Sakharov Prize

The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, is an honorary award for individuals or groups who have dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedom of thought.[1] Named after Russian scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, the prize was established in December 1988 by the European Parliament.[1]

Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought
Remise du Prix Sakharov à Aung San Suu Kyi Strasbourg 22 octobre 2013-21.jpg
The awarding ceremony of the 1990 prize awarded to Aung San Suu Kyi inside the Parliament's Strasbourg hemicycle, in 2013
Presented byEuropean Parliament
Reward(s)€50,000
First awardedDecember 1988; 33 years ago (1988-12)
Currently held byAlexei Navalny
WebsiteOfficial website

A shortlist of nominees is drawn up annually by the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs and Committee on Development. The MEPs who make up those committees then select a shortlist in September.[2] Thereafter, the final choice is given to The European Parliament's Conference of Presidents (President and political group's leaders) and the laureate's name is announced late in October. The prize is awarded in a ceremony at the Parliament's Strasbourg hemicycle (round chamber) in December.[3][2] The prize includes a monetary award of €50,000.[3]

The first prize was awarded jointly to South African Nelson Mandela and Russian Anatoly Marchenko. The 1990 award was given to Aung San Suu Kyi, but she could not receive it until 2013 as a result of her political imprisonment in Burma.[4] The prize has also been awarded to organisations, the first being the Argentine Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in 1992. Five Sakharov laureates were subsequently awarded the Nobel Peace Prize: Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, Malala Yousafzai, Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad.[5]

Razan Zaitouneh (2011) was kidnapped in 2013 and is still missing.[6] Nasrin Sotoudeh (2012) was released from prison in September 2013,[7] but is still barred from leaving Iran, along with fellow 2012 laureate Jafar Panahi.[8] The 2017 prize was awarded to the Democratic Opposition in Venezuela, under boycott of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left.[9][10]

