Demographics of Afghanistan

The population of Afghanistan is around 37,466,414 as of 2021,[1] which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.[6] The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, and Western Asia. Ethnic groups in the country include Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbeks, Nuristanis, Aimaq, Turkmen, Baloch and a number of others which are less known.[7][1][8]

Demographics of Afghanistan
Afghanistan single age population pyramid 2020.png
Afghanistan population pyramid in 2020
Population37,466,414 (2021)[1]
Growth rate2.34% (2016)
Birth rate38.3 births/1,000 population (2016)
Death rate13.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016)
Life expectancy63.2 years (2019)[2][3]
 • male63.3 years
 • female63.2 years
Fertility rate5.33 children born/woman (2015)
Infant mortality rate66.3 deaths/1,000 live births[4]
Age structure
0–14 years42.3% (male 6,464,070/female 6,149,468)
15–64 years55.3% (male 8,460,486/female 8,031,968)
65 and over2.4% (male 349,349/female 380,051)
Sex ratio
At birth1.05 male/female
Under 151.03 male/female
15–64 years1.04 male/female
65 and over0.87 male/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Afghan(s)
Major ethnicPashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and others
Language
OfficialPashto and Dari[5]
SpokenDari, Pashto, Hazaragi, Uzbeki and other

Approximately 46% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 74% of all Afghans live in rural areas.[4] The average woman gives birth to five children during her entire life, the highest fertility rate outside of Africa. About 6.8% of all babies die in child-birth or infancy.[4] The average life expectancy of the nation was reported in 2019 at around 63 years,[2][3] and only 0.04% of the population has HIV.[1]

Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country.[5] Dari, which is known as the Afghan Persian, historically functioned as the lingua franca. Pashto is widely used in the regions south of the Hindu Kush mountains and as far as the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan. Uzbek and Turkmen are smaller languages spoken in parts of the north.[1] Multilingualism is common throughout the country, especially in the major cities.

Islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistan's citizens. Up to 89.7% of the population practices Sunni Islam and belongs to the Hanafi Islamic law school, while 10–15% are followers of Shia Islam;[1][9] the majority of whom belong to the Twelver branch, with smaller numbers of Ismailis. The remaining 0.3% practice other religions such as Sikhism and Hinduism. Excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most people are organized into tribal and other kinship-based groups, who follow their own traditional customs. About 74% of the country's population lives in rural areas and 26% in the cities.

Population statisticsEdit

HistoricalEdit

 
Sport fans inside the Ghazi Stadium in the capital of Kabul, which is multi-ethnic and the largest city of Afghanistan.

The first census of Afghanistan was carried out only in 1979 year, but before that there were scattered attempts to conduct censuses in individual cities.[10] According to the 1876 year census, Kabul had a population of 140,700 people.[11] In Kandahar in 1891 year a population census was carried out, according to which 31,514 people lived in the city, of which 16,064 were men and 15,450 were women.[12]

The population was reported in 1979 at about 15.5 million.[13][14] From 1979 until the end of 1983, some 5 million people left the country to take shelter in neighboring northwestern Pakistan and eastern Iran. This exodus was largely unchecked by any government. The Afghan government in 1983 reported a population of 15.96 million, which presumably included the exodus.[15]

It is assumed that roughly 600,000 to as high as 2 million Afghans may have been killed during the various 1979–2001 wars.[16] These figures are questionable and no attempt has ever been made to verify if they were actually killed or had moved to neighboring countries as refugees.[15]

Current and latestEdit

As of 2021, the total population of Afghanistan is around 37,466,414,[1][17] which includes the 3 million Afghan nationals living in both Pakistan and Iran.[6] About 26% of the population is urbanite and the remaining 74% lives in rural areas.[1]

Afghanistan's Central Statistics Organization (CSO) stated in 2011 that the total number of Afghans living inside Afghanistan was about 26 million[6] and by 2017 it reached 29.2 million. Of this, 15 million are males and 14.2 million are females.[18] The country's population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050.[19]

Urban areas have experienced rapid population growth in the last decade, which is due to the return of over 5 million expats. The only city in Afghanistan with over a million residents is its capital, Kabul. The other largest cities in the country are shown in the chart below.

