This article needs to be updated.May 2019)(
The 2016 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar occurred in late 2016 when Myanmar's armed forces and police started a major crackdown on Rohingya people in Rakhine State in the country's northwestern region. The Burmese military have been accused of ethnic cleansing and genocide by various United Nations agencies, International Criminal Court officials, human rights groups, journalists, and governments including the United States. The UN has found evidence of wide-scale human rights violations, including extrajudicial killings; gang rapes; arson of Rohingya villages, businesses, and schools; and infanticides, which the Burmese government dismisses as "exaggerations".
Location of Rakhine State in Myanmar
|Date||9 October 2016– January 2017|
|Location||Rakhine State, Myanmar|
|Theme||Military crackdown on Rohingya Muslims by Myanmar's armed forces and police|
|Motive||Anti-Rohingya sentiment, Islamophobia|
|Publication bans||Media access in northern Rakhine State heavily restricted by the Burmese government.|
|Date||25 August 2017– present|
|Location||Northern Rakhine State, Myanmar|
|Type||Genocide, ethnic and religious persecution|
|Theme||Military crackdown by Myanmar's army and police on Rohingya Muslims|
|Motive||Anti-Hindu sentiment, Anti-Rohingya sentiment, Islamophobia, Racism|
|Publication bans||Media access in northern Rakhine State heavily restricted by the Myanmar government.|
The Rohingya genocide is a series of ongoing persecutions by the Myanmar government against the Muslim Rohingya people which consists of two phases, the first that began in October 2016 and ended in January 2017 and the second phase which began in August 2017 and is ongoing as of November 2019. The crisis has forced over a million Rohingyas to flee to neighboring countries, most of whom have fled to Bangladesh with others going to India, Thailand, Malaysia and other parts of South and Southeast Asia. The largest wave of Rohingyas to flee Myanmar occurred in 2017 and resulted in the largest human exodus in Asia since the Vietnam War. The 2016 military crackdown on the Rohingya people has drawn criticism from the UN (which cited possible "crimes against humanity"), the human rights group Amnesty International, the U.S. Department of State, the government of neighboring Bangladesh, and the government of Malaysia (where many Rohingya refugees have fled). The Myanmar leader and State Counsellor (de facto head of government) and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi has particularly been criticized for her inaction and silence over the issue and for doing little to prevent military abuses.
The 2017–present Rohingya genocide began on 25 August 2017 when the Myanmar military forces and local Buddhist extremists started attacking the Rohingya people and committing atrocities against them in the country's north-west Rakhine state. The atrocities included attacks on Rohingya people and locations, looting and burning down Rohingya villages and shops, mass killing of Rohingya civilians, gang rapes, and other sexual violence.
Using statistical extrapolations based on surveys conducted with a total of 3,321 Rohingya refugee households in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, a study estimated in January 2018 that during the genocide, the military and the local Rakhine Buddhists killed at least 24,000 Rohingya people, gang rapes and other forms of sexual violence against 18,000 Rohingya Muslim women and girls, 116,000 Rohingya were beaten, and 36,000 Rohingya were thrown into fire.
The military drive also displaced a large number of Rohingya people, spurring a refugee crisis. According to UN reports, as of September 2018[update], over 700,000 Rohingya people had fled or had been driven out of Rakhine state who then took shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh as refugees. In December 2017, two Reuters journalists who had been covering the Inn Din massacre event were arrested and imprisoned. Foreign Secretary Myint Thu told reporters Myanmar is prepared to accept 2,000 Rohingya refugees from camps in Bangladesh in November 2018.
The 2017 persecution against the Rohingya Muslims and non-Muslims has also been termed as ethnic cleansing and genocide by various UN agencies, ICC officials, human rights groups, and governments. British Prime Minister Theresa May and former United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called it "ethnic cleansing" while the French President Emmanuel Macron described the situation as "genocide".
The UN described the persecution as "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing". In late September that year, a seven-member panel of the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal found the Myanmar military and the Myanmar authority guilty of the crime of genocide against the Rohingya and the Kachin minority groups. Suu Kyi was again criticized for her silence over the issue and for supporting the military actions.
Subsequently, in November 2017, the governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar signed a deal to facilitate the return of Rohingya refugees to their native Rakhine state within two months, drawing a mixed response from international onlookers.
In August 2018, the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, reporting the findings of their investigation into the August–September 2017 events, declared that the Myanmar military generals should be tried for genocide.  On 24 September 2018, Jeremy Hunt, the British Foreign Secretary, held a meeting with some other foreign ministers on the sideline of the United Nations General Assembly to discuss the crisis in Rohingya.
- 1 General background
- 2 Crackdown
- 3 Criticism
- 4 Spillover into the 2017–present genocide
- 5 Persecution and crackdown
- 6 Refugee crisis
- 7 Criticism
- 8 Reactions from other countries
- 9 Reactions from supranational bodies
- 10 See also
- 11 References
The Rohingya people have been described as "amongst the world's least wanted" and "one of the world's most persecuted minorities" by the UN. The Rohingya are deprived of the right to free movement and of higher education. They have officially been denied Burmese citizenship since 1982 when the Burmese nationality law was enacted. However their persecution and marginalisation pre-dates this, the act effectively formalised the legal discrimination, including removal of all essential services and support. They are not allowed to travel without official permission and were previously required to sign a commitment not to have more than two children, though the law was not strictly enforced. They are subjected to routine forced labor where typically a Rohingya man will have to give up one day a week to work on military or government projects and one night for sentry duty. The Rohingya have also lost a lot of arable land, which has been confiscated by the military to give to Buddhist settlers from elsewhere in Myanmar.
Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia, bounded by the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and India to the west, and China, Laos and Thailand to the east. Democracy only recently emerged in Myanmar by arrangement with the military, who permitted a free election on 8 November 2015, which elevated Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi to power after years of house arrest.
The western coastal province of Rakhine State, is made up of the predominantly Buddhist Rakhine (4%, about 2 million people) and the predominantly Muslim Rohingya (2%, about 1 million people). Tensions between Buddhist and Muslim communities have also led to violence in Rakhine State, with nationalist Buddhists often targeting Rohingyas. The Rohingya are a distinct ethnicity with their own language and culture, but claim a long historical connection to Rakhine State.
The Rohingya describe themselves as descendants of Arab traders who settled in the region many generations ago. Scholars have stated that they have been present in the region since the 15th century. However, they have been denied citizenship by the government of Myanmar, which describes them as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.
Leading up to the 2016 persecutionsEdit
In modern times, persecution of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar dates back to the 1970s. Since then, Rohingya people have regularly been made the target of persecution by the government and nationalist Buddhists. The tension between the various religious groups in the country was often exploited by the past military rulers of Myanmar. According to Amnesty International, the Rohingya have suffered from human rights violations under past military dictatorships since 1978, and many have fled to neighboring Bangladesh as a result. In 2005, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees had assisted with the repatriation of Rohingyas from Bangladesh, but allegations of human rights abuses in the refugee camps threatened this effort. In 2015, 140,000 Rohingyas remain in IDP camps after communal riots in 2012.
As early as 2015, the Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic at Yale Law School found "strong evidence that genocide is being committed against Rohingya." After eight months of analyzing whether the persecution of the Rohingya in Rakhine State satisfy the criteria for genocide, the study found that Burmese government with the help of extremist Buddhist monks were responsible for ethnic cleansing and genocide against the Rohingya.
The situation in Rakhine State is grim, in part due to a mix of long-term historical tensions between the Rakhine and Rohingya communities, socio-political conflict, socio-economic underdevelopment, and a long-standing marginalization of both Rakhine and Rohingya by the Government of Burma. The World Bank estimates Rakhine State has the highest poverty rate in Burma (78 percent) and is the poorest state in the country. The lack of investment by the central government has resulted in poor infrastructure and inferior social services, while lack of rule of law has led to inadequate security conditions.