LaureatesEdit

Key
  Indicates a posthumous award
Year Image Recipient Nationality Notes Reference
1988   Nelson Mandela   South Africa Anti-apartheid activist and later President of South Africa [11]
  Anatoly Marchenko     Soviet Union Soviet dissident, author and human rights activist [12]
1989   Alexander Dubček   Czechoslovakia Slovak politician, attempted to reform the communist regime during the Prague Spring [11]
1990   Aung San Suu Kyi   Burma At the time she received the award, Suu Kyi was an opposition politician and a former General Secretary of the National League for Democracy, known for her peaceful struggle against military rule in Myanmar. She personally accepted the award in 2013, after she was released from 15 years of house arrest. In 2020, the Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament formally suspended Suu Kyi from the Sakharov Prize Community due to her role in the atrocities against the Rohingya people, but did not revoke the prize itself. [13][14][15][16]
1991
-
Adem Demaçi   Yugoslavia Kosovo Albanian Politician and long-term political prisoner [11]
1992   Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo   Argentina Association of Argentine mothers whose children disappeared during the Dirty War [13]
1993   Oslobođenje   Bosnia and Herzegovina Popular newspaper that defended Bosnia and Herzegovina as a multi-ethnic state [13]
1994   Taslima Nasrin   Bangladesh Ex-doctor, feminist author [13]
1995   Leyla Zana   Turkey Politician of Kurdish descent from Southeastern Turkey, who was imprisoned for 15 years for being member of PKK [11]
1996   Wei Jingsheng   China An activist in the Chinese democracy movement [13]
1997   Salima Ghezali   Algeria Journalist and writer, an activist of women's rights, human rights and democracy in Algeria [13]
1998   Ibrahim Rugova   FR Yugoslavia Kosovo Albanian politician, the first President of Kosovo [11]
1999   Xanana Gusmão   East Timor Former militant who was the first President of East Timor [17]
2000
-
¡Basta Ya!   Spain Organisation uniting individuals of various political positions against terrorism [18]
2001   Nurit Peled-Elhanan   Israel Peace activist [11]
-
Izzat Ghazzawi   Palestine Writer, professor
  Dom Zacarias Kamwenho   Angola Archbishop and peace activist
2002
-
Oswaldo Payá   Cuba Political activist and dissident [19]
2003   Kofi Annan   Ghana Nobel Peace Prize recipient and seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations [11]
  United Nations N/A (International)
2004
-
Belarusian Association of Journalists   Belarus Non-governmental organisation "aiming to ensure freedom of speech and rights of receiving and distributing information and promoting professional standards of journalism" [20]
2005   Ladies in White   Cuba Opposition movement, relatives of jailed dissidents [21]
  Reporters Without Borders N/A (International) France-based non-governmental organisation advocating freedom of the press [21]
  Hauwa Ibrahim   Nigeria Human rights lawyer [21]
2006   Alaksandar Milinkievič   Belarus Politician chosen by United Democratic Forces of Belarus as the joint candidate of the opposition in the presidential elections of 2006 [22]
2007   Salih Mahmoud Osman   Sudan Human rights lawyer [13]
2008   Hu Jia   China Activist and dissident [23]
2009   Memorial   Russia International civil rights and historical society [24]
2010   Guillermo Fariñas   Cuba Doctor, journalist and political dissident [25]
2011[a]   Asmaa Mahfouz   Egypt Five representatives of the Arab people, in recognition and support of their drive for freedom and human rights [26]
  Ahmed al-Senussi   Libya
  Razan Zaitouneh   Syria
  Ali Farzat
-
Mohamed Bouazizi     Tunisia
2012   Jafar Panahi   Iran Iranian activists, Sotoudeh is a lawyer and Panahi is a film director. [27][28]
  Nasrin Sotoudeh
2013   Malala Yousafzai   Pakistan Campaigner for women's rights and education [29]
2014   Denis Mukwege   Democratic Republic of the Congo Gynecologist treating victims of gang rape [30]
2015   Raif Badawi   Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian writer and activist and the creator of the website Free Saudi Liberals [31][b]
2016   Nadia Murad   Iraq Yazidi human rights activists and former abductees of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant [32]
  Lamiya Aji Bashar
2017   Democratic opposition in Venezuela   Venezuela Members of the country's National Assembly and all political prisoners as listed by Foro Penal Venezolano represented by Leopoldo López, Julio Borges, Antonio Ledezma, Daniel Ceballos [es], Yon Goicoechea, Lorent Saleh, Alfredo Ramos [es] and Andrea González. The award was seen as rewarding the "courage of student activists and protesters in face of repression by Nicolas Maduro's government"[33] and boycotted by the European United Left–Nordic Green Left parliamentary group.[10] [34]
2018   Oleg Sentsov   Ukraine Film director, symbol of the struggle for the release of political prisoners held in Russia and around the world [35]
2019   Ilham Tohti   China Uyghur economist, scholar and human rights activist [36]
2020   Democratic opposition in Belarus   Belarus Coordination Council, initiative of campaigning women and political and civil society figures [37][c][d]
2021   Alexei Navalny   Russia Opposition politician and anti-corruption activist [39]

Table notesEdit

  1. ^ The laureates were advocates of the Arab Spring
  2. ^ Badawi founded and ran two online forums for discussions on religion and politics in his conservative country, namely Saudi Liberals and Free Saudi Liberals
  3. ^ One of them is Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the human rights activist and politician who participated in the 2020 Belarusian presidential election as the main opposition candidate
  4. ^ Due to infection control measures taken because of the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of events related to the Sakharov Community were postponed in 2020, including the Sakharov Fellowship, One World in Brussels and the European Youth Event.[38]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "1986: Sakharov comes in from the cold". BBC News. 23 December 1986. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Sakharov Prize 2018: three finalists selected", News—European Parliament, 10 September 2018 Archived 10 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b "Sakharov Prize". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  4. ^ Cook, Annabel (22 October 2013). "Aung San Suu Kyi collects Sakharov prize 23 years on". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. ^ Boshnaq, Mona; Chan, Sewell; Dremeaux, Lillie; Karasz, Palko; Kruhly, Madeleine (6 October 2017). "Nobel Peace Prize Winners Throughout History". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017.
  6. ^ "Razan Zaitouneh". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  7. ^ "Nasrin Sotoudeh". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Jafar Panahi". Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  9. ^ Schreuer, Milan (26 October 2017). "Venezuelan Opposition Receives E.U.'s Sakharov Freedom Prize". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Left to boycott politicised Sakharov Prize ceremony – GUE/NGL – Another Europe is possible". www.guengl.eu. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "20 years of the Sakharov Prize: Human rights and reconciliation". European Parliament. 28 October 2008. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  12. ^ "Sakharov Prize at 20: For democracy - against oppression". European Parliament. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "Sakharov Network calls for immediate release of Aung San Suu Kyi, Sakharov Prize laureate 1990". Reporters Without Borders. 15 May 2009. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  14. ^ Merlin Sugue, EU Parliament suspends Aung San Suu Kyi from Sakharov Prize Community Archived 9 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Politico (10 September 2020).
  15. ^ Press release, Aung San Suu Kyi suspended from the Sakharov Prize Community Archived 18 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine, European Parliament (10 September 2020).
  16. ^ Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyi suspended from rights prize community Archived 9 July 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Deutsche Welle (10 September 2020).
  17. ^ "Gusmão receives EU Sakharov prize". BBC News. 15 December 1999. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  18. ^ "Basque group wins peace prize". BBC News. 26 October 2000. Archived from the original on 1 April 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  19. ^ "Cuban dissident collects EU prize". BBC News. 17 December 2002. Archived from the original on 7 May 2004. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  20. ^ "The Belarusian Association of Journalists – 2004, Belarus". European Parliament. 9 November 2004. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  21. ^ a b c Gibbs, Stephen (14 December 2005). "Cuba 'bars women from prize trip'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 November 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  22. ^ "Belarussian takes EU rights award". BBC News. 26 October 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  23. ^ "China dissident wins rights prize". BBC News. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  24. ^ "Russia rights group wins EU prize". BBC News. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  25. ^ "Cuba dissident Farinas awarded Sakharov Prize by EU". BBC News. 21 October 2010. Archived from the original on 22 October 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  26. ^ "Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought 2011". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 23 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  27. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (26 October 2012). "Nasrin Sotoudeh and director Jafar Panahi share top human rights prize". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  28. ^ "Nasrin Sotoudeh and Jafar Panahi – winners of the 2012 Sakharov Prize" (PDF). European Parliament. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  29. ^ Jordan, Carol (10 October 2013). "Malala wins Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  30. ^ "DR Congo doctor Denis Mukwege wins Sakharov prize". BBC News. 21 October 2014. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  31. ^ "Raif Badawi wins Sakharov human rights prize". The Guardian. Brussels. Associated Press in. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  32. ^ "Sakharov prize: Yazidi women win EU freedom prize". BBC News. 27 October 2016. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  33. ^ "Venezuela's opposition awarded Sakharov Prize for championing human rights". The Independent. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  34. ^ "Parliament awards Sakharov Prize 2017 to Democratic Opposition in Venezuela". European Parliament. 26 October 2017. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  35. ^ "Sakharov Prize 2018 goes to Oleg Sentsov". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  36. ^ "Ilham Tohti awarded the 2019 Sakharov Prize". European Parliament. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 December 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  37. ^ "The 2020 Sakharov Prize awarded to the democratic opposition in Belarus". europarl.europa.eu. 22 October 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  38. ^ "Sakharov Prize Community Newsletter No. 3" (PDF). European Parliament. 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  39. ^ "Alexei Navalny awarded the European Parliament's 2021 Sakharov Prize". europarl.europa.eu. 20 October 2021. Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.

External linksEdit