Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
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Lady Margaret Hall (LMH) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located on the banks of the River Cherwell at Norham Gardens in north Oxford and adjacent to the University Parks. The college is more formally known under its current royal charter as "The Principal and Fellows of the College of the Lady Margaret in the University of Oxford".
|Lady Margaret Hall|
|University of Oxford|
Blazon: Or, on a chevron between in chief two talbots passant and in base a bell azure a portcullis of the field.
|Full name||The College of the Lady Margaret in the University of Oxford|
|Latin name||Aula Dominae Margaretae|
|Motto||Souvent me Souviens (Old French)|
|Motto in English||I often remember|
|Founders||Lavinia and Edward Talbot|
|Named for||Lady Margaret Beaufort|
|Sister college||Newnham College, Cambridge|
|Endowment||£38.1 million (2018)|
The college was founded in 1878, closely collaborating with Somerville College. Both colleges opened their doors in 1879 as the first two women's colleges of Oxford. The college began admitting men in 1979. The college has just under 400 undergraduate students, around 200 postgraduate students and 24 visiting students. In 2016, the college became the only college in Oxford or Cambridge to offer a Foundation Year for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.
The college's colours are blue, yellow and white. The college uses a coat of arms which accompanies the college's motto "Souvent me Souviens", an Old French phrase meaning "I often remember" or "Think of me often", the motto of Lady Margaret Beaufort, for whom the college is named.
The current principal of the college is Alan Rusbridger. Notable students of Lady Margaret Hall include Benazir Bhutto, Michael Gove, Nigella Lawson, Josie Long, Ann Widdecombe and Malala Yousafzai.
In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford. Some of the more prominent members of the association were George Granville Bradley, Master of University College, T. H. Green, a prominent liberal philosopher and Fellow of Balliol College, and Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College. Talbot insisted on a specifically Anglican institution, which was unacceptable to most of the other members. The two parties eventually split, and Talbot's group founded Lady Margaret Hall, while T. H. Green founded Somerville College. Lady Margaret Hall opened its doors to its first nine students in 1879. The first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above a baker's shop on Little Clarendon Street.
The college was named after Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, patron of scholarship and learning. The first principal was Elizabeth Wordsworth, the great-niece of the poet William Wordsworth and daughter of Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln. The deeply religious attitudes of the founders and principal were a deliberate contrast with the non-denominational Somerville College which was founded shortly afterwards but despite the college's High Anglican origins, not all students were devout Christians.
Growth and developmentEdit
The land on which the college is built was formerly part of the manor of Norham which belonged to St John's College. The college bought the land from St John's in 1894, the other institution driving a hard bargain and requiring a development price not only on the practical building land but also on the undevelopable water meadows. However, this land purchase marked a change in ambition from occupying residential buildings for teaching purposes to erecting buildings befitting an educational institution.
In 1897, members of Lady Margaret Hall founded the Lady Margaret Hall Settlement, a charitable initiative, originally a place for graduates from the college to live in North Lambeth where they would work with and help develop opportunities for the poor. It continues to operate to this day.
Before 1920, the university refused to give degrees to women and would not acknowledge them as full members of the university. In 1920 the first women graduated from the college at the Sheldonian Theatre and the principal at the time, Henrietta Jex-Blake, was given an honorary degree.
During the Second World War women were not permitted to fight on the front line and thus many of the students and fellows took up other roles to aid in the war effort, becoming nurses, firefighters and ambulance drivers. The Fellows' Lawn was dug up and the students grew vegetables as part of the Dig for Victory campaign.
Members of the collegeEdit
In 1919 J. R.R. Tolkien started to give private tuition to students at Oxford, including members of students from LMH where his tuition was much needed given the limited resources and tutors the college had in its early years. Later his daughter, Priscilla Tolkien, attended the college, graduating in 1951.
In 2017 Malala Yousafzai, the youngest-ever Nobel Prize Peace laureate and Pakistani campaigner for girls' education, became a student of the college; she described the interview as "the hardest interview of [her] life", and received an offer of AAA in her A Levels. In the same year, prospective Chemistry student Brian White faced deportation at the hands of the Home Office, but was able to take up his place at the college. Also in 2017, alumnus Paul McClean, a 24-year-old Financial Times journalist who had reported on the scale of treaty renegotiation necessitated by Brexit, was killed by a crocodile while on holiday in Sri Lanka.
Lady Margaret Hall is the only Oxford college to offer a foundation year; the scheme recruits students from minority and underrepresented backgrounds with A level grades lower than Oxford entry requirements. Students choose a subject to specialise in, and also take courses in study skills and other general subject areas, with the aim that they progress to an undergraduate degree at the college after a year of study. Pupils live in the college and have access to the same university facilities, both academic and social, as other students.
Modelled after a programme at Trinity College, Dublin, the four-year pilot scheme began in 2016 with ten students, seven of whom went on to study at Oxford, with the other three receiving offers from different Russell Group universities. It was praised by David Lammy, a Labour MP who said the foundation year is "exactly the sort of thing that needs to be done", and by Les Ebdon, director of Office for Fair Access, who described the programme as "innovative and important".
Buildings and groundsEdit
The development of the college's buildings is perhaps best thought of as a zigzag beginning in the 1870s at the end of Norham Gardens and making its way down towards the River Cherwell and then running back towards Norham Gardens forming quadrangles on the return journey. The following account of the buildings moves through the college as these spaces emerge for a visitor entering the college at the Porters' Lodge and walking to the river - because of the way the college developed the dates and styles of the buildings enclosing the quadrangles are not all of a piece.
The Leatare quadrangle was completed in March 2017 and includes both the college's newest and oldest buildings. The main entrance consists of the front gates flanked by classical columns along with the porters' lodge (2017). On the North West side the Donald Fothergill Building (2017) contains student accommodation while the Clore Graduate Centre (2017) extends further out to the South East towards the University Parks.
The college's oldest buildings are along the South East side of the Leatare Quadrangle. The college's original house, a white brick gothic villa, is now known as Old Old Hall, while the adjoining red brick extension designed by Basil Champneys is known as New Old Hall (1884). Old Old Hall originally housed the college chapel until the construction of the Deneke building.
Opposite the entrance is the imposing Wolfson West (1964) which was previously the entrance to the college.
Old Old Hall, which had been built as a speculative development on land leased from St John's College, was described as an "ugly little white villa" by the college's founder, Bishop Talbot in his 1923 history of the college. On several occasions in the twentieth century consideration was given to demolishing the earliest buildings of the college, but the temptation was resisted.
The only remaining visible evidence of the road which used to run alongside Old Old Hall and past the steps of Talbot Hall are the two large linden trees, which used to line the pavement before the road was removed to allow expansion of the college. The two smaller trees were planted during construction of the quadrangle. The recent expansion designed by John Simpson Architects was modelled after the Porta Maggiore in Rome, in conjunction with the simple façade of the Wolfson West building.
The architect of the main early college buildings, including Lodge, Talbot and Wordsworth, was Sir Reginald Blomfield, who had earlier worked on other educational commissions such as Shrewsbury School, and Exeter College, Oxford. He used the French Renaissance style of the 17th century for the buildings and chose red brick with white stone facings, setting a tone the college was to continue to follow in later work. These buildings describe the south and east of the Wolfson Quadrangle and run out into the gardens to the east.
Blomfield was also involved in establishing and planning the gardens.
The central block, the Talbot Building (1910) on the North East of the main quad houses Talbot Hall and the Old Library (currently a reception and lecture room), while the accommodation for students and tutors is divided between three wings, the Wordsworth Building (1896), the Toynbee Building (1915) and the Lodge Building (1926).
Talbot Hall contains some fine oak panelling donated by former students to honour Elizabeth Wordsworth and, prior to the Deneke building, was used as a dining hall for the students. In recent years, it is used to house termly live music nights among other college events.
The portraits in the Hall include the work of notable artists; among the portraits of principals are:
- Sir J. J. Shannon's portrait of Dame Elizabeth,
- Philip de Laszlo's of Miss Jex-Blake,
- Sir Rodrigo Moynihan's of Dr Grier
- Maud Sumner's of Miss Sutherland.
In the old Library is a fine marble statue by Edith Bateson.
On the North West is Lynda Grier (1962) housing the college library; this was official opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1961. The ground floor of Lynda Grier was originally student accommodation but in 2006 it was converted into a law library, which was opened that year by Cherie Blair. The library was of great importance when founded as women were not permitted to use the Bodleian Library and thus is relatively large for an Oxford college. The Briggs room originally contained the entire archive of rare and antiquarian books donated to the college over the years. However, due to its size of around 2,000 books, the archive is now stored in the Lawrence Lacerte Rare Books Room in the new Law Library extension on the ground floor. The collection includes a Quran created circa 1600 and a Latin translation of Galileo's Dialogo from 1663.
Lynda Grier and Wolfson West were designed by Raymond Erith.
In recent years the Wolfson Quadrangle, in contrast to many Oxbridge quadrangles, has been planted with wild flowers instead of an intensively managed, striped quadrangle lawn.
Named after former principal, Dame Frances Lannon, the quadrangle consists of the Sutherland Building (1971) and the Pipe Partridge Building (2010). Behind this is Sutherland's sister building, Kathleen Lee (1972) which houses the JCR.
The first phase of the recent plan to expand the college, the Pipe Partridge Building, was completed in early 2010 and was opened by the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Lord Patten of Barnes, in April 2010.
Chapel and DenekeEdit
To the north-east extends the large Deneke block (1932) along with the hall and the college's Byzantine-style chapel where the choir practises and carol services are held in Michaelmas term. These were designed by Giles Gilbert Scott. The chapel has simple decoration with several paintings on the walls, and a statue of Margaret Beaufort which lies in the central section of the chapel. The passageway which leads to the chapel is referred to within the college as "Hell's Passage". The name was derived from the 19th century illustrations of Dante's Inferno, by John D. Batten, which used to decorate its walls.
Gardens and groundsEdit
Lady Margaret Hall is one of the few Oxford colleges which backs onto the River Cherwell. It is set in spacious grounds (about 12 acres (49,000 m2)).The grounds include a set of playing fields, netball and tennis courts, a punt house, topiary, and large herbaceous planting schemes along with vegetable borders. There is a Fellows' Garden - hidden from view by tall hedgerows - and a Fellows' Lawn, on which walking is forbidden.
The Junior Common Room (JCR) is a physical room as well as being the association of the undergraduate members of the college. It represents its members to the college authorities and facilitates activities, budgets as well as clubs and societies.
Graduate students have similar support from that for the JCR in the Middle Common Room (MCR).
The Senior Common Room (SCR) performs similar functions for the dons.
Accommodation is always provided for undergraduates for 3 years of their study, and provided for some graduates. The accommodation is found throughout college with a ballot system giving first choice of room to the students of higher years. The Deneke building contains exclusively accommodation for first year undergraduates and students visiting from other universities.
As well as rooms for accommodation, the buildings of Lady Margaret Hall include a chapel, a hall, a library, a bar, a lecture theatre, a gym and common rooms. Most undergraduate tutorials are carried out in the college, though for some specialist subjects undergraduates may be sent to tutors in other colleges.
Given the River Cherwell running past the bottom of LMH's grounds, the students have always had a strong history of spending time by or on the river with the first boat, Lady Maggie, purchased in 1885. The punt house, by tradition, opens on May Day.
In addition to university-wide societies, students at Lady Margaret Hall can also join societies specific to the college The college has a gym, found near the entrance by Pipe Partridge.
The college is affiliated with the pub -The Rose and Crown. The rugby and football teams are both sponsored by the Rose and Crown and photos of the teams are found on the walls of the back room.
LMH's rowing club, Lady Margaret Hall Boat Club (LMHBC) is the largest sports club within the college. In recent years, the club has won blades in OURCs events multiple times. The club has a boat house shared with Trinity College on Boat House Island by Christ Church Meadows, along with a purpose built erg shed, constructed to aid in training.
The Men's 1st VIII have raced in the Temple Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta on several occasions. On multiple years including 2018 and 2019, members of the club have rowed in The Boat Race, an annual competition between Oxford and Cambridge.
The college's boat club has, like other UK Rowing Clubs, distinctive blazers which can be awarded by the club to members who attain membership of certain VIIIs or race with distinction in Summer Eights or Torpids. These blazers have blue and yellow trim and a blue Beaufort portcullis on them, which is the emblem of the boat club and increasingly other sports clubs.
Rowing blades commemorating success in the intercollegiate rowing competitions decorate the walls of the bar.
The college football ground is situated adjacent to Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies and is shared with St Catherine's College and Trinity College. There are three men's football teams as well as a joint LMH-Trinity women's team.
The other sports the college has teams for, which represent the institution in internal Oxford University competitions, often called 'Cuppers' are:
In light of its history, the hall has a collection of portraits of early/distinguished women academics. Early Principals Lynda Grier, Dame Lucy Sutherland and Sally Chilver, along with other members of the college, were keen collectors of contemporary art and bequeathed many of these works to the College.
