Boeing Chinook (UK variants)

The Boeing Chinook is a large, tandem rotor helicopter operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF). A series of variants based on the United States Army's Boeing CH-47 Chinook, the RAF Chinook fleet is the largest outside the United States.[1] RAF Chinooks have seen extensive service in the Falklands War, the Balkans, Northern Ireland, Iraq, and Afghanistan.

Chinook HC6A of 18 Sqn RAF in 2020
Role Transport helicopter
Manufacturer Boeing Defense, Space & Security
First flight 23 March 1980 (HC1)
Introduction 1980 with RAF
Status In service
Primary user Royal Air Force
Developed from Boeing CH-47 Chinook

The Chinook, normally based at RAF Odiham in England, provides heavy-lift support and transport across all branches of the British armed forces.[2] The RAF has a total of sixty Chinooks in active inventory as of 2015.[3] In 2018, the UK issued a request to the United States to purchase sixteen additional aircraft.[4] The Chinook is expected to remain in RAF service until the 2040s.[5]

Design and development edit

Two RAF Chinooks on exercises in California

Chinook HC1 edit

In March 1967, the United Kingdom placed an order for fifteen Boeing Vertol CH-47B Chinook to replace the Royal Air Force's Bristol Belvedere HC.1 fleet. In British service the new aircraft was to be designated as the Chinook HC Mk 1 (also formatted as HC.1 or HC1) standing for Helicopter, Cargo Mark 1.[6] However in November of that year, the order was cancelled in a review of defence spending.[7][8]

UK Chinook procurement ambitions were revived in 1978 with an announced requirement for a new heavy-lift helicopter to replace the Westland Wessex. Thirty Chinooks were ordered at a price of US$200 million.[9] These helicopters, comparable to the CH-47C with Lycoming T55-L-11E engines, were again designated Chinook HC1, and entered service in December 1980. Eight more HC1 were delivered from 1984 to 1986, with the CH-47D's Lycoming T55-L-712 turbo-shaft engines.[10]

Royal Air Force Chinook HC2, 2008

The replacement of the HC1s metal rotor blades with aluminium and glass fibre composite rotor blades saw these aircraft designated Chinook HC1B. All surviving aircraft were later returned to Boeing and updated to the Chinook HC2 standard for further service within the RAF.[11]

Chinook HC2 edit

The US Army's next generation Chinook, the CH-47D, entered service in 1982. Improvements from the CH-47C included upgraded engines, composite rotor blades, a redesigned cockpit to reduce pilot workload, redundant and improved electrical systems, an advanced flight control system (FCS) and improved avionics.[12] The RAF returned their original HC1 fleet to Boeing for upgrading to CH-47D standard, the first of which returned to the UK in 1993.[13]

RAF Chinook HC2 in 2009

Three additional HC2 Chinooks were ordered with delivery beginning in 1995. Another six were ordered in 1995 under the Chinook HC2A designation;[14] the main difference between these and the standard HC2 was the strengthening of the front fuselage to allow the fitting of an aerial refuelling probe in future.[15]

One Argentine CH-47C was captured during the Falklands War,[16] and used by the RAF as a training aid. The rear fuselage was later used to repair a crashed RAF Chinook in 2003.[17]

In 2006, the retirement dates for the HC2 and HC2A fleets were scheduled for 2015 and 2025 respectively,[13] but if planned upgrades are made both types could expect to be flying until 2040.[18]

Chinook HC3 edit

"One of the most incompetent procurements of all time."

Edward Leigh, then Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee.[19]

HC3 landing at Shawbury in 2016

Eight Chinook HC3 were ordered in 1995 as dedicated special forces helicopters, which were intended to be low-cost variants of the US Army's MH-47E.[19] The HC3s include improved range, night vision sensors and navigation capability. The eight aircraft were to cost £259 million and the forecast in-service date was November 1998.[19] Although delivered in 2001, the HC3 could not receive airworthiness certificates as it was not possible to certify the avionics software.

The programme was widely judged to be "a profoundly inept piece of procurement": Sir Peter Spencer, who as head of the Defence Procurement Agency inherited the project, said that the "original requirement was ... actually impossible. I mean, there were 100 essential requirements. I read all of them. One of them said to give protection against any missile coming from any direction." Spencer later commented: "it is always hard to imagine why people think you would be able cost effectively to buy a bespoke requirement for a very small production run."[20]

The avionics were unsuitable due to poor risk analysis and necessary requirements omitted from the procurement contract.[21] The Times claimed that the Ministry of Defence (MOD) planned to perform software integration itself, without Boeing's involvement, in order to reduce costs.[22] While lacking certification, the helicopters were only permitted to fly in visual meteorological conditions and subsequently stored in climate controlled hangars.[22]

Cockpit view of a RAF Chinook on a training flight over Wales, 2009

Air Forces Monthly reported in November 2006 that after protracted negotiations to allow them to enter service, the Defence Aviation Repair Agency would likely receive a contract to install the Thales "TopDeck" avionics system on the Chinook HC3s.[23] However, the MOD announced in March 2007 that this so-called "Fix to Field" programme would be cancelled, and instead it would revert the helicopters' avionics to Chinook HC2/2A specification.[24] The programme was estimated to cost £50–60 million.[25] In June 2008, the National Audit Office issued a scathing report on the MOD's handling of the affair, stating that the whole programme was likely to cost £500 million by the time the helicopters enter service.[26][27] On 6 July 2009, the first of the eight modified Chinook HC3s made its first test flight at MOD Boscombe Down as part of the flight testing and evaluation phase of the HC3 "reversion" programme.[28]

Chinook HC4, HC5, HC6 and HC6A edit

Chinook HC6 makes its first flight, June 2014

A programme to upgrade forty-six Chinook HC2/2A and HC3 helicopters was initiated in December 2008. Known as Project Julius, it included new digital flight deck avionics based on the Thales TopDeck avionics suite, comprising new multifunction displays, a digital moving map display and an electronic flight bag, installation of a nose-mounted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) detector, and upgrading the engines to the more powerful T55-714 standard.[29] Upgraded HC2/2A and HC3 aircraft were redesignated HC4 and HC5 respectively. Deliveries were expected to commence in 2011.[30] The first conversion, a Chinook HC4, first flew on 9 December 2010.[31] Initial operating capability status was reached in June 2012 with seven aircraft delivered.[32]

The Chinook HC6 designation has been assigned to the twenty-four (later reduced to fourteen) CH-47F-derived Chinooks ordered in 2009. In December 2015, the fourteenth and final HC6 was delivered to the RAF.[33]

In July 2017, it was announced that the thirty-eight Chinook HC4s were to be upgraded to a HC6A standard including the replacement of the analogue flight control systems with the Boeing Digital Automatic Flight Control System (DAFCS).[34] By February 2022, no HC4 variants remained, with the fleet comprising HC5, HC6 and HC6A variants.[35]

Chinnok ER edit

In early 2024, the MoD plans to buy 14 additional extended range Chinook; the ER version has twice the range.[36]

Operational history edit

Overview edit

RAF Chinook at Camp Davis in 1996

RAF Chinooks have been widely deployed in support of British military engagements, serving their first wartime role in Operation Corporate, the Falklands War, in 1982. Chinooks were used in Operation Granby in the 1991 Gulf War, attached to large peace-keeping commitments in the Balkans, took part in Operation Herrick and Operation Toral as part of the War in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2021, and in Operation Telic in the 2003 Iraq War. They provide routine supply and support missions to the British military, notably in Operation Banner in Northern Ireland. The helicopter has also been of use in military humanitarian missions and the extraction of civilians from war-zones, such as the evacuation of Sierra Leone in 2000, and the evacuation from Lebanon in 2006.