Members of the Rohingya community in particular reportedly face abuses by the Government of Burma, including those involving torture, unlawful arrest and detention, restricted movement, restrictions on religious practice, and discrimination in employment and access to social services. In 2012, intercommunal conflict led to the death of nearly 200 Rohingya and the displacement of 140,000 people. Throughout 2013–2015 isolated incidents of violence against Rohingya individuals continued to take place.
Initial border incidentsEdit
According to Myanmar state reports, on 9 October 2016, armed individuals attacked several border police posts in Rakhine State, leaving nine police personnel dead. Weapons and ammunitions were also looted. The attack took place mainly in Maungdaw Township. A newly formed insurgent group, Harakah al-Yaqin, claimed responsibility a week later.
Following the police camp incidents, the Myanmar military began a major crackdown in the villages of northern Rakhine state. In the initial operation, dozens of people were killed and many were arrested. As the crackdown continued, the casualties increased. Arbitrary arrest, extrajudicial killings, gang rapes, brutalities against civilians, and looting were carried out. According to media reports, hundreds of Rohingya people had been killed by December 2016, and many had fled Myanmar as refugees to take shelter in the nearby areas of Bangladesh.
In late November, Human Rights Watch released satellite images which showed that about 1,250 Rohingya houses in five villages had been burned down by the security forces. The media and the human rights groups frequently reported intense human rights violations by the Myanmar military. During one incident in November, the Myanmar military used helicopter gunships to shoot and kill the villagers. As of November 2016, Myanmar had yet to allow the media and human rights groups to enter the persecuted areas. Consequently, the exact figures of civilian casualties remained unknown. The Rakhine State was termed an "information black hole".
Those who fled Myanmar to escape persecution reported that women had been gang raped, men killed, houses torched, and young children thrown into burning houses. The boats carrying Rohingya refugees on Naf River were often gunned down by the Myanmar military.
On 3 February 2017, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) released a report based on interviews with more than 200 Rohingya refugees, which said that the abuses included gang-rape, mass killing, and killing children. Nearly half of the interviewees stated that family members of theirs had been killed. Half of the women interviewed stated that they had been raped or sexually assaulted: the report described the sexual violence as "massive and systematic". The army and police were stated to have burned "homes, schools, markets, shops, and mosques" belonging to or used by the Rohingya people.
In March 2017, a police document obtained by Reuters listed 423 Rohingyas detained by the police since 9 October 2016, 13 of whom were children, the youngest being ten years old. Two police captains in Maungdaw verified the document and justified the arrests, with one of them saying, "We the police have to arrest those who collaborated with the attackers, children or not, but the court will decide if they are guilty; we are not the ones who decide." Myanmar police also claimed that the children had confessed to their alleged crimes during interrogations, and that they were not beaten or pressured during questioning. The average age of those detained is 34, the youngest is 10, and the oldest is 75.
On 24 October 2018, Marzuki Darusman chairman of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar reported some examples of atrocities committed by Myanmar Security forces against Rohingya Muslims. This Independent International Fact-Finding Mission was established in 2017, by the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva.
The military crackdown on Rohingya people drew criticism from various quarters. Human rights group Amnesty International and organizations such as the United Nations have labeled the military crackdown on the Rohingya minority as crimes against humanity and have said that the military had made the civilians a target of "a systematic campaign of violence".
Aung San Suu Kyi has been criticized in particular for her silence and lack of action over the issue, as well as for failing to prevent human rights abuses by the military. She stated in response: "show me a country without human rights issues." The former head of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, after a week-long visit in the Rakhine state, expressed deep concern about reports of human rights violations in the area. He was leading a nine-member commission which was formed in August 2016 to look into and make recommendations on improving the situation in the state.
The U.S. Department of State has also expressed concern about the violence in Rakhine State and the displacement of Rohingyas. The government of Malaysia has condemned the crackdown in Rakhine State, with ongoing protests in the country. In a protest rally in early December, Malaysia's prime minister Najib Razak criticized the Myanmar authority for military crackdown on Rohingya Muslims, and described the ongoing persecution as "genocide". Earlier, terming the violence against Rohingya Muslim minority as "ethnic cleansing", Malaysia stated the situation was of international concern. Malaysia also cancelled two football matches with Myanmar in protest of the crackdown.
In November 2016, a senior United Nations official, John McKissick, accused Myanmar of conducting ethnic cleansing in the Rakhine state to free it from the Muslim minority. McKissick is the head of a UN refugee agency based in the Bangladeshi town Cox's Bazar. Later that month, Bangladesh summoned the Myanmar envoy in its country to express "tremendous concern" over the Rohingya persecution.
In December 2016, the United Nations strongly criticized the Myanmar government for its poor treatment of the Rohingya people, and called its approach "callous". The United Nations also called on Aung San Suu Kyi to take steps to stop violence against the Rohingyas. In its report released in February 2017, the UN stated that the persecution of the Rohingya had included serious human rights violations. The UN Human Rights Commissioner Zeid Raad Al Hussein stated "The cruelty to which these Rohingya children have been subjected is unbearable – what kind of hatred could make a man stab a baby crying out for his mother's milk?" A spokesperson of the government stated that the allegations were very serious, and would be investigated.
On 23 May 2017, a report released by the military rejected the allegations made by the OHCHR in February, stating that, "Out of 18 accusations included in the OHCHR report, 12 were found to be incorrect, with the remaining six accusations found to be false and fabricated accusations based on lies and invented statements."
Spillover into the 2017–present genocideEdit
In January 2017, at least four police officers were detained by government authorities after a video emerged online of security forces beating Rohingya Muslims in November 2016. In the video, Rohingya men and boys were forced to sit in rows with their hands behind their head, while they were beaten with batons and kicked. This was the first incident in which the government punished its own security forces in the region since the beginning of the crackdown.
On 21 January 2017, the bodies of three Rohingya men were found in shallow graves in Maungdaw. The men were locals who had worked closely with the local administration, and the government believes they were murdered by Rohingya insurgents in a reprisal attack.
On 4 July 2017, a mob of at least a hundred Rakhine Buddhists in Sittwe attacked seven Rohingya men from Dapaing camp for internally displaced persons with bricks, killing one and severely injuring another. The Rohingya men were being escorted by police to Sittwe's docks to purchase boats, but were attacked despite armed guards being present nearby. According to a spokesman for the Burmese Ministry of Home Affairs, an unarmed junior policeman was with the Rohingya men at the time of the attack, but was unable to stop the attackers. One man was arrested in relation to the attacks on 26 July 2017.
On 30 July 2017, packages of high energy biscuits aided from the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) were discovered in a terrorist hideout in the Mayu mountain range in Maungdaw Township. The Rakhine State Government and WFP investigated the discovery of the biscuits for whether it represented a misuse of food assistance. On 31 July 2017, three decapitated bodies were found in Rathedaung Township. According to a government official, they were murdered by Rohingya insurgents. On 3 August 2017, bodies of six ethnic Mro farmers, reportedly killed by Muslim militants were found in Maungdaw Township.
On 25 August 2017 The Myanmar government announced that 71 people (one soldier, one immigration officer, 10 policemen and 59 insurgents) had been killed overnight during coordinated attacks by up to 150 insurgents on 24 police posts and the 552nd Light Infantry Battalion army base in Rakhine State. The Myanmar Army stated that the attack began at around 1:00 AM, when insurgents armed with bombs, small arms weapons and machetes blew up a bridge. The army further stated that a majority of the attacks occurred around 3:00 AM to 4:00 AM. The ARSA claimed they were taking "defensive actions" in 25 different locations and accused government soldiers of raping and killing civilians. The group also claimed that Rathedaung had been under a blockade for more than two weeks, starving the Rohingya, and that the government forces were preparing to do the same in Maungdaw.
According to Yanghee Lee, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights for Myanmar, at least 1,000 people had been killed in the violence since 25 August. She added that the figure is "very likely an underestimate". She also downplayed the chance that Myanmar generals will ever see the inside of the International Criminal Court due to ''powerful international defenders.''