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid 2016

0–14 years: 40.62% (male 7,562,703/female 7,321,646)
15-24 years: 21.26% (male 3,960,044/female 3,828,670)
25-54 years: 31.44% (male 5,858,675/female 5,661,887)
55-64 years: 4.01% (male 724,597/female 744,910)
65 years and over: 2.68% (male 451,852/female 528,831) (2020 est.)

Population growth rateEdit

2.34% (2021)[1]
country comparison to the world: 39

UrbanizationEdit

 
Young Afghans at a music festival inside the Gardens of Babur in Kabul.

urbanization population: 26% of the total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 3.37% annual rate of change (2015-20)

Sex ratioEdit

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2020)

Vital statisticsEdit

UN estimatesEdit

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 403,000 295,000 108,000 52.9 36.9 16.0 7.45 275.0
1955–1960 440,000 291,000 149,000 52.9 34.8 18.1 7.45 260.6
1960–1965 488,000 295,000 192,000 52.8 32.7 20.2 7.45 245.4
1965–1970 545,000 304,000 242,000 52.6 30.3 22.4 7.45 228.1
1970–1975 610,000 313,000 297,000 52.1 27.9 24.2 7.45 211.4
1975–1980 657,000 307,000 350,000 51.5 25.6 26.0 7.45 194.5
1980–1985 630,000 259,000 371,000 51.8 24.1 27.7 7.45 182.8
1985–1990 597,000 207,000 390,000 52.2 22.7 29.5 7.47 171.9
1990–1995 714,000 210,000 505,000 52.6 21.4 31.2 7.48 161.8
1995–2000 914,000 239,000 675,000 52.4 20.1 32.3 7.65 152.3
2000–2005 1,057,000 248,000 810,000 48.4 18.3 30.1 7.18 143.7
2005–2010 1,142,000 240,000 902,000 45.1 16.8 28.3 6.37 136.0
2010–2015 1,130,000 233,000 897,000 45.1 16.8 28.3 5.26 136.0
2015–2020 1,158,000 234,000 924,000 45.1 16.8 28.3 4.41 136.0
2020–2025 1,167,000 240,000 927,000 45.1 16.8 28.3 3.71 136.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
<Source:[21]

Fertility and birthsEdit

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[22]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2010 35.6 5.1 34.7 4.5 35.9 5.2
2015 36.8 5.3 (4.4) 35.8 4.8 (3.7) 37.1 5.4 (4.6)

Fertility data by province (DHS Program):[23]

Province Total fertility rate
(2015)
Kabul 4.6
Kapisa 4.8
Parwan 5.7
Wardak 4.2
Logar 4.2
Nangarhar 6.4
Laghman 7.3
Panjshir 3.2
Baghlan 4.4
Bamyan 5.4
Ghazni 2.8
Paktika 5.3
Paktia 5.2
Khost 5.6
Kunar 6.8
Nuristan 8.9
Badakhshan 5.3
Takhar 5.7
Kunduz 4.4
Samangan 5.1
Balkh 5.5
Sar-e Pol 4.8
Ghor 5.8
Daykundi 5.2
Urozgan 8.8
Zabul 5.1
Kandahar 6.5
Jawzjan 3.9
Faryab 6.2
Helmand 4.7
Badghis 6.6
Herat 4.8
Farah 5.4
Nimruz 5.4

Structure of the populationEdit

Structure of the population (2012.01.07) (Data refer to the settled population based on the 1979 Population Census and the latest household prelisting. The refugees of Afghanistan in Iran, Pakistan, and an estimated 1.5 million nomads, are not included):[24]

Life expectancyEdit

total population: 63.2 years (2019)[2][3][25]
country comparison to the world: 214
male: 63.3 years (2019)[2]
female: 63.2 years (2019)[2]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 28.6 1985–1990 47.7
1955–1960 31.1 1990–1995 51.7
1960–1965 33.4 1995–2000 54.2
1965–1970 35.6 2000–2005 56.9
1970–1975 37.8 2005–2010 60.0
1975–1980 40.4 2010–2015 62.3
1980–1985 43.6 2015-2020 63.2

Source: UN World Population Prospects[26]

Development and health indicatorsEdit

 
Gathering of students in 2006 at a school in Nangarhar Province.