The college's art collection includes works by:
Coat of armsEdit
The college's coat of arms features devices that recall those associated with its foundation:
- The portcullis is from the arms of Lady Margaret Beaufort
- The bell is a symbol of the Wordsworth family.
- The Talbot dogs represent Edward Talbot
The original coat of arms consisted of three daisies intertwined and bore the motto - "Ex solo ad solem" meaning "From the earth to the sun" and can be seen to adorn Talbot hall, and the Wordsworth and Toynbee buildings. The previous crest gave its name to one of the early college student publications from the 1890s - The Daisy.
After the 50th anniversary of the college, the crest was replaced, now encompassing features which represent the history and founding of the college.
In the 20th century, the yearly Deneke talks were held in memory of Philip Maurice Deneke who died in 1924. Lectures in this series included "Goethe on nature and science" in 1942 by Nobel laureate Charles Scott Sherrington and in 1933, Albert Einstein who gave the talk "Einiges zur atomistic", concluding the address as follows: "The deeper we search, the more we find there is to know, and as long as humanity exists I believe it will always be so." Margaret Deneke, daughter of Philip, wrote of the talk in her memoirs:
The Deneke Lecture was packed and many of our friends failed to get seats. Sir Charles Sherrington took the Chair. Whilst Dr. Einstein was speaking and using his blackboard I thought I understood his arguments. When someone at the end begged me to explain points I could reproduce nothing. It had been the Professor’s magnetism that held my attention.— ‘ What I Remember’ Vol.2, pg.26, Ref: MPP 3 A 2/2
In recent years, the series "In Conversation with Alan Rusbridger", has held interviews in the Simpkins Lee theatre with figures such as Philip Pullman, Gary Lineker and visiting fellow, Benedict Cumberbatch.
Culture and traditionsEdit
The grounds, along with those of Trinity College, Oxford, were the basis for Fleet College in the American author Charles Finch's novel set in Oxford University, The Last Enchantments. A thinly disguised version of the college appeared as "Lady Matilda's College" in an episode of Lewis. Portions of the episode were filmed within the hall. There is a circular wooden bench dedicated to Iris Murdoch in the college gardens where she used to go walking.
Students may not walk on the quadrangles or Fellows' lawn, however there is a custom of permitting them to do so on completion of their final examinations.
The college's candlelit Formal Hall is held every Friday of term.
Lady Margaret Hall is one of nine Oxford colleges to use the 'two-word' Latin grace, this grace is also used by five colleges at the University of Cambridge. The person presiding at High Table says the grace in two parts at formal meals. The first half of the grace, the ante cibum, is said before the meal starts and the second, the post cibum, once the meal's conclusion. It is as follows:
Benedictus benedicat - "May the Blessed One give a blessing"
Benedicto benedicatur - "Let praise be given to the Blessed One" or "Let a blessing be given by the Blessed One"
In contrast to some other colleges, gowns are not worn to formal hall but are at special occasions such as the Scholars' dinner.
It was one of the 'Modified Hall' class and it was in service in the South East until December 1963.
Poet in ResidenceEdit
The college has a poet in residence.
Notable fellows and academicsEdit
Notable fellows of the college include:
- Dame Lucy Stuart Sutherland
- Ewan McKendrick
- David McDonald
- Alan Rusbridger
- Dame Elizabeth Wordsworth
- Dame Francis Lannon
- Baroness Manningham-Buller
- Robert Stevens
- Guy Stroumsa
- Rhoda Sutherland
- Claudio Sillero-Zubiri
- Barbara Hammond
The college has a number of Visiting Fellows. Holders of this non-salaried role are drawn from a variety of backgrounds, callings and professions. These fellowships are for three years and have included:
- Emma Watson
- Benedict Cumberbatch
- Malorie Blackman
- Cornelia Parker
- Francis Habgood
- Sir Rabinder Singh QC
- Mark Simpson
- Jennifer Rohn
- Henry Marsh
- Neil Tennant
- Beeban Kidron
The fellowships are intended to form a bridge between the academic community and the worlds they inhabit.
Nigella Lawson, journalist and food writer
Michael Gove, politician
Ann Widdecombe, politician
Malala Yousafzai, female education activist
Gertrude Bell, traveller
Alumni of the college (who are termed Senior Members) include:
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