As of October 2018, the persecutions are still continuing. Yanghee Lee has reported that Suu Kyi is still in complete denial. Suu Kyi's government have denied 'independent international investigations' and probes. Lee has described the situation as 'apartheid' with detained Rohingyas segregated from the 'Rakhine ethnic community' and without 'freedom of movement'.
As of 23 April 2019, a Myanmar gunship strafed the Rohingya village in Buthidaung. The military planted internationally banned landmines along the northern Rakhine state, inhibiting the Rohingya from escaping to Bangladesh northwest. To the south, Myanmar soldiers will also gun them down. If they stay put, aircraft bombers and helicopter gunships will shell them. Some have described the Rohingya as being trapped in a 'genocide zone'.
Persecution and crackdownEdit
Soon after the attack on security forces, the Myanmar military responded with "heavy counter-offensive", and supported by Buddhist militia, started "clearance operations" against the Rohingya people. In the first week, at least 130 Rohingya people were killed. To save lives, the Rohingya people started fleeing Myanmar in large numbers, and tried to take shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh. The Myanmar military often opened fire with mortar shells and machine-guns on the fleeing Rohingya women and children, and dead bodies of many Rohingya people began to be washed ashore from the drowned boats as they attempted to cross the Naf River to enter Bangladesh. By the second week, at least 1000 Rohingya were killed. During the military operations, the Myanmar military burnt down and destroyed hundreds of Rohingya villages, killed thousands of Rohingya civilians, raped and sexually abused Rohingya women, and committed other crimes against humanity.
Massacre and killingsEdit
In August 2018, study estimated that more than 24,000+ Rohingya people were killed by the Myanmar military and the local Buddhists since the "clearance operations" started on 25 August 2017. The study also estimated that 18,000+ the Rohingya Muslim women and girls were raped, 116,000 Rohingya were beaten, 36,000 Rohingya were thrown into fire. Earlier, it was also reported that at least 6,700 to 7,000 Rohingya people including 730 children were killed in the first month alone since the crackdown started. The majority of them died from gunshot while others were burned to death in their homes. The sources described their killings as "violent deaths". There were also reports of mass killings of Rohingyas by the military and Buddhist vigilantes in Chut Pyin village near Rathedaung. Lewa stated that they had received reports of 130 being killed in the village. On 7 September 2017, The Guardian reported a mass killing of Rohingyas at the Tula Toli village, referred as Tula Toli Massacre. According to AP reporting, evidence has been uncovered of likely mass graves which includes time stamped mobile phone metadata indicating an 27 August date.
In February 2018, news agency Reuters uncovered a massacre event that took place in the Rakhine state's Inn Din village on 2 September 2017. It is known as Inn Din massacre. Ten Rohingya men, who were captured from the Rohingya villagers of Inn Din, were massacred by the members of Myanmar army and the Buddhist villagers who formed an "informal militia" to attack the Rohingya villages. The victims were taken from the hundreds of Rohingya villagers who gathered near a beach to seek safety. Reuters was able to identify all the ten victims: five of the men were fishermen, two were shopkeepers, one was an Islamic teacher, and the last two were high school students.
Village burning and lootingEdit
In September 2018, the U.N. Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar released a report stating that at least 392 Rohingya villages in Rakhine state had been razed to the ground since 25 August 2017. Earlier, Human Rights Watch in December 2017 said it had found that 354 Rohingya villages in Rakhine state were burnt down and destroyed by the Myanmar military. These destructions included thousands of structures, mainly homes used by the Rohingya Muslims. Chris Lewa, director of The Arakan Project, has blamed the security forces of burning village after village in a systematic way while also blaming Rohingya arsonists of burning the Buddhist village of Pyu Ma. A video provided to ABC News by a human rights monitor purportedly shows the village burning and in another clip of freshly dug earth mound, allegedly graves of those killed.
Before the Inn Din massacre in early September 2017, members of Myanmar military and the Buddhist villagers of Inn Din looted the Rohingya hamlets in the Inn Din village and then burned down the Rohingya houses. Several Buddhist villagers later confessed to Reuters that they set fire to the Rohingya houses with kerosene, and also took part in the massacre on 2 September. The 33rd Light Infantry Division of Myanmar Army, the 8th Security Police Battalion, and the Buddhist villagers took part in the looting which included Rohingya property, goats, cows, cattle, and motorcycles. Thant Zin Oo, the commander of the 8th Battalion, later sold the cows and the cattle in exchange for money.
Gang rapes and sexual violenceEdit
In November 2017, both the UN officials and the Human Rights Watch reported that the Armed Forces of Myanmar were committing widespread gang rapes and other forms of sexual violence against the Rohingya Muslim women and girls for the last three months. Alongside the Armed Forces, the Myanmar Border Guard Police and Buddhist militias of Rakhine were also involved in these atrocities. HRW stated that these gang rapes and sexual violence were committed as part of the military's ethnic cleansing campaign while the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict Pramila Patten stated that the Rohingya women and girls were made the "systematic" target of rapes and sexual violence because of their ethnic identity and religion. Other forms of sexual violence included sexual slavery in military captivity, forced public nudity, and humiliation. Some women and girls were raped to death while others were found carrying raw wounds and being traumatized after they had arrived in refugee camps in Bangladesh. Human Rights Watch reported of a 15-year-old girl who was ruthlessly dragged on the ground for over 50 feet and then was raped by 10 Myanmar soldiers.
Destruction of crime evidenceEdit
In February, it was reported that the Myanmar authority was bulldozing and flattening the burnt Rohingya villages and mass graves in order to destroy the evidence of atrocities committed by the Myanmar military. These villages had been inhabited by the Rohingya people before they were burnt down by the Myanmar military during the 2017 crackdown. Some intact villages which had been emptied of their Rohingya inhabitants because of the military crackdown were also bulldozed.
Attack on mediaEdit
Since 25 August incident, Myanmar has blocked media access and the visits of international bodies to the Rakhine state. Near Rangoon on 12 December 2017, two Reuters journalists who had been covering the refugee story were charged and imprisoned by the police for violating a 1923 colonial law related to secrecy. On 1 February 2018, a Myanmar court denied bail for the two Reuters journalists. Upon this, the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres expressed his concern and called for the release of the two journalists. The journalists were released on 7 May 2019, along with over 6,000 other prisoners, in a presidential pardon.
According to the Mission report of OHCHR (released on 11 October 2017 by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights), the Myanmar military in early August 2017 began a "systematic" process of driving hundreds of thousands of Rohingya from Myanmar. The report noted that "prior to the incidents and crackdown of 25 August, a strategy was pursued to:
- Arrest and arbitrarily detain male Rohingyas between the ages of 15–40 years;
- Arrest and arbitrarily detain Rohingya opinion-makers, leaders and cultural and religious personalities;
- Initiate acts to deprive Rohingya villagers of access to food, livelihoods and other means of conducting daily activities and life;
- Commit repeated acts of humiliation and violence prior to, during and after 25 August, to drive out Rohingya villagers en masse through incitement to hatred, violence and killings, including by declaring the Rohingyas as Bengalis and illegal settlers in Myanmar;
- Instill deep and widespread fear and trauma – physical, emotional and psychological, in the Rohingya victims via acts of brutality, namely killings, disappearances, torture, and rape and other forms of sexual violence.
Since January 2017, a large number of Rohingya people was displaced and became refugees as a result of the military crackdowns. According to the United Nations reports, as of January 2018[update], nearly 690,000 Rohingya people had fled or had been driven out of Rakhine state who then took shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh as refugees. Earlier, it was estimated that around 650,000 Rohingya Muslims had fled Myanmar, as of November 2017[update].
By January 2017, an estimated 92,000 Rohingya people had been displaced because of the violence; around 65,000 had fled from Myanmar into neighboring Bangladesh between October 2016 and January 2017, while 23,000 others had been internally displaced.