LiteracyEdit

Definition: People over the age of 15 that can read and write
Total population: 43% (2018)[1]
Male: 55.5%
Female: 29.8%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)Edit

total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2018)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rateEdit

0.04% (2015)[1]

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDSEdit

Up to 6,900 (2015 estimate)[1][27]

In 2008, health officials in Afghanistan reported 504[28] cases of people living with HIV but by the end of 2012 the numbers reached 1,327. The nation's healthy ministry stated that most of the HIV patients were among intravenous drug users and that 70% of them were men, 25% women, and the remaining 5% children. They belonged to Kabul, Kandahar and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring and foreign countries.[29] Regarding Kandahar, 22 cases were reported in 2012. "AIDS Prevention department head Dr Hamayoun Rehman said 1,320 blood samples were examined and 21 were positive. Among the 21 patients, 18 were males and three were females who contracted the deadly virus from their husbands. He said four people had reached a critical stage while three had died. The main source of the disease was the use of syringes used by drug addicts."[30] There are approximately 23,000 addicts in the country who inject drugs into their bodies using syringes
country comparison to the world: 168

HIV/AIDS – deathsEdit

Up to 300 (2015 estimate)[1]

Major infectious diseasesEdit

Degree of risk: high

  • Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
  • Vector-borne diseases: malaria
  • Animal contact diseases: rabies

Note: WH5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk as of 2009.[citation needed]

Ethnic groupsEdit

In recent years, a nationwide distribution of Afghan e-ID cards (e-Tazkiras) began. The ethnicity of each citizen is provided in the application. This process is expected to reveal the exact figures about the size and composition of the country's ethnic groups.[31] Article Four of the Afghan Constitution mentions 14 ethnic groups by names but some Afghans belong to other such groups.[7] An approximate distribution of the ethnolinguistic groups are listed in the chart below:

 
A 2005 CIA map showing the various Afghan tribal territories
 
Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan in 2001
 
Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan in 1982
Ethnic groups in Afghanistan
Ethnic group Image Recent estimate[32] Pre-2004 estimates[33][34][35]
Pashtun   42% 38-50%
Tajik   27% 25–26.3% (of this 1% is Qizilbash)
Hazara   9% 12-19%
Uzbek   9% 6-8%
Aimak 4% 500,000-800,000 individuals
Turkmen 3% 2.5%
Baloch   2% 100,000 individuals
Others (Pashai, Nuristani, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri, Gujjar, etc.)   4% 6.9%

The recent estimate in the above chart is somewhat supported by the below national opinion polls, which were aimed at knowing how a group of about 804 to 8,706 local residents in Afghanistan felt about the current war, political situation, as well as the economic and social issues affecting their daily lives. Ten surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2015 by the Asia Foundation (a sample is shown in the table below; the survey in 2015 did not contain information on the ethnicity of the participants) and one between 2004 and 2009 by a combined effort of the broadcasting companies NBC News, BBC, and ARD.[36][37]

Answers regarding ethnicity provided by 804 to 13,943 Afghans in national opinion polls
Ethnic group "Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (2004–2009)[37] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2006)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2007)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2012)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2014)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2018)[36]
Tajik 25-35% 39.1% 35% 36% 38% 37%
Pashtun 47-57% 47.9% 47% 48% 48% 46%
Hazara 15% 17% 16-18% 18% 20% 25%
Uzbek 8% 10% 13% 14% 14% 15%
Aimak 10-15% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Turkmen 1-2% 1.7% 3% 2% 2% 2%
Baloch 2% 5% 6% 6% 8% 10%
Others (Pashayi, Nuristani, Arab, Qizilbash.) 0-4% 1.4% 2% 3% 5% 5%
No opinion 0-2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

LanguagesEdit

Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of Afghanistan.[5] Dari, which is recognized as the Afghan Persian, has been historically the language resorted to when people of different ethnic groups need to conduct business or otherwise communicate. In recent years, however, both official languages must be understood in order to obtain employment with the central government, especially as a politician.