One Chinook in particular, known by its original squadron code Bravo November, has come to widespread public recognition due to its remarkable service record.[37] It has seen action in every major operation involving the RAF in the helicopter's almost 40-year service life, including the Falkland Islands, Lebanon, Germany, Northern Ireland, Iraq, and Afghanistan.[citation needed]

Falklands War edit

During the Falklands War, Chinooks were deployed by both the British and Argentinian forces. In April 1982, four Chinooks were loaded aboard the container ship MV Atlantic Conveyor bound for the Falkland Islands, to support the British operations.[38] On 25 May 1982, the Chinook Bravo November was sent to pick up freight from HMS Glasgow. While the helicopter was airborne, Atlantic Conveyor was attacked by an Argentine Navy Dassault Super Étendard with an Exocet sea-skimming missile.[39] Bravo November avoided the ship's destruction, assisted in the evacuation of the ship, and later landed on the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes, gaining the nickname "The Survivor".[40] Owing to the rapid spread of fire and smoke aboard Atlantic Conveyor after the Exocet strike, it was not possible to fly any of the helicopters that remained on the ship's deck.[41]

One Argentine Army Chinook was captured intact by British Army after the surrender. RAF Chinooks were part of an estimated force of forty helicopters in the British task force, alongside Westland Sea King and Westland Wessex helicopters.[42]

Post-war, four Chinooks were operated by "ChinDet" (Chinook Detachment) which became No.1310 Flight in 1983. Subsequently, No. 78 Squadron was re-formed in 1986 from the merger of No. 1310 Flight and No.1564 Flight (Sea Kings) and operated two Chinooks as part of the Falklands Garrison. This was reduced to a single helicopter in the mid-1990s and the type was eventually withdrawn from the Falklands in 2006, in order to free up resources and aircraft for operations in Afghanistan.[43]

Northern Ireland edit

Memorial to the June 1994 crash

RAF Chinooks provided routine supply and support missions to the British military during Operation Banner in Northern Ireland. On 2 June 1994, a Chinook flying from RAF Aldergrove to Scotland crashed on the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland killing all 25 passengers and all four crew members, it is widely regarded as the RAF's fourth-worst peacetime disaster.[44][45][46]

First Gulf War edit

The Chinook became a vital transit tool during the 1991 Gulf War in Iraq. They were used for moving troops into the region at the start of the conflict;[47] a Chinook was used on 22 January 1991 to transport a Special Air Service (SAS) patrol on the famous Bravo Two Zero mission.[48][49] In the aftermath of the conflict as many as nine British Chinooks delivered food and supplies to thousands of Kurdish refugees from Iraq.[50][51]

Kosovo edit

RAF Chinook HC2 in 2008

On 6 June 1999, two Chinooks of No. 7 Squadron left RAF Odiham in Hampshire, carrying paratroopers to join NATO forces serving in the Balkans;[52] six more arrived the following week in Kosovo to support operations such as casualty evacuations and transporting vital supplies.[53] On 12 June 1999, waves of Chinooks, escorted by Westland Lynx and American AH-64 Apache attack helicopters, were used to rapidly deploy British infantry forces into Kosovo as a part of NATO's first phase of deployment.[54] On 10 August 1999, hundreds of Chinooks around the world, including those used by the British armed forces, were grounded due to cracking discovered in the landing gear of a British helicopter during routine inspection.[55]

Sierra Leone edit

In May 2000, several Chinook helicopters airlifted British and European Union citizens out of Freetown in Sierra Leone in an evacuation due to regional instability.[56] In September 2000, Chinooks were being used to evacuate casualties from fighting in Freetown to RFA Sir Percivale, a support ship docked there.[57]

Lebanon edit

In July 2006, three Chinook helicopters of No. 27 Squadron deployed to RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus to evacuate British citizens from Lebanon;[58] the squadron also flew the EU foreign affairs representative Javier Solana to Beirut at the start of the crisis.[59]

Afghanistan edit

HC2 ZH775 with HH-60M MEDEVAC in background at Kandahar, 2010

Chinook helicopters were relied upon heavily to support the British forces in Afghanistan continuously from the start of the war in Afghanistan in 2001;[2] Operation Snipe saw the helicopters used to assist the 1,000 British Commandos sweeping a region of southeastern Afghanistan.[60] Due to the threat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) scattered throughout the terrain by insurgents, transport helicopters have become highly valued and demanded units in this style of warfare.[61][62] By April 2006, six Chinooks had been deployed by C-17A Globemaster III transport aircraft to Kandahar in Southern Afghanistan, in support of Operation Herrick.[63] Two RAF Chinooks were lost in August 2009 during combat operations with the Taliban, one of which was brought down by enemy fire,[64][65] in spite of warnings months before of Taliban plans to attack the helicopters.[66]

RAF Chinook firing flares over Afghanistan, 2015

The continued operation of the fleet was made more cost effective when maintenance and support regimes were altered in 2006 and 2007.[67] On 15 December 2009, the British government announced its Future Helicopter Strategy including the purchase of twenty-four new build Chinooks, twenty-two to expand the force and two to replace losses in Afghanistan, to be delivered to the RAF from 2012.[68][69] The number of additional Chinooks was cut by twelve in the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010.[70][71] This brought the total fleet size to sixty aircraft; as of 2009, the RAF had forty-eight Chinooks in inventory.[1]

Northern Mali edit

A British RAF Chinook on deployment to Mali

In July 2018, three RAF Chinook helicopters were deployed to assist French forces in the Northern Mali conflict with logistics and troop movement.[72]

Variants edit

A RIB of the Royal Marines slung from a Chinook in 2009
The Chinook has been the workhorse of Operation Herrick in Afghanistan
Chinook HC1
New-build aircraft for the RAF based on the CH-47C, forty-one built.
Chinook HC1B
Modification of the forty-one HC1s with metal rotor blades, survivors converted to HC2.
Chinook HC2
Conversion by Boeing of thirty-two surviving HC1Bs to CH-47D standard, and three new build-aircraft
Chinook HC2A
Similar to the HC2 with strengthened fuselage using milled structure manufacturing techniques, six built.
Chinook HC3
Special forces variant based on the CH-47SD, eight built.
Chinook HC4
HC2/2A aircraft with upgraded engines and avionics under Project Julius. Forty-six conversions planned.
Chinook HC5
HC3 aircraft with upgraded avionics under Project Julius and the replacement of the analogue flight control systems with the Boeing Digital Automatic Flight Control System (DAFCS).
Chinook HC6
New-build Chinooks announced in 2009, originally twenty-four aircraft, later reduced to fourteen[73] (twelve new helicopters plus two attrition replacements). The final aircraft were delivered in December 2015.[74]
Chinook HC6A
Upgrade of the HC4 Chinooks, with the replacement of the analogue flight control systems with the Boeing Digital Automatic Flight Control System (DAFCS).

Operators edit

Apache and Chinook at sea on HMS Ocean in November 2014

RAF Odiham

RAF Benson

  • No. 28 Squadron – Joint Chinook and Puma HC2 Operational Conversion Unit, 2015 onwards

