Peace Prize". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Malala Yousafzai says Mexican protester's actions show 'There are problems in Mexico'". FOX News Latino. Associated Press. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Mendoza, Jessica (13 July 2015). "Malala Yousafzai urges global investment in 'books, not bullets'". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- Westall, Sylvia (13 July 2015). "Nobel winner Malala opens school for Syrian refugees". Reuters. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Formats and Editions of I am Malala". WorldCat. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
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- Yousafzai, Malala (2014). I Am Malala: How One Girl Stood Up for Education and Changed the World. Little, Brown Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0-316-32793-0.
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- "The Feminist Life: Malala Won't Use the F-Word".
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- "15 films in the Documentary Feature category will advance in the voting process for the 88th Academy Awards". Natalie Kojen. Oscar.org. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
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- Carbone, Nick (18 December 2012). "TIME Reveals Its Short List for Person of the Year 2012". Time. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
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|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Malala Yousafzai|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malala Yousafzai.|
- Official website
- Malala Yousafzai on Twitter
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Malala Yousafzai on IMDb
- Malala: Wars Never End Wars, DAWN, 2013 interview with audio clips of Yousafzai
- "Malala Yousafzai collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- "Malala Yousafzai collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Class Dismissed: Malala's Story, English-language documentary
- Profile: Malala Yousafzai, BBC News with links to related stories
- July 2013 United Nations speech in full (with 17 min Aljazeera video)