Hazaragi, Uzbeki and Turkmeni are spoken as native languages in the central and northern provinces, mainly among the Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen tribes. Smaller number of Afghans are also fluent in English, Urdu, Balochi, Arabic and other languages. An approximate distribution of languages spoken in the country is shown in the chart below:

Languages of Afghanistan
Language Recent estimate[38] Pre-1992 estimates[33][39][40]
Dari 77% 25-50%
Pashto 48% 50-55%
Uzbek 11% 9%
English 6%
Turkmen 3% 500,000 speakers
Urdu 3%
Pashayi 1%
Nuristani 1%
Arabic 1%
Balochi 1%
1 note: data represent most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because there is much bilingualism in the country and because respondents were allowed to select more than one language


note: the Turkic languages Uzbek and Turkmen, as well as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani, and Pamiri are the third official languages in areas where the majority speaks them
[38]

Based on information from the latest national opinion polls, up to 79% stated that they can speak or understand Pashto and up to 51% stated that they can speak or understand Dari. Uzbeki was spoken or understood by up to 11% and Turkmen by up to 7%. Other languages that can be spoken are Arabic (4%) and Balochi (2%).[36][37]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Afghanistan (2009)[1]
Religion Percent
Islam
99.7%
others
0.3%
 
Afghan politicians and foreign diplomats praying at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul.

Almost the entire Afghan population is Muslim, with less than 1% being non-Muslim. Despite attempts to secularize Afghan society, Islamic practices pervade all aspects of life. Likewise, Islamic religious tradition and codes, together with traditional practices, provide the principal means of controlling personal conduct and settling legal disputes. Islam was used as the main basis for expressing opposition to the modernization of Afghanistan by King Amanullah in the 1920s. It was also used by the mujahideen during the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War and by the Taliban today.

The members of Sikh and Hindu communities are mostly concentrated in urban areas. They numbered hundreds of thousands in the 1970s but over 90% have since fled due to the Afghan wars and persecution.[41]

National opinion polls (religion)
Religion "A survey of the Afghan people" (2004)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2006)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2007)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2008)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2009)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2010)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2011)[36] "A survey of the Afghan people" (2012)[36]
Sunni Islam 65% 67.9% 67% " " " " "
Shia Islam 27% 30.4% 32% " " " " "
Ismailism 1% 1.2% 0% " " " " "
Hinduism 0% 0.1% 0% " " " " "
Buddhism 0% 0.1% 0% " " " " "
Sikhism 0% 0.1% 0% " " " " "