In February 2017, the government of Bangladesh announced that it planned to relocate the new refugees and another 232,000 Rohingya refugees already in the country to Bhasan Char, a sedimentary island in the Bay of Bengal. The island first appeared around 2007, formed from washed down silt from the Meghna River. The nearest inhabited land, Hatiya Island, is around 30 km away. News agencies quoted a regional official describing the plan as "terrible". The move has received substantial opposition from a number of quarters. Human rights groups have described the plan as a forced relocation. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the living conditions on the island, which is low-lying and prone to flooding. The island has been described as "only accessible during winter and a haven for pirates". It is nine hours away from the camps in which the Rohingya refugees currently live.
On 14 August 2017 India announced that it was to deport an estimated 40,000 Rohingya refugees including 14,000 of those registered with the U.N. refugee agency as well. In the months leading up to the announcement, a string of anti-Rohingya protests had been held in the country.
In September 2017, Nepal increased surveillance at its border with India to prevent more Rohingya refugees from entering the country. A small community of Rohingya refugees live in the capital, Kathmandu.
In November 2017, the government of Bangladesh signed a pact with Myanmar to return the Rohingya refugees to their homes in the Rakhine territory. The deal arose following a diplomatic meeting on the matter between Aung San Suu Kyi and Abul Hassan Mahmud Ali, the foreign minister of Bangladesh. The accord was viewed by international commentators as a conscious effort by Suu Kyi to address criticism over her lack of action in the conflict. This decision, coming after both the United Nations and Rex Tillerson, US Secretary of State, declared that the actions undertaken by the Burmese army against the Rohingya refugees constituted ethnic cleansing, was met with hesitation and criticism by aid groups.
The ongoing genocide against the Rohingya people garnered strong criticism from all across the world, and created grave concern about the human rights issues. International communities and human rights officials have described the violence as ethnic cleansing and genocide. Soon after the security forces and Buddhist militia started "clearance operations", the world leaders warned the Myanmar authority to avoid civilian casualties. In late September, a seven-member panel of the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal accused Myanmar of conducting genocide against the Rohingya and the Kachin minority groups. The verdict came after a five-day trial, held at the law faculty of the University of Malaya, which examined various documentaries, expert views, and the testimony of the victims of atrocities. The tribunal also made 17 recommendations including demilitarization of the Rakhine state and the end of the discriminatory citizenship law. The United Nations' human rights chief Zeid bin Ra'ad described the persecution as "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing". Later, on 5 December 2017, he announced that the Rohingya persecution may constitute genocide under international human rights laws. In November, British prime minister Theresa May and United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson described the situation as "ethnic cleansing" while the French President Emmanuel Macron called it genocide.
After a two-year investigation into the plight of the Rohingya ethnic minority, the human rights group Amnesty International in their report described the restricted situation of the Rohingya people as "an open-air prison" as they are under a "vicious system of institutionalized discrimination and segregation" which is limiting their human rights, their freedom of movement, and their access to food, healthcare, and education. In the report, Amnesty International mentions that the Rohingya minority are confined to their villages, to townships, and to shabby camps which are cut off from the rest of Myanmar, and travel between their own villages is seriously restricted. Travel between townships is subject to a complicated process of obtaining permission, and even then those permitted to travel are routinely harassed, physically tortured or arrested. All these "systematic" discrimination and persecution amount to apartheid, the rights group said.
As in 2016, Aung San Suu Kyi was again criticized her silence over the issue and for supporting the military actions. She has been stripped of her 1997 Freedom of Oxford award over "inaction" in handling the raging violence. Others argue that since the military retains significant autonomy and power in the government, she may be powerless to control them. Her inaction, on behalf of the Rohingya, brought a plea for action from fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureate Malala Yousafzai. Numerous people have called for Suu Kyi's Nobel Prize to be revoked. Nobel Peace Prize laureate Desmond Tutu also criticized Suu Kyi's stand to defend the military actions. The Economist criticized Suu Kyi's stance, arguing: "the violence in Rakhine has reached such an unconscionable level that there can be no justifying continued passivity."
Direct sanctions against the Myanmar military and penalties for firms that do business with companies linked to it, as were in place by America and other countries in the past, have been suggested as the best response to the violence. According to The Economist, "The Burmese army is not easy to influence, but economic and diplomatic isolation do seem to have played a part in persuading it to surrender power in the first place."
Reactions from other countriesEdit
Melbourne based Australian documentary photographer Salahuddin Ahmad organized a documentary photography exhibition series "Brutality Against Humanity" in many Australian cities (as well as many international locations) including street photo exhibition in Federation Square, Melbourne. This photographic exhibition showcases evocative photos of the Rohinghya people taken in October 2017 in Bangladesh. The exhibition is being held to raise global awareness and to protect Rohingya ethnic community. Later Mr Ahamd and his colleagues conducted a study which estimated that more than 24,000+ Rohingya people were killed by the Myanmar military and the local Buddhists since the "clearance operations" started on 25 August 2017. The study also estimated that 18,000+ the Rohingya Muslim women and girls were raped, 116,000 Rohingya were beaten, 36,000 Rohingya were thrown into fire. Photos below are the selected photographs from "Brutality Against Humanity" photography exhibition series:
At the Vatican, Sunday, 26 August 2017, Pope Francis referred to "sad news about the persecution of the religious minority of our Rohingya brothers," adding that he was praying that they would receive "full rights". The pope undertook a diplomatic visit to the afflicted area in late November 2017, demanding that the international community "take decisive measures to address this grave crisis."
Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world and have sent support to fellow Muslim Rohingyas. Protests erupted against the Myanmar embassy in Jakarta, with a petrol bomb being thrown towards it. Indonesian president Joko Widodo sent foreign minister Retno Marsudi for "intensive communications" in September 2017, mentioning that concrete actions are required. Aid in form of tents, basic food and sanitation supplies were dispatched to refugee camps in Bangladesh through four Indonesian Air Force Lockheed C-130 Hercules.
The Israeli Foreign Ministry offered to Bangladesh a humanitarian aid package for Muslim refugees from Rohingya. Bangladesh declined the offer.
Israel claimed that it stopped selling weapons to Myanmar in 2017 following pressure from human rights organizations and US / EU imposed sanctions over 'alleged genocide'. Benjamin Netanyahu reaffirmed.
However, Myanmar military officials were still allowed to visit a Tel Aviv Arms expo, with photos from the Israeli media. Israeli sales representatives at the expo responded that they were 'unaware' of the ban.
Amnesty International said that
"Israeli companies continue to export weapons to countries that systematically violate human rights... often these weapons reach their destination after a series of transactions, thereby skirting international monitoring and the rules of Israel itself. The absence of monitoring and transparency [has] for decades let Israel supply equipment and defense-related knowledge to questionable states and dictatorial or unstable regimes that have been shunned by the international community."
- "I think it is important that the global community speak out in support of what we all know the expectation is for the treatment of people regardless of their ethnicity... This violence must stop, this persecution must stop."
"China supports Myanmar to retain its influence built over three decades of massive development aid and supply of military hardware, India supports Myanmar to play catch-up and build influence partly by development financing and partly by playing on civilisational linkages based on the shared Buddhist heritage. And both India and China engage the Burmese military as much as the civilian government because the country is key to India’s ‘Act East' policy and China’s Belt and Road Initiative.”
China is Myanmar's northern neighbor and ally. China has been investing in the Kyauk Phyu port which could provide an oil pipeline from the Bay of Bengal to Yunan. As part of its "One Belt, One Road" program, China has made heavy investments in Rakhine state—including development of China's strategically and economically critical first-ever seaport on the Indian Ocean, in the predominantly-Rohingya coastal Rakhine township of Maungdaw—providing a much-shorter route to the sea for land-locked Central and Western China.
China also has indicated intentions to develop Rakhine state commercially in other ways. With China's engagement in Rakhine state requiring cooperation with the Myanmar military and government, China has used its veto power in the U.N. Security Council to protect them from any forceful U.N. action over the Rohingya issue—and has argued that the solution to the Rohingya crisis is instead more development in Rakhine state.
On 17 November 2017, China announced that it would send Foreign Minister Wang Yi to Myanmar and Bangladesh in a bid to shore up Beijing's influence in the region and mediate in the deepening Rohingya refugee crisis.
Like China, India has also backed up Myanmar over the crisis, but India has been more "low-key" in its support. According to South China Morning Post, India invested in the Rakhine's Kaladan project to connect Northeast India to the Bay of Bengal. Due to the influx of over half a million refugees, both Bangladesh and India fear what they call a "jihadi nexus". The Indian Ministry of External Affairs stated:
"We stand by Myanmar in the hour of its crisis, we strongly condemn the terrorist attack on 24–25 August and condole the death of policemen and soldiers, we will back Myanmar in its fight against terrorism".
This occurred a day after an ARSA attack on 30 police and armed guards. Myanmar claims this attack "triggered its ruthless counter-attack that has driven more than half a million Rohingya into Bangladesh." Major General Gaganjit Singh, former deputy chief of India’s Defence Intelligence Agency, asked:
"What if ARSA terrorists attack an Indian ship on the Kaladan river or try blowing up parts of the Yunnan-Kyauk Phyu oil-gas pipeline as the [separatist group United Liberation Front of Assam] used to do in [the Indian state of] Assam? Such scenarios cannot be discounted".
Reactions from supranational bodiesEdit
Findings of the OHCHR Independent Fact-Finding Mission 2018Edit
On 12 September 2018, the OHCHR Independent Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar published its report to the United Nations Human Rights Council. Following 875 interviews with victims and eyewitnesses since 2011, it concluded that "the (Myanmar) military has consistently failed to respect international human rights law and the international humanitarian law principles of distinction, proportionality and precaution." Even before the most recent incident of mass Rohingya displacement began in 2011, the report found that the restrictions on travel, birth registration, and education resulting from Rohingya statelessness violated Rohingya human rights. During the mass displacement of almost 725,000 Rohingya by August 2018 to neighboring Bangladesh, as a result of persecution by the Tatmadaw, the report recorded "gross human rights violations and abuses" such as mass rape, murder, torture, and imprisonment. It also accused the Tatmadaw of crimes against humanity, genocide, and ethnic cleansing.
Criticism of the Response of UN AgenciesEdit
All NGOs and humanitarian agencies, including UN agencies, are bound by the humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, and independence. As the 2018 Independent Fact-Finding Mission Report highlighted, UN agencies have been aware of Rohingya persecution for almost three decades, with five consecutive Special Rapporteurs on the situation of human rights in Myanmar having been appointed since 1992. However, the Independent Fact-Finding Mission Report noted: "While Myanmar was repeatedly identified as a crisis situation requiring a human rights-driven response by the "whole of the United Nations", this approach was rarely, if ever, taken. Rather, many United Nations agencies have continued to prioritize development goals, humanitarian access and quiet diplomacy. That approach has demonstrably failed; and the United Nations as a whole has failed adequately to address human rights concerns in Myanmar. Even now, the approach taken displays few signs of any lessons learned, with human rights missing from agreements recently signed with the Government."
The UN's continued attempts to cooperate with the Myanmar Government, despite the Government's unwillingness to acknowledge or address the Tatmadaw's persecution of the Rohingya, has allowed the humanitarian crisis to worsen. Although this approach complies with the common interpretation of other humanitarian principles, such as neutrality and impartiality, it neglects the core humanitarian principle of humanity. For example, a suppressed internal UN report heavily criticized the UN Country Team for ineffectively focusing on development and investment rather than on addressing the root causes of the persecution. Moreover, a September 2017 BBC investigation reported that, in attempt to attract investment into Myanmar, UN officials prevented human rights activists traveling to Rohingya areas, attempted to shut down public advocacy on the subject, and isolated staff that warned of ethnic cleansing. Despite these criticisms of the UN's approach, in June 2018 the UNDP and UNCHR entered a MoU with Myanmar Government providing for the reparation of Rohingya to Myanmar. On 13 November 2018, the plan to repatriate an initial 2,200 Rohingya was abandoned due to protests by Rohingya refugees.
In December 2017, a coalition of 69 human rights non-governmental organizations appointed an Independent Fact-Finding Mission team, including Amnesty International and the Human Rights Watch, called upon the UN Security Council to take "immediate action" in response to the humanitarian crisis by exploring "all avenues for justice and accountability, including through international courts." The coalition also called for arms embargoes and targeted sanctions.
The distinct OHCHR-appointed Independent Fact-Finding Mission 2018 Report similarly recommended that the UN Security Council issues a Chapter VII referral to the International Criminal Court, or, in the alternative, establishes an ad hoc international criminal tribunal. They also recommended: "enhanced monitoring, documentation, analysis and public reporting on the situation of human rights", the allocation of appropriate resources, repatriation "only when safe, voluntary and dignified with explicit human rights protections in place", termination of operational support for Tatmadaw until genuine commitment to reform and cooperation is secured, and the establishment of a trust fund for victims.
Most recently, the Washington-based Public International Law & Policy Group concluded in their December 2018 report, based on more than 1,000 interviews with Rohingya refugees, that there are "reasonable grounds" to believe that crimes against humanity, war crimes, and genocide have been committed by the Tatmadaw against the Rohingya population. In turn, they recommended "that a criminal tribunal should be established or granted jurisdiction to further investigate international crimes committed in Rakhine State and prosecute those responsible" and "the urgent establishment of an accountability mechanism or an immediate referral of the situation to the ICC."
The ASEAN member states have upheld a principle of non-interference in intra-ASEAN relations. A day before the 30th ASEAN Summit was held on 26 April 2017, Reuters reported on the Myanmar military's operations on the Rohingya in November 2016. Nonetheless, the Rohingya crisis was not on the official agenda in the Summit.
However, leaders of ASEAN countries have begun concerns on the issue. In a meeting with other ASEAN foreign ministers on 19 December 2016, Malaysian Foreign Minister Anifah Aman called for a collective effort to resolve the crisis. In addition, in the 30th ASEAN Summit, Indonesian President Joko Widodo discussed the issue of the Rohingya crisis with Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar's de facto leader. He was said to stress the importance of stability in Myanmar for the wider regional security.
The ASEAN states' hesitance to comment on the issue may be explained by a concern that the rise of China and its influence in Myanmar could risk ASEAN's interest in the country. Azeem Ibrahim, the author of The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Genocide, noted, "Myanmar's interactions with ASEAN are perhaps indicative of its wider approach to international relations." While ASEAN member states welcome economic opportunities with China's rise, they fear its growing influence. It has been suggested that ASEAN criticism of Myanmar's domestic crisis will lead to closer ties between China and Myanmar.
As of 7 June 2019, ASEAN released a report stating optimism that half a million Rohingyas (they used the term 'Muslim') will return to Myanmar in two years. The report allegedly glossed over the atrocities committed by Suu Kyi's regime. The UN has not yet commented.
According to Matthew Smith of the NGO Fortify Rights, "We can now say with a high level of confidence that state-led security forces and local armed residents have committed mass killings." Smith accused the Burmese military of trying to expel all Rohingyas from the country.
Muslim protests were held in various capital cities in Asian countries in late November 2016. Protests were held on 8 September 2017 across Asia in Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia and Pakistan in solidarity of the Rohingya people. Protests were also held by Rohingya people in Melbourne, Australia in early September 2017. Additional protests were held in the same month in Washington DC in the United States, Cape Town in South Africa, and Jammu and Kashmir in India. A protest was also planned in Hong Kong.
- "Burmese government 'kills more than 10,000 Rohingya Muslims' in crackdown". The Independent. 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "Village Official Stabbed to Death in Myanmar's Restive Rakhine State". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- "Myanmar: UN Fact-Finding Mission releases its full account of massive violations by military in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan States". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
- Habib, Mohshin; Jubb, Christine; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rahman, Masudur; Pallard, Henri (18 July 2018). Forced migration of Rohingya: the untold experience. Ontario International Development Agency, Canada. ISBN 9780986681516 – via National Library of Australia (new catalog). Cite error: The named reference "auto" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "auto" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "auto" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "auto" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: The named reference "auto" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Former UN chief says Bangladesh cannot continue hosting Rohingya". www.aljazeera.com.
- "Dutch House of Representatives adopts motion for probe on Rohingya genocide". The Daily Star. 5 July 2019.
- "Bangladeshi PM calls for safe repatriation of Rohingya". 4 April 2019.
- "UN Official Cites Horrific Crimes against Rohingya". TRANSCEND Media Service.
- Khan, Ahmed. "Prevalence of violence against children: Evidence from 2017 Rohingya Refugee crises". ResearchGate. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- "AP finds mass graves, latest evidence of Rohingya genocide in Myanmar". CBS News. 1 February 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "U.N. genocide advisor: Myanmar waged 'scorched-earth campaign' against the Rohingya". Los Angeles Times. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Wilkinson, Bard (12 March 2018). "UN official convinced of Myanmar Rohingya 'genocide'". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "UN Security Council: End disgraceful inaction on Myanmar's Rohingya crisis" (Press release). Amnesty International. 11 December 2017. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Westcott, Ben; Koran, Laura (22 November 2017). "Tillerson: Myanmar clearly 'ethnic cleansing' the Rohingya". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "'Hallmarks of genocide': ICC prosecutor seeks justice for Rohingya". Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Rohingya Refugee Crisis". United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 21 September 2017. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018.
- "Report of OHCHR mission to Bangladesh – Interviews with Rohingyas fleeing from Myanmar since 9 October 2016" (PDF). OHCHR. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "'No other conclusion,' ethnic cleansing of Rohingyas in Myanmar continues – senior UN rights official". UN News. 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018.
- "Government dismisses claims of abuse against Rohingya". Al Jazeera. 6 August 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Myanmar rejects allegations of human rights abuses against Rohingya". Reuters. 6 August 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Myanmar attacks, sea voyage rob young father of everything". 27 October 2017.
- "Myanmar prepares for the repatriation of 2,000 Rohingya". The Thaiger. November 2018. Archived from the original on 1 November 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
- "AP finds mass graves, latest evidence of Rohingya genocide in Myanmar". CBS News. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "U.N. genocide advisor: Myanmar waged 'scorched-earth campaign' against the Rohingya". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "UN official convinced of Myanmar Rohingya 'genocide'". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "UN Security Council: End disgraceful inaction on Myanmar's Rohingya crisis". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Tillerson: Myanmar clearly 'ethnic cleansing' the Rohingya". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Burma: New Satellite Images Confirm Mass Destruction". Human Rights Watch. 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- Joe Watts, Caroline Mortimer (13 November 2017). "Downing Street says Burma's treatment of Rohingya Muslims looks like 'ethnic cleansing'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
- Rex W. Tillerson (22 November 2017). "Efforts To Address Burma's Rakhine State Crisis". U.S. State Department. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
- "French President labels attacks on Rohingya minority as 'genocide'". SBS News. 20 September 2017. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018.
- Bernama (22 September 2017). "Permanent Peoples Tribunal finds Myanmar guilty of genocide". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018.
- "Myanmar found guilty of genocide". The Daily Star. 23 September 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017.
- Ramzy, Austin, "270,000 Rohingya Have Fled Myanmar, U.N. Says" Archived 29 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 8 September 2017, New York Times retrieved 9 September 2017
- "Myanmar Rohingya crisis: Deal to allow return of Muslim refugees". BBC. 23 November 2017. Archived from the original on 25 November 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "U.N. calls for Myanmar generals to be tried for genocide, blames Facebook for incitement," Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine 27 August 2018, Reuters News Service, retrieved 28 August 2018
- "Myanmar Rohingya: UN says military leaders must face genocide charges," Archived 6 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine 27 August 2018, BBC News, retrieved 28 August 2018
- "Investigators call for genocide prosecutions over slaughter of Rohingyas," Archived 29 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine 27 August 2018, CBS News, retrieved 28 August 2018
- "Myanmar Generals Had 'Genocidal Intent' Against Rohingya, Must Face Justice: U.N.," Archived 29 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine 27 August 2018, U.S. News, retrieved 28 August 2018
- "Year After Rohingya Massacres, Top Generals Unrepentant and Unpunished," Archived 2 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine 27 August 2018, New York Times, retrieved 28 August 2018
- "US: Myanmar Military Led 'Extreme' Violence Against Rohingya". Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Canada strips Aung San Suu Kyi of honorary citizenship". 28 September 2018. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018.
- Mark Dummett (18 February 2010). "Bangladesh accused of 'crackdown' on Rohingya refugees". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Myanmar, Bangladesh leaders 'to discuss Rohingya'". Agence France-Presse. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "OHCHR | Human Rights Council opens special session on the situation of human rights of the Rohingya and other minorities in Rakhine State in Myanmar". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
- "'The world's most persecuted people' Katja Dombrowski interviews Johannes Kaltenbach (Malteser International)". In: D+C, Vol.42.2015:5. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017.
- Jonathan Head (5 February 2009). "What drive the Rohingya to sea?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Crisis Group 2014, p. 19.
- "Burma" Archived 10 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine section, Central Intelligence Agency, U.S. Government, retrieved 13 February 2017.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, report: "Situation of human rights of Rohingya Muslims and other minorities in Myanmar Archived 14 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 29 June 2016, from Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General, Agenda item 2, Thirty-second session, Human Rights Council, of the General Assembly, of the United Nations, retrieved 13 February 2017
- "Myanmar seeking ethnic cleansing, says UN official as Rohingya flee persecution". The Guardian. 24 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Kevin Ponniah (5 December 2016). "Who will help Myanmar's Rohingya?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Leider, Jacques (2013). Rohingya: the name, the movement and the quest for identity. Myanmar Egress and the Myanmar Peace Center. pp. 204–255.
- "Rohingya Refugees Seek to Return Home to Myanmar". Voice of America. 30 November 2016. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- Amnesty International (2004). "Myanmar – The Rohingya Minority: Fundamental Rights Denied". Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "UNHCR threatens to wind up Bangladesh operations". New Age BDNEWS, Dhaka. 21 May 2005. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- Head, Jonathan (1 July 2013). "The unending plight of Burma's unwanted Rohingyas". Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Persecution of the Rohingya Muslims: Is Genocide Occurring in Myanmar's Rakhine State?" (PDF). Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic at Yale Law School. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Clinic Study Finds Evidence of Genocide in Myanmar". Yale Law School. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- Atrocities Prevention Report, 17 March 2016, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Office of the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights, United States Department of State, retrieved 12 February 2017 (NOTE: This document alternates, repeatedly, between sections on the Middle East, and sections on "Burma.")
- "Myanmar says nine police killed by insurgents on Bangladesh border". The Guardian. 10 October 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Rakhine border raids kill nine police officers". Myanmar Times. 10 October 2016. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- "Islamist fears rise in Rohingya-linked violence". Bangkok Post. Post Publishing PCL. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- James Griffiths (25 November 2016). "Is The Lady listening? Aung San Suu Kyi accused of ignoring Myanmar's Muslims". CNN. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Myanmar: Security Forces Target Rohingya During Vicious Rakhine Scorched-Earth Campaign". Amnesty International. 19 December 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Joshua Berlinger (16 November 2016). "'Shoot first, ask questions later': Violence intensifies in Rakhine State". CNN. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Matt Broomfield (10 December 2016). "UN calls on Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi to halt 'ethnic cleansing' of Rohingya Muslims". The Independent. Archived from the original on 11 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "21,000 Rohingya Muslims flee to Bangladesh to escape persecution in Myanmar". International Business Times. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Rohingya abuse may be crimes against humanity: Amnesty". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2016. Archived from the original on 5 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "New wave of destruction sees 1,250 houses destroyed in Myanmar's Rohingya villages". International Business Times. 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "'They raped us one by one', says Rohingya woman who fled Myanmar". The News International. 25 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "UN calls on Suu Kyi to visit crisis-hit Rakhine". The Daily Star. 9 December 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Nick Cumming-Bruce (16 December 2016). "Myanmar 'Callous' Toward Anti-Rohingya Violence, U.N. Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "Hundreds of Rohingya flee Yangon crackdown". Gulf Times. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "UN condemns 'devastating' Rohingya abuse in Myanmar". BBC News. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "'Hundreds of Rohingyas' killed in Myanmar crackdown". Al Jazeera. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Myanmar Army committed crimes against humanity: UN". The Hindu. 4 February 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Devastating cruelty against Rohingya children, women and men detailed in UN human rights report," Archived 13 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine 3 February 2017, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations, retrieved 12 February 2017
- "FLASH REPORT: Report of OHCHR mission to Bangladesh: Interviews with Rohingyas fleeing from Myanmar since 9 October 2016," Archived 14 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine 3 February 2017, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations, retrieved 12 February 2017
- Lone, Wa; Lewis, Simon; Das, Krishna N. (17 March 2017). "Exclusive: Children among hundreds of Rohingya detained in Myanmar crackdown". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- "Hundreds of Rohingya held for consorting with insurgents in Bangladesh – Regional | The Star Online". thestar.com.my. 18 March 2017. Archived from the original on 18 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- "Head of Human Rights Fact‑Finding Mission on Myanmar Urges Security Council to Ensure Accountability for Serious Violations against Rohingya". Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "Report of Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Oliver Holmes (19 December 2016). "Myanmar's Rohingya campaign 'may be crime against humanity'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- "Amnesty accuses Myanmar military of 'crimes against humanity'". BBC. 19 December 2016. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Kofi Annan, in Myanmar, Voices Concern Over Reported Abuses of Rohingya". The New York Times. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- "'Enough is enough': Malaysian PM Najib Razak asks Aung San Suu Kyi to prevent Rohingya violence". Firstpost. Associated Press. 4 December 2016. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Malaysia PM urges world to act against 'genocide' of Myanmar's Rohingya". The Guardian. Associated Press. 4 December 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Harriet Agerholm (3 December 2016). "Malaysia condemns violence against Rohingya Muslims in Burma as 'ethnic cleansing'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Football: Malaysia cancels two matches with Myanmar over Rohingya crackdown". The Daily Star. 1 December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "B'desh asks Myanmar to take up cause of Rohingya Muslims". Malaysia Sun. 24 November 2016. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "UN condemns Myanmar over plight of Rohingya". BBC. 16 December 2016. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Myanmar army rejects UN Rohingya abuse claims". BBC News. 23 May 2017. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Burma detains police officers caught on video beating Rohingya Muslims". The Independent. 2 January 2017. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "Myanmar to take action after Rakhine assault video goes viral". ABC News. 3 January 2017. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Gerin, Roseanne; Myaung Nyane, Khin (21 January 2017). "Three More Muslim Men Found Dead in Myanmar's Maungdaw". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Mob kills Muslim man with bricks in street attack as police flee scene". The Independent. 5 July 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "BREAKING: Mob Kill Rohingya Muslim in Rakhine". The Irrawaddy. 4 July 2017. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "One Rohingya man killed, six hurt after argument in Myanmar's Sittwe". Reuters. 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Mob in western Myanmar kills Rohingya despite police guards". NY Daily News. Retrieved 4 July 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Myanmar Police Arrest Man For Deadly Rakhine Mob Attack on Rohingya". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "Suu Kyi's office links UN aid to 'violent attackers' – Coconuts Yangon". 1 August 2017. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Bodies Found, Arrests Made in Tense Northern Rakhine". 1 August 2017. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Six Bodies With Gunshot, Machete Wounds Found in Maungdaw". 3 August 2017. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Two shot dead, four missing in northern Arakan- DVB Multimedia Group". 3 August 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- "Myanmar tensions: Dozens dead in Rakhine militant attack". BBC News. 25 August 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Htusan, Esther (25 August 2017). "Myanmar: 71 die in militant attacks on police, border posts". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Lone, Wa; Slodkowski, Antoni (24 August 2017). "At least 12 dead in Muslim insurgent attacks in northwest Myanmar". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "At least 71 dead in Myanmar Rakhine fighting: Govt". The Straits Times. 25 August 2017. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "Deadly clashes erupt in Myanmar's restive Rakhine state". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Rebecca Wright, Ben Westcott (8 September 2017). "At least 270,000 Rohingya flee Myanmar violence in 2 weeks, UN says". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- "UN Rapporteur Says Little Chance Myanmar Will be Tried at ICC Over Rohingya". The Globe Post. 8 July 2018. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Nations, AP at the United (24 October 2018). "Rohingya genocide is still going on, says top UN investigator". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- "Rohingya trapped inside a genocide zone".
- "Fears mount of Myanmar atrocities as fleeing Rohingya families drown". The Guardian. 1 September 2017. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Myanmar troops open fire on civilians fleeing attacks". Al Jazeera. 26 August 2017. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Rohingya refugees drown as exodus mounts". BBC. 31 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Rebecca Ratcliffe (6 September 2017). "Who are the Rohingya and what is happening in Myanmar?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- Hannah Beech (14 December 2017). "At Least 6,700 Rohingya Died in Myanmar Crackdown, Aid Group Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018.
- "Report: Nearly 7,000 Rohingya Muslims Killed in First Month of Army Crackdown". VOA News. 14 December 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018.
- McPherson, Poppy (14 December 2017). "6,700 Rohingya Muslims killed in one month in Myanmar, MSF says". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- "Myanmar: satellite imagery confirms Rohingya village of Tula Toli razed". The Guardian. 19 September 2017. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Al Jaazera News. (1 February 2018). "Evidence of Rohingya mass graves uncovered in Myanmar." Al Jazeera website Archived 3 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Wa Lone, Kyaw Soe Oo (8 February 2018). "Massacre in Myanmar: One grave for 10 Rohingya men". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 February 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- "Myanmar: Security forces face 'action' over killings". Al Jazeera News. 12 February 2018. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- "New Rohingya Villages Destroyed in Myanmar". VOA News. 18 December 2017. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018.
- "Villagers slaughtered in Myanmar 'massacre', reports of women and children among more than 100 dead". ABC News. 1 September 2017. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Michelle Nichols (16 November 2017). "Rohingya crisis: Burmese military guilty of widespread rape of fleeing women and girls, Human Rights Watch says". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018.
- "Rohingya women gang-raped by Myanmar army". The Daily Star. 13 November 2017. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018.
- Rick Gladstone (16 November 2017). "Rohingya Were Raped Systematically by Myanmar's Military". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- Serajul Quadir (12 November 2017). "U.N. official says will raise sexual violence against Rohingya with ICC". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018.
- Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein (3 January 2017). "5 reasons the U.N. Security Council should care about the Burmese military's sexual assaults on the Rohingya". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- "Rohingya villages destroyed 'to erase evidence'". BBC. 23 February 2018. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Emanuel Stoakes (19 February 2018). "Myanmar government 'bulldozing Rohingya mass grave to hide evidence'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018.
- Shoon Naing & Thu Thu Aung (23 February 2018). "Myanmar bulldozes Rohingya villages after 'cleansing' campaign". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- Eltagouri, Marwa. (13 December 2017). "Two journalists covering Rohingya crisis in Burma arrested for possessing 'secret papers'". Washington Post website Archived 14 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Aung & Yimou Lee (1 February 2018). "Reuters reporters arrested under Myanmar Secrets Act denied bail". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018.
- Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, 13–24 September 2017, Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine released 11 October 2017, U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, retrieved 12 October 2017
- "UN report details brutal Myanmar effort to drive out half a million Rohingya," Archived 26 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine 11 October 2017, Reuters at the United Nations, in The Guardian, retrieved 12 October 2017
- Tom Miles (20 December 2017). "Myanmar bars U.N. rights investigator before visit". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "China and Russia oppose UN resolution on Rohingya". The Guardian. 24 December 2017. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Myanmar Military Investigating a Mass Grave in Rakhine". Time. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "100,000 Rohingya on first repatriation list | Dhaka Tribune". dhakatribune.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Myanmar: Humanitarian Bulletin, Issue 4 | October 2016 – January 2017". ReliefWeb. 30 January 2017. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- "Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh face relocation to island". BBC News. BBC News. 30 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Bangladesh Rohingya relocation plan to prevent 'intermingling'". ABC News. Reuters. 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Bangladesh pushes on with Rohingya island plan". aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera. AFP. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Sri Lanka navy detains suspected Rohingya refugees". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "15-day-old baby among the 30 Rohingya refugees rescued by Sri Lanka". 30 April 2017. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Bangladesh detains Rohingya attempting boat trip to Malaysia". www.thesundaily.my. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Thailand 'preparing to receive' those fleeing Myanmar violence". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "India says to deport all Rohingya regardless of U.N. registration". Reuters. 14 August 2017. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
- "Rohingya crisis: The Myanmar military crackdown explained". thenewdaily.com.au. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Holmes, Oliver; agencies (23 November 2017). "Myanmar signs pact with Bangladesh over Rohingya repatriation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Myanmar, Bangladesh Announce Tentative Deal To Repatriate Rohingya Refugees". Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Human rights group says repatriating Rohingya to Myanmar is "Unthinkable" while Rohingya remain unsafe". 23 November 2017. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Yanghee Lee: Rohingya Crimes in Myanmar Bear Hallmarks of Genocide". The Globe Post. 12 March 2018. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "'Caged Without A Roof': Apartheid in Myanmar's Rakhine State". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018.
- Jesselyn Cook (11 November 2017). "Apartheid in Myanmar: Rohingya Muslims Trapped In 'Open-Air Prison,' Amnesty Says". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018.
- "Aung San Suu Kyi stripped of Freedom of Oxford". BBC.com. 27 November 2017. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Naaman Zhou and Michael Safi (8 September 2017). "Desmond Tutu condemns Aung San Suu Kyi: 'Silence is too high a price' | World news". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Aung San Suu Kyi and her foreign admirers must help the Rohingyas". The Economist. 8 September 2017. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- "Speakers call for continued protest against genocide in Mayanmar". New Age | The Most Popular Outspoken English Daily in Bangladesh. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- theulabian (2 December 2017). "Exhibition titled 'Brutality Against Humanity'". The ULABian. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Naim. ""Brutality against humanity" photo exhibition 1 Dec". Greenwatch Dhaka | The leading online daily of Bangladesh. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- "Brutality Against Humanity", a documentary photography exhibition in Melbourne". SBS Your Language.
- "মেলবোর্নে রোহিঙ্গাদের নির্যাতনের ছবি নিয়ে বিশেষ আলোকচিত্র প্রদর্শনী". suprovatsydney.com.au.
- "মিয়ানমারের গণহত্যা: অস্ট্রেলিয়ার মেলবোর্নে বিশেষ আলোকচিত্র প্রদর্শনী". sydney-tribune.com. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Associated Press, "Pope laments "persecutions" of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar," Archived 15 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine 27 August 2017, Fox News, retrieved 11 September 2017
- Winfield, Nicole. "Pope Francis demands 'decisive measures' to resolve Rohingya exodus". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- Da Costa, Agustinus (3 September 2017). "Indonesian envoy to urge Myanmar to halt violence against Rohingya Mus". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Indonesian President Joko Widodo dispatches aid to Rohingya refugees". The Straits Times. 13 September 2017. Archived from the original on 18 January 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Bangladesh rejects Israeli aid offers for Rohingya refugees". Ynetnews. 21 December 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- EDT, Cristina Maza on 6/4/19 at 5:26 PM (4 June 2019). "Israel arms expo hosts Myanmar military officials despite saying it banned weapons sales over alleged genocide". Newsweek. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- Landau, Noa (4 June 2019). "Israel Denies Arming Myanmar. But Its Officials Are Still Visiting a Tel Aviv Arms Expo". Haaretz. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- "Myanmar faces 'defining moment', must stop the violence: U.S.," Archived 14 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine 14 September 2017, Reuters News Service, retrieved 14 September 2017
- "Secretaries Tillerson, Johnson Condemn Ethnic Violence in Burma," Archived 17 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine 14 September 2017, C-SPAN (Congressional TV) video, with transcripts, retrieved 14 September 2017
- "Rex Tillerson says violence against Myanmar's Rohingya must stop; supports Aung San Suu Kyi," Archived 15 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine 14 September 2017, CBS News, retrieved 14 September 2017
- "Why do China, India back Myanmar over the Rohingya crisis?," Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine South China Morning Post, retrieved 20 October 2017
- "Is Rohingya persecution caused by business interests rather than religion?," Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, retrieved 20 October 2017
- "Chinese Minister's spadework lays the foundation for Suu Kyi's visit," 28 November 2017 The Hindu, (India), retrieved 30 November 2017
- "China accused of self-interest by blocking moves to stop violent persecution of minority ethnic group in neighbouring Myanmar," Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine 16 January 2018, Post Magazine, South China Morning Post, retrieved 20 January 2018
- "Rohingya: India acts fast to counter Chinese moves in Myanmar," Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine 13 July 2018, The Economic Times, (India), retrieved 15 July 2018
- "China urges Myanmar to start Rohingya refugee repatriation soon," Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine 8 July 2018, Daily Star, (Bangladesh), retrieved 12 July 2018
- "Rohingya: Myanmar rejects UN accusation of 'genocide' against Rohingya," Archived 30 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine 29 August 2018, BBC News, retrieved 31 August 2018
- "China to mediate on Rohingya crisis". theindependent.in. 11 November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- "Report of Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar (27 August 2018)". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- IFRC and ICRC, Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations in Disaster Relief (1994) (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Sara Perria, "The Unmaking of Myanmar" (21 September 2017) OpenCanada.Org (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Adam Withnall, "Rohingya crisis: Myanmar rejects UN report on genocide after denying investigators access to sites"(29 August 2018) The Independent (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Jonah Fisher, "UN failures on Rohingya revealed" (28 September 2017) BBC News (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Caroline Gluck, "UN agencies and Myanmar ink agreement, setting stage for Rohingya return" (6 June 2018) UN News (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Susannah Savage, "Rohingya refugees say they would 'rather die' than be sent back to Burma, as repatriation plans are 'stalled until 2019'" (18 November 2018) The Telegraph (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Burma Campaign UK, Joint Appeal to the UN Security Council to Act on Myanmar's Rohingya Crisis (11 December 2017) (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Public International Law & Policy Group, Documenting Atrocity Crimes Committed Against the Rohingya in Myanmar's Rakhine State (2 December 2018) (Retrieved 8 December 2018).
- Diplomat, Jera Lego , The. "Why ASEAN Can't Ignore the Rohingya Crisis". The Diplomat. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Ibrahim, Azeem. "The Return to Democracy (2008–2015)." The Rohingyas: Inside Myanmar's Hidden Genocide. London, England: Hurst, 2016. 75. Print.
- Chachavalpongpun, P. 2012. 'The Vexing Strategic Tug-of-War over Naypyidaw: ASEAN's View of the Sino-Burmese Ties.' Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 31:1 97–114.
- "Outcry as ASEAN predicts 'smooth' Rohingya return to Myanmar". 7 June 2019.
- "A state-led massacre triggers an exodus of Rohingyas from Myanmar". The Economist. 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- "Rohingya crisis sparks Muslim protests in Asian capitals". Channel NewsAsia. 25 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Ahmed, Farid. "Protests across Asia over Myanmar's treatment of Rohingya Muslims – CNN". Edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Payne, Sacha (29 April 2015). "Rohingya in Australia hold protest to call for action over Myanmar violence | SBS News". Sbs.com.au. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Fisher, Shamiela. "MJC to lead march in protest against Myanmar violence". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "People gather in Washington to protest persecution of Rohingya Muslims – Middle East Monitor". Middleeastmonitor.com. 7 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Pro-Rohingya protests in Jammu and Kashmir: Protesters in Anantnag torch police vehicle, two cops injured". Firstpost.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Post Magazine (8 September 2017). "Hong Kong protest against Rohingya persecution to urge help for Myanmar Muslim minority | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.