Notable incidents and accidents edit

13 May 1986
Chinook HC1 ZA715 crashed in bad weather in the Falkland Islands. The helicopter, with four crew and twelve troops, crashed into a hill four miles from its destination. With rescuers hampered by blizzards, the personnel were recovered but one crew member had died shortly after the crash, and the co-pilot and a soldier died on the way to hospital. The board of inquiry concluded that the crew had become disorientated due to "white-out" conditions.[76]
27 February 1987
Chinook HC1 ZA721 crashed in the Falkland Islands on a test flight following servicing. After leaving RAF Mount Pleasant, the helicopter was at a normal cruising speed and an altitude of between 300 and 700 feet when it nosed down and crashed into the ground about six kilometres south-east of the airfield; it was destroyed by a subsequent fire. The board of inquiry was unable to determine the exact cause but it may have been the forward-swivelling upper boost actuator jamming. All seven on board, three crew and four technicians, were killed.[77]
6 May 1988
Chinook HC1 ZA672 hit a pier at Hannover Airport while taxiing into position in a confined space. Its front rotor struck the underside of Pier 10, causing the helicopter to rear up vertically and then fall on its side. A fire started at the rear of the fuselage and soon spread. Three crew members were killed and one had major injuries; the Chinook was destroyed.[78]
2 June 1994
Chinook HC2 ZD576 crashed on the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland, killing all 25 passengers and all four crew members; the cause is disputed.[79][80][81]
19 August 2009
Chinook HC2 ZA709 made an emergency landing following a rocket propelled grenade (RPG) strike and subsequent engine fire after a cargo drop-off just north of Sangin in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. The Chinook flew two kilometres to a safe area before landing. None of the crew sustained any injuries and all evacuated the aircraft before they were rescued by a second Chinook on the same sortie. The damaged aircraft was then destroyed by coalition air strikes to prevent it falling into the hands of the Taliban.[64][82]
30 August 2009
Chinook HC2 ZA673 made a hard landing while on operations near Sangin, Helmand province. It suffered damage to the undercarriage, nose and front rotor, but the crew and fifteen soldiers on board were unharmed. According to the Ministry of Defence it was not possible to safely recover the aircraft due to the location of the crash and it was destroyed with explosives deliberately. The cause of the hard landing was investigated, although it was not thought to have been shot down.[65]

Aircraft on display edit

Specifications (Chinook HC2) edit

Orthographically projected diagram of the Boeing Vertol CH-47 Chinook.

Data from Royal Air Force[1][13]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3–4 (pilot, copilot, one or two air loadmasters depending on aircraft role)
  • Capacity: 55 soldiers and equipment
  • Length: 98 ft 9 in (30.10 m)
  • Height: 18 ft 8 in (5.69 m)
  • Empty weight: 22,450 lb (10,183 kg)
  • Gross weight: 26,680 lb (12,102 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 50,000 lb (22,680 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Honeywell T55-GA-712 turboshaft engines, 3,750 shp (2,800 kW) each
  • Main rotor diameter: 2 × 60 ft 0 in (18.29 m)
  • Main rotor area: 5,655.2 sq ft (525.39 m2)
  • Blade section: - root: Boeing VR-7; tip: Boeing VR-8[86]


  • Maximum speed: 159 kn (183 mph, 294 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 18,500 ft (5,600 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,980 ft/min (10.1 m/s)


See also edit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c RAF Chinook HC2/2A/3 page Archived 2 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 20 July 2009.
  2. ^ a b Great Britain: Parliament (2009). (RAF). p. 57.
  3. ^ "Final new-build Chinook HC6s delivered to UK RAF". 10 December 2015.
  4. ^ "United Kingdom – H-47 Chinook (Extended Range) Helicopters and Accessories". United States Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 19 October 2018. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  5. ^ Baldwin, Harriett (7 December 2017). "Chinook Helicopters: Written question – 116751". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  6. ^ British Military Aircraft Serials and Markings. British Aviation Research Group. 1983. ISBN 0-906339-04-9.
  7. ^ Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 27 November 1967. col. 65. {{cite book}}: |chapter-url= missing title (help)
  8. ^ "Britain Cancels Order for Boeing Copters As Part of Sharp Cutback in Arms Spending". The Wall Street Journal. 24 November 1967.
  9. ^ "Boeing Unit to Make Helicopters for U.K. In $200 Million Job". The Wall Street Journal. 9 February 1978.
  10. ^ "First and Final Add to Boeing Vertol's release on international Chinook deliveries". PR Newswire. 23 December 1986.[dead link]
  11. ^ "After Four-Day Rally, Stocks End Week Higher". Miami Herald. 21 October 1989.
  12. ^ Belden, Tom (21 May 1982). "This Whirlybird's an early bird: Boeing Vertol's Army copter delivered on budget". The Philadelphia Inquirer.
  13. ^ a b c "RAF Aircraft: Chinook HC Mk2". Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  14. ^ "Boeing and Westland split British helicopter order". The New York Times. 10 March 1995. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  15. ^ "RAF Special Ops Chinook fiasco". Elite Forces UK. 4 June 2008.
  16. ^ Burden 1986, p. 75
  17. ^ "MoD uses 'cut and shut' chopper". BBC News. 18 July 2009.
  18. ^ Hoyle, Craig (12 February 2006). "Boeing lifts massive UK Chinook deal". Flight International.
  19. ^ a b c "Chinook blunder 'left RAF short'". BBC News. 7 April 2004.
  20. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Ministry of Defence – Battlefield Helicopters". National Audit Office. 7 April 2004.
  22. ^ a b Evans, Michael (25 August 2009). "The Times". Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  23. ^ Jon, Lake (December 2006). "Fleetlands To Fix Chinook HC Mk3s?". Air Forces Monthly. Key Publishing Ltd. p. 4.
  24. ^ Hoyle, Craig (14 January 2010). "UK confirms plan to deploy 'new' Chinooks to Afghanistan". Flight International.
  25. ^ "More battlefield helicopters for UK Armed Forces". Ministry of Defence. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007.
  26. ^ Evans, Michael (4 June 2008). "£500m 'wasted' on Chinooks that have never flown". The Times. London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  27. ^ Hoyle, Craig (6 June 2008). "UK starts Chinook HC Mk3 'reversion' work, amid criticism". Flight International.
  28. ^ "Modified Boeing Chinook Mk3 Successfully Completes 1st Test Flight". Boeing. 7 July 2009.
  29. ^ "U.K. Chinook Plans Coalesce". Aviation Week. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010. [dead link]
  30. ^ "UK Joint Helicopter Command". Combat Aircraft Monthly: 54. October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  31. ^ Parsons, Gary. "First Project Julius Chinook flies" Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Key Publishing via, 24 January 2011.
  32. ^ Hoyle, Craig (16 November 2012). "U.K. readies upgraded Chinooks for Afghanistan début". Flight International.
  33. ^ "Final new-build Chinook HC6s delivered to UK RAF". Flight Global. 10 December 2015.
  34. ^ "RAF upgrading HC4 Chinooks to new HC6A standard". IHS Janes. 27 July 2017. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  35. ^ "Question for Ministry of Defence – Chinook Helicopters (UIN 128201)". UK Parliament. 28 February 2022.
  36. ^ Felstead, Peter (14 March 2024). "Deal finally agreed for RAF to receive 14 new extended-range Chinooks - European Security & Defence". Retrieved 10 April 2024.
  37. ^ "Bravo November – the RAF's Most Famous Chinook". RAF Museum. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  38. ^ Ethell and Price 1983, pp. 147–148.
  39. ^ "RAF - Royal Air Force CH47 Chinook 'Bravo November'". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  40. ^ Parsons, Gary (18 March 2008). "The legend of 'Bravo November'". Air-Scene UK. Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  41. ^ Ethell and Price 1983, pp. 151–152.
  42. ^ "British air and land forces outnumbered". The Boston Globe. 21 May 1982. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  43. ^ "MoD forced to hire civilian helicopters in Afghanistan". Pak Tribune. 16 October 2006.
  44. ^ "31 Killed in R.A.F. Transport". The Times. London, England. 16 October 1945. p. 4; Issue 50274.
  45. ^ "41 Killed on Parachute Training Flight". The Times. No. 56367. London. 7 July 1965. col C, p. 10.
  46. ^ Peter Nichols (10 November 1971). "RAF Plane crashed in Italy, killing 52". The Times. No. 58321. London. p. 1.
  47. ^ Howlett, Debbie (28 February 1991). "Routing Iraq: Strategy, sleight of hand; Allied commander provides a comprehensive account". USA Today.
  48. ^ Hanks, Robert (19 November 2004). "Andy McNab: The hidden face of war". The Independent. London.
  49. ^ Lowry (2003). The Gulf War Chronicles. p. 27.
  50. ^ Pope, Hugh (24 April 1991). "Wartime Allies Now Combine to Carry Aid to Kurds Refugees: The number of countries helping reflects the groundswell of Western concern for their plight". Wartime Allies Now Combine to Carry Aid to Kurds Refugees: The number of countries helping reflects the groundswell of Western concern for their plight.
  51. ^ "U.S. Troops in Turkey start relief-supply base". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 17 April 1991.
  52. ^ "Chinooks head for Kosovo". Sunday Mail. 6 June 1999. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
  53. ^ Black, Ian (27 May 1999). "Britain to send 12,000 more troops". The Guardian. London.
  54. ^ "UK leads Nato into Kosovo". BBC News. 12 June 1999.
  55. ^ "Chinook safety probe launched". BBC News. 10 August 1999.
  56. ^ Austin, Mark (10 May 2000). "Once more on to the Chinook as Sister Celia takes her leave again". The Independent. London.[dead link]
  57. ^ "Paras tell of their fear under fire; 'It was scary but once we got into the fighting, the training took over'". The Herald. 12 September 2000.
  58. ^ "Mass rescue for Lebanon Britons". BBC News. 20 July 2006.
  59. ^ "Factsheet: Emergency in Lebanon". Ministry of Defence. 20 July 2006. Archived from the original on 16 March 2010.
  60. ^ Clements 2003, pp. 62–63.
  61. ^ "Royal Marine Commandos in Afghanistan". Royal Navy. 18 April 2002. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
  62. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (15 July 2009). "MPs' report to say helicopter shortage puts troops at risk in Afghanistan". The Guardian. London.
  63. ^ Hoyle, Craig (15 April 2006). "Road to Helmand". Flight International.
  64. ^ a b "UK Chinook 'did come under fire'". BBC News. 21 August 2009.
  65. ^ a b "UK Chinook damaged in Afghanistan". BBC News. 30 August 2009.
  66. ^ Harding, Thomas (2 May 2009). "Taliban planning to down British Chinook". The Telegraph. London.
  67. ^ Great Britain: Parliament (2006). (RAF). pp. 50, 58.
  68. ^ "As Cuts Loom, Britain Orders 24 Chinooks From Boeing"[dead link], Defense News, 15 December 2009
  69. ^ "MoD to buy 22 new Chinooks". The Telegraph. London. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original on 18 December 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  70. ^ "Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review" (PDF). HM Government. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  71. ^ Hoyle, Craig (22 October 2010). "ANALYSIS: Winners and losers of the UK defence review". Flight International. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  72. ^ Nicholls, Dominic (20 July 2018). "Britain risks 'open ended' conflict in Mali in bid to protect European security". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  73. ^ "Defence equipment budget rises as Future Force takes shape". Ministry of Defence. 18 July 2011.
  74. ^ "Final new-build Chinook HC6s delivered to UK RAF". FlightGlobal. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  75. ^ "RAF Odiham". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  76. ^ "MoD Military Aircraft Accident Summary – Chinook HC Mk1 ZA715" (PDF). 8 November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  77. ^ "MoD Military Aircraft Accident Summary – Aircraft Accident to Royal Air Force Chinook HC Mk1 ZA721" (PDF). 17 March 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  78. ^ "MoD Military Aircraft Accident Summary Chinook HC MK1 ZA672" (PDF). 8 November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2011.
  79. ^ "Chinook ZD 576 – Report". House of Lords – UK Parliament. 31 January 2002.
  80. ^ "Chinook crash 'may have been caused by software faults'". BBC News. 4 January 2009.
  81. ^ Page, Lewis (4 January 2010). "Please shut up about the Mull of Kintyre Chinook crash: RAF Chinook fleet is actually a rare MoD success story". The Register.
  82. ^ Meade, Geoff (24 September 2009). "Lost Chopper 'Brought Down By Taliban'". Sky News. BskyB. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  83. ^ "Boeing CH47D Chinook (Forward fuselage section)". Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  84. ^ "Aircraft List". Newark Air Museum. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  85. ^ "Helicopter legend 'Bravo November' heads to Cosford". Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  86. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". Retrieved 16 April 2019.

Bibliography edit

External links edit