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Afghanistan". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  3. ^ a b c "Afghanistan". United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2020. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  4. ^ a b c "Afghanistan". uis.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10.
  5. ^ a b c "Article Sixteen of the Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on October 28, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2012. From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
  6. ^ a b c Mohammad Jawad Sharifzada, ed. (November 20, 2011). "Afghanistan's population reaches 26m". Pajhwok Afghan News. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Critics: New Categories on Afghan IDs Will Incite Ethnic Tension". TOLOnews. March 17, 2021. Retrieved 2021-03-17. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ Lieven, Anatol (21 April 2016). "What Chance for Afghanistan?". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016 – via www.nybooks.com.
  9. ^ a b c "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  10. ^ CENSUS ii. In Afghanistan Encyclopædia Iranica
  11. ^ (Gazetteer of Afghanistan VI, p. 333).
  12. ^ Kandahar Newsletter, 10 August 1891, IOR L/P & S/7/63/1295
  13. ^ "United Nations and Afghanistan". UN News Centre. Retrieved 29 December 2013. Archived October 31, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment" (PDF). Afghanistan Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. pp. 105–06. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  15. ^ a b "Population". U.S. Library of Congress. 2008. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
  16. ^ "Afghanistan (1979–2001)". Archived from the original on 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
  17. ^ "Afghanistan". Worldmeters. www.worldmeters.info. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  18. ^ "Afghan Population 29.2 Million". www.pajhwok.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-11.
  19. ^ "Afghanistan – Population Reference Bureau". Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
  20. ^ "Afghan Population Estimates 1398" (PDF). Central Statistics Organization. 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  21. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision". un.org. Archived from the original on 2011-05-06.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2014-06-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "STATcompiler". www.statcompiler.com. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  24. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-31.
  25. ^ "Life expectancy in Afghanistan rises past 60 years". Pajhwok Afghan News. November 30, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  26. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  27. ^ "50pc surge in HIV cases, says Dalil". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 3, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  28. ^ Children at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan Archived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine. December 1, 2008.
  29. ^ "Over 1,300 HIV cases registered in Afghanistan". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 1, 2012. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
  30. ^ "AIDS patients have doubled in Kandahar: Official". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 2, 2012. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
  31. ^ Abasin Zaheer, ed. (May 26, 2013). "Senators stress caution in ID cards issuance". Pajhwok Afghan News. Archived from the original on June 12, 2014. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
  32. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20131014200908/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html?countryName=Afghanistan&countryCode=af&regionCode=sas&#af
  33. ^ a b "The World Factbok – Afghanistan". The World Factbook/Central Intelligence Agency. University of Missouri. October 15, 1991. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-20. _#_Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 27%, Tajik 46%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 9%-12%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and other
  34. ^ "Ethnic Groups". Library of Congress Country Studies. 1997. Archived from the original on 2009-01-10. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  35. ^ "PEOPLE – Ethnic divisions". The World Factbook/Central Intelligence Agency. University of Missouri. January 22, 1993. Retrieved 2011-03-20. Pashtun 36%, Tajik 43%, Uzbek 4%, Hazara 4%-7%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o See:
    • "Afghanistan in 2018 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. pp. 181–182. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Appendix 1: Target Demographics 181... Pashtun 58%, Tajik 37%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 10%, Turkmen 2%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 1%, Arab 2%, Pashaye 1%, Sadat 1%
    • "Afghanistan in 2012 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. pp. 181–182. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2012-11-28. Appendix 1: Target Demographics 181... Pashtun 58%, Tajik 25_35%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 11%, Turkmen 2%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 1%, Arab 2%, Pashaye 1%, Sadat 1%
    • "Afghanistan in 2010 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2010. pp. 225–226. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-03-20. D-9. Which ethnic group do you belong to? SINGLE RESPONSE ONLY Pashtun 48%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 10%, Turkmen 2%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 2%, Arab 2%
    • "Afghanistan in 2009: A Survey of the Afghan People" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-07. Retrieved 2012-11-28. The 2009 survey interviewed 6,406 Afghans (53% men and 47% women)
    • "Afghanistan in 2010 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2012-11-28. The 2008 survey interviewed 6,593 Afghans...
    • "Afghanistan in 2007 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2010. pp. 225–226. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-08-13. Retrieved 2011-03-20. The 2007 survey interviewed 6,406 Afghans, Which ethnic group do you belong to? SINGLE RESPONSE ONLY Pashtun 55%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 8%, Hazara 15%, Turkmen 8%, Baloch 1%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 1%, Arab 1%
    • "Afghanistan in 2006 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. pp. 83–88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-11-28. A total of 6,226 respondents were surveyed in the study, out of which 4888 (78.5%) were from the rural areas and 1338 (22%) were from the urban areas. Ethnicity: Pashtun 40.9, Tajik 37.1, Uzbek 9.2, Hazara 9.2, Turkmen 1.7, Baloch 0.5, Nuristani 0.4, Aimak 0.1, Arab 0.7, Pashayi 0.3
    • "Afghanistan in 2004 – A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2012-11-28. The 2004 survey interviewed 804 Afghans, Which ethnic group do you belong to? Pashtun 40%, Tajik 39%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 6%, Turkmen 1%, Baloch 0%, Nuristani 1%, Aimak 0%, Arab 1%, Pashaye 0%, Other 1%.
  37. ^ a b c "ABC NEWS/BBC/ARD poll - Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (PDF). ABC News. Kabul, Afghanistan. pp. 38–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
  38. ^ a b https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/languages
  39. ^ "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2010-10-10. A. Official languages. Pashto (1) is the language most spoken in Afghanistan. The native tongue of 65-70 % of the population. Persian (2) is the native tongue of 30-35 % of Afghans. Persian is split into numerous dialects.
  40. ^ "Languages of Afghanistan". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Archived from the original on 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
  41. ^ "Nearly 99% Of Hindus, Sikhs Left Afghanistan in Last Three decades". TOLOnews. 20 June 2016.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit