National Directorate of Security
|Dari: ریاست عمومی امنیت ملی |
Pashto: د ملي امنیت ریاست
Riyasat-e Amniyat-e Milli
|Website||Official website (registered but offline)|
The National Directorate of Security was founded as the primary domestic and foreign intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in 2002, and is considered the successor to KHAD, which was the previous intelligence organization before the Afghan Civil War (1996–2001).
As the primary intelligence organ of Afghanistan, the NDS shares information with ministries of Afghanistan and with provincial authorities. The NDS also cooperates with the American CIA, the Indian RAW, the Pakistani ISI, and other NATO intelligence agencies.
After the ouster of the Taliban in 2002, the NDS warned ISI about exiled militant commanders and al-Qaeda operatives hiding in Pakistan. In early 2006, intelligence gathered from NDS detainees suggested Osama bin Laden resided in the western Pakistan town of Mansehra. A classified NDS paper completed in May, titled "Strategy of the Taliban," claimed ISI and Saudi Arabia restarted active support for the Taliban in 2005. Pakistan's military leadership sought to weaken and delegitimize Hamid Karzai's government, in order to prevent an alliance between Afghanistan and India.
In 2007, Amrullah Saleh's NDS used arrests and interrogations to discover the majority of suicide bombings in Afghanistan originated among Paushtuns from Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
During the April 2014 Afghan Presidential Election, the NDS, under Rahmatullah Nabil, collected thousands of signals intelligence indicating Ashraf Ghani's allies organized massive electoral fraud.
Directors and deputy headsEdit
The president of Afghanistan Ashraf Ghani is the Director.
- Muhammad Arif Sarwari (Oct. 2001 – Feb. 2004)
- Amrullah Saleh (Feb. 2004 – June 2010)
- Ibrahim Spinzada (June 2010 – July 2010) Acting
- Rahmatullah Nabil (July 2010 – September 2012) Hasamudin Hasam (deputy 2011) 
- Asadullah Khalid (September 2012 – August 2013)
- Rahmatullah Nabil (August 2013 – December 2015), Adib Fahim (appointed as deputy July 1, 2015)
- Mohammed Masoom Stanekzai (May 2016 - September 2019)
- Ahmad Zia Saraj (September 2019 - present)
- "Afghanistan appoints new Intelligence Chief of NDS". Times of Islamabad. 10 September 2019.
- United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. Treatment of Conflict-Related Detainees in Afghan Custody (PDF). UN Office of The High Commissioner for Human Rights, October 2011, Kabul. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
- BBC. Article. British Broadcasting Corporation - 14 August 2011. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
- Anthony H. Cordesman; Adam Mausner; Jason Lemieux. Afghan National Security Forces: What it Will Take to Implement the ISAF Strategy. CSIS 1 Jan 2010, 230 pages,. ISBN 0892066083. Retrieved 2015-07-29.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)(MOI is taken i.e. understood to refer to the Ministry of Interior according to page 62, not Ministry of Information)
- Abasin Zaheeron, ed. (May 20, 2012). "Iran, Pakistan out to weaken Afghanistan, MPs told". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Coll, Steve (2018). Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Penguin Press. pp. 214–217.
- Coll, Steve (2018). Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Penguin Press. pp. 260–265.
- Coll, Steve (2018). Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Penguin Press. pp. 649–651.
- Jessica Donati & Mirwais Harooni. reportage. published by Reuters Sat Mar 21, 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
- Carlotta Gall, ed. (August 19, 2010). "New Afghan Intelligence Chief Aims to Build Trust". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- news published by Office of the Chief Executive of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- Julian Richards – A Guide to National Security: Threats, Responses and Strategies published by OUP Oxford, 23 Feb 2012, ISBN 0199655065
- Jared N. Gehmann (Sgt.) – focus – published by Afghanistan Resolute Support (Nato)
- Sylvana Q. Sinha (of the Weil's International Arbitration and Trade Practice Group – World Justice Project) – prison visit to view NDS detainees December 10, 2012
- Independent Strategy and Intelligence Study Group – report June 2, 2015:The NDS disrupt a plot