Kingdom of Afghanistan
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The Kingdom of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian: پادشاهي افغانستان, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan. It was proclaimed by its first king, Amanullah Khan, seven years after his accession to the throne.
Kingdom of Afghanistan
د افغانستان واکمنان (in Pashto)
Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān
پادشاهي افغانستان ‹See Tfd›(in Persian)
Anthem: Schahe ghajur-o-mehrabane ma (1943–1973)
(English: "Our Brave And Noble King")
|Common languages||Pashto, Persian|
|Mohammed Nadir Shah|
|Mohammed Zahir Shah|
|Mohammad Khan (first)|
|Mohammad Shafiq (last)|
|Historical era||Interwar Period · Cold War|
• Succeeds Afghan emirate
|9 June 1926|
|17 July 1973|
|1973||647,500 km2 (250,000 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||AF|
|Today part of||Afghanistan|
Amanullah Khan was keen on modernizing the country, resulting in conservative forces causing social upheaval on a number of occasions. When he was visiting Europe in 1927, rebellion broke out again. He abdicated in favour of his brother Inayatullah Khan who only ruled for three days before the leader of the rebellion Habibullah Kalakani took power and reinstated the Emirate.
After 10 months, Amanullah Khan's Minister of War, Mohammed Nadir, returned from exile in British India. His British-supported armies sacked Caubul, forcing Habibullah Kalakani to discuss a truce. Instead, Mohammed Nadir's forces apprehended and subsequently executed Kalakani. Mohammed Nadir reinstated the kingdom, was proclaimed King of Afghanistan in October 1929, and went on to revert the reformist path of the last king, Amanullah Khan. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah, whose rule started in 1933 and lasted for 39 years. Mohammed Zahir Shah, the last King of Afghanistan, was eventually overthrown by his own cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan who successfully ended the centuries-old monarchy and established a republican Afghan government. It was under the leadership of Zahir Shah that the Afghan government sought relationships with the outside world, most notably with the Soviet Union, France, United Kingdom and the United States.
On 27 September 1934, during the reign of Zahir Shah, the Kingdom of Afghanistan joined the League of Nations. During World War II, Afghanistan remained neutral and pursued a diplomatic policy of non-alignment. Mohammed Daoud Khan, Prime Minister of Afghanistan at the time, worked hard for development of modern industries, and education in the country. In July 1973, Daoud Khan staged a bloodless coup d'état while Zahir Shah was not in the country. The next month, Zahir Shah abdicated, hoping to avoid a civil war, which officially marked the end of the Kingdom of Afghanistan, and the beginning of the republic.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan bordered Iran on the west, the Soviet Union in the north, China on the east, and Pakistan on the south. The mountainous and mostly dry country was 251,830 square miles. The strange shape and borders were a result of Afghanistan being made a buffer between Russia and Britain. The Wakhan Corridor is a good example of the buffer.
Like the past and present day Afghanistan, the Kingdom's economy was heavily based on agriculture. The United States and Soviet Union both invested in Afghanistan's economy to try to gain influence during the Cold War.