Balkh (Dari: بلخ, Balx) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country. It is divided into 15 districts[5] and has a population of about 1,509,183,[6] which is multi-ethnic and mostly a Persian-speaking society. The city of Mazar-i-Sharif serves as the capital of the province. The Mazar-i-Sharif International Airport and Camp Marmal sit on the eastern edge of Mazar-i-Sharif.

Balkh
بلخ
Map of Afghanistan with Balkh highlighted
Map of Afghanistan with Balkh highlighted
Coordinates: 36°45′N 67°0′E / 36.750°N 67.000°E / 36.750; 67.000
Country Afghanistan
CapitalMazar-i-Sharif
Government
 • GovernorVacant
 • Deputy GovernorNoorul Huda[1]
 • Police ChiefMatiullah[1]
Area
 • Total16,186.3 km2 (6,249.6 sq mi)
Population
 (2021)[3]
 • Total1,543,464
 • Density95/km2 (250/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Time)
Postal code
17xx
ISO 3166 codeAF-BAL
Main languagesPersian, Pashto, Turkmen and Uzbek
[4]

Balkh, also called Vazīrābād, the name of the province is derived from the ancient city of Balkh,[7] near the modern town. The city of Mazar-e-Sharif has been an important stop on the trade routes from the Far East to the Middle East, the Mediterranean and Europe. Home to the famous blue mosque, it was once destroyed by Genghis Khan but later rebuilt by Timur. The city of Balkh and the area of Balkh Province were considered a part of various historical regions in history including Ariana and Greater Khorasan.[8]

The province serves today as Afghanistan's second but main gateway to Central Asia, the other being Sherkhan Bandar in the Kunduz Province. Balkh Province borders Jowzjan, Sar-e Pol, Samangan and Kunduz provinces, and the Surxondaryo Region of Uzbekistan to the north.

Geography edit

Balkh Province is situated in the northern part of Afghanistan, bordering Turkmenistan in the north-west, bordering Uzbekistan in the north, Tajikistan in the north-east, Kunduz Province in the east, Samangan Province in the south-east, Sar-e Pol Province in the south-west and Jowzjan Province in the west. The province covers an area of 16,840 km2. Nearly half of the province is mountainous or semi-mountainous terrain (48.7%) while half of the area (50.2%) is made up of flat land.[9]

History edit

Ancient history edit

 
Goddesses, Bactria, Afghanistan, 2000–1800 BCE.

The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC, also known as the "Oxus civilization") is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to c. 2200–1700 BCE, located in present-day Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centered on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus), in area covering ancient Bactria. Its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi (1976). Bactria was the Greek name for the area of Bakhlo (modern Balkh), in what is now northern Afghanistan, and Margiana was the Greek name for the Persian satrapy of Margu, the capital of which was Merv, in today's Turkmenistan.

The early Greek historian Ctesias c. 400 BCE (followed by Diodorus Siculus) alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in ca. 2140 BC, or some 1000 years before the Trojan War. Ever since the discovery of cuneiform enabled actual Assyrian records to be deciphered in the 19th century, however, historians have ascribed little value to the Greek account.

According to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-European tribes who moved south-west into what is today Iran and into the north-western Indian Subcontinent (modern day Pakistan and India) around 2500–2000 BCE. Later, it became the northern province of the Achaemenid Empire.[10] It was in these regions, where the fertile soil of the mountainous country is surrounded by the Turanian desert, that the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra) was said to have been born and gained his first adherents. Avestan, the language of the oldest portions of the Zoroastrian Avesta, was one of the old Iranian languages, and is the oldest attested member of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Iranian language family.

It is suggested by E. Herzfeld that Bactria once belonged to the Median empire.[11] It was annexed by the Achaemenid Persians in the 6th century BCE and together with Margiana it formed the twelfth satrapy of the Achaemenids.[12] After Darius III of Persia was defeated by Alexander the Great and killed in the ensuing chaos, his murderer Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, tried to organize a national resistance based on his satrapie but was captured by other warlords and delivered to Alexander. He was then tortured and killed.[13]

Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Persia. However, in the south, beyond the Oxus, he met strong resistance. After two years of war Bactria was occupied by the Macedonians, but Alexander never successfully subdued the people. After Alexander's death, the Macedonian Empire was eventually divided up between several generals in Alexander's army. Bactria became part of Seleucus I, the founder of the Seleucid Empire.

 
Gold stater of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides, the largest gold coin of Antiquity.

"The famed Bactrian Empire of a thousand cities, wallowing in wealth (opulentissimum illud mille urbium Bactrianum imperium)"[14]

The many difficulties against which the Seleucid kings had to fight and the attacks of Ptolemy II of Egypt gave Diodotus, satrap of Bactria, the opportunity to declare independence (about 255 BCE) and conquer Sogdiana. He was the founder of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Diodotus and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids—particularly from Antiochus III the Great, who was ultimately defeated by the Romans (190 BCE).

The Greco-Bactrians were so powerful that they were able to expand their territory as far as India:

"As for Bactria, a part of it lies alongside Aria towards the north, though most of it lies above Aria and to the east of it. And much of it produces everything except oil. The Greeks who caused Bactria to revolt grew so powerful on account of the fertility of the country that they became masters, not only of Bactria and beyond, but also of India, as Apollodorus of Artemita says: and more tribes were subdued by them than by Alexander...."[15]

The Greco-Bactrians used Greek language for administrative purposes, and the local Bactrian language was also Hellenized, as suggested by its adoption of the Greek alphabet and Greek loanwords. In turn, some of these words were also borrowed by modern Pashto, the language of Afghanistan.[16]

 
The treasure of the royal burial Tillia tepe is attributed to 1st century BCE Sakas in Bactria.

The weakness of the Greco-Bactrians was shown by its sudden and complete overthrow, first by the Sakas, and then by the Yuezhi (who later became known as Kushans), who had conquered Bactria by the time of the visit of the Chinese envoy Zhang Qian (circa 127 BCE), who had been sent by the Han emperor to investigate lands to the west of China.[17]

Under the Sassanids the province would become part of the area known as Khorasan.[8]

Kujula Kadphises, the Guishuang xihou (or prince) of the Da Yuezhi, united the region in the early 1st century and laid the foundations for the powerful, but short-lived, Kushan Empire (1st to 3rd century CE), which was then overcome by the Sassanians from Persia. The name Daxia appears in Chinese from the 3rd century BCE to designate a mythical kingdom to the West, possibly a consequence of the first contacts with the expansion of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, and then is used by the explorer Zhang Qian in 126 BCE to designate Bactria.

 
Zhang Qian taking leave from emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618–712 CE.

The reports of Zhang Qian were put in writing in the Shiji ("Records of the Grand Historian") by Sima Qian in the 1st century BCE. They describe an important urban civilization of about one million people, living in walled cities under small city kings or magistrates. Daxia was an affluent country with rich markets, trading in an incredible variety of objects, coming as far as Southern China. By the time Zhang Qian visited Daxia, there was no longer a major king, and the Bactrian were suzerains to the nomadic Yuezhi, who were settled to the north of their territory beyond the Oxus (Amu Darya). Overall Zhang Qian depicted a rather sophisticated but demoralized people who were afraid of war.

Following these reports, the Chinese Emperor Wu Di was informed of the level of sophistication of the urban civilizations of Ferghana, Bactria and Parthia, and became interested in developing commercial relationship with them:

"The Son of Heaven on hearing all this reasoned thus: Ferghana (Dayuan) and the possessions of Bactria (Daxia) and Parthia (Anxi) are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, but with weak armies, and placing great value on the rich produce of China" (Hanshu, Former Han History).

These contacts immediately led to the dispatch of multiple embassies from the Chinese, which helped to develop the Silk Road.

Modern history edit

As of January 2022, clashes between Taliban and guerrilla bands have been reported in the province[18]

On 9 March 2023, Daud Muzamil, the Taliban governor of Afghanistan's Balkh province was killed in a blast at his office.[19]

Economy edit

Like in other parts of Afghanistan, agriculture plays an important part of Balkh's economy.[20] It is known for producing some of the sweetest melons and grapes.[21] It is expected that the province will witness a major agriculture boost in the near future after the Qush Tepa Canal is completed, which "will irrigate 500,000 hectares of land in Balkh, Jawzjan and Faryab provinces."[22] This will significantly increase Balkh's economy and population as many Afghans from other parts of the country will move to the province for employment purposes.

Mining edit

On October 5, 2018, in Washington, D.C., Afghan officials signed a 30-year contract involving a $56 million investment by investment group Centar and its operating company Afghan Gold and Minerals Co. for exploration of an area covering 500 square km for copper, with development of mining due to begin thereafter.[23]

Healthcare edit

The percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 8% in 2005 to 15% in 2011.[24] The percentage of births attended by a skilled birth attendant increased from 0% in 2005 to 20% in 2011. In 2018 Dr.Khalilullah Hekmati was appointed the Public Health Director which was followed by positive changes in the Health sector.[24]

Education edit

The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 12% in 2005 to 23% in 2011.[24] The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 22% in 2005 to 46% in 2011.[24]

Demographics edit

As of 2020, the total population of the province is about 1,509,183,[6] which is a multi-ethnic and mostly Persian-speaking (63% Tajik, 20% Hazara) society.

According to the Naval Postgraduate School:[25]

Balkh is ethnically diverse, including substantial Tajik, Hazara, Pashtuns, Arab, Uzbek, Turkmen, and Sunni Hazara (Kawshi) communities.

According to the World Food Program[9]

Around 66% of the population of Balkh lives in rural districts while 34% lives in urban areas. Around 51% of the population is male and 49% is female. The major ethnic groups living in Balkh province are Tajiks and Pashtuns followed by Uzbek, Hazaras, Turkman, Arab and Baluch. Dari is spoken by about 50% of the population and 58% of the villages. The second most frequent language is Pashto, spoken by the majorities in 266 villages representing 27% of the population, followed by Turkmani (11.9%) and Uzbeki (10.7%).

Districts edit

 
Districts of Balkh

Balkh province is divided into 15 districts.[5]

Districts of Balkh Province
District Capital Population[3] Area[26] Pop.
density
Notes
Balkh 136,097 536 254 Predominantly Farsiwans(Tajiks), few Uzbeks and Hazaras.
Charbolak 91,539 607 151 Majority Pashtuns, minority Farsiwans (Tajiks, Arabs).[27]
Charkint 50,220 1,222 41 Mostly Hazara,[28] minority uzbek and Pashtuns, some Farsiwans.
Chimtal 103,630 1,917 54 Majority Uzbeks, minority Farsiwans tajiks, Pashtuns and Hazaras.
Dawlatabad 119,083 1,804 66 Majority Farsiwans (Tajiks), minority Uzbeks, Hazaras, Turkmens, Pashtuns.
Dihdadi 76,261 274 278 Mixed Kyrgyz, Farsiwans and Hazaras.
Kaldar 22,586 803 28 Predominantly Uzbeks.
Khulm Tashqurghan 83,032 3,204 26 91 villages. Mix of Uzbeks, Farsiwans (Arabs, Aimaq), Pashtuns, Hazaras. Used to be part of Samangan Province.
Kishindih 55,003 1,083 51  Majority Hazaras, minority Pashtuns and Uzbeks.
Marmul 12,888 375 34 Majority Tajik Farsiwan,[29] minority Uzbeks, few Kyrgyz.
Mazar-e-Sharif 484,492 67 7,218 40% Tajiks, 27% Pashtuns, 20% Hazara, 10% Uzbeks, 3% Turkmens.[30]
Nahri Shahi 50,752 1,409 36 Predominantly Farsiwans, some Uzbeks and Hazaras.
Sholgara 129,271 1,755 74 40% Farsiwans (Tajiks, Arabs), 20% Pashtuns (Kandahari, Baloch, Kuchi), 20% Hazaras, 20% Uzbeks.[31]
Shortepa 44,773 1,563 29 Predominantely Turkmens, few Uzbeks.
Zari 49,556 869 57 Predominantly Hazaras. Used to be part of Kishindih District.
Balkh 1,509,183 16,186 93 40% Tajiks, 20% Hazara, 27.0% Turkic (17.4% Uzbeks, 1.7% Kyrgyz, 7.4% Turkmens, 0.5% Kazakhs), 18.3% Pashtuns (Kandahari, Kochi)[note 1]
  1. ^ Note: "Predominantely" or "dominated" is interpreted as 99%, "majority" as 70%, "mixed" as 1/(number of ethnicities), "minority" as 30% and "few" or "some" as 1%.

Sport edit

 
Buzkashi sport

The locals of Balkh take great pride in their sporting history and culture. Every Nowruz (Persian New Year), Balkh is the site of many sporting events. Buzkashi is a traditional horse riding sport of the region and is very popular in this province. Kurash or traditional wrestling is also a popular sport in the province. However, the most popular presently and for the last 50 years has been football, this was evident in the Balkh team Simorgh Alborz F.C. finishing runners up in the inaugural Afghan Premier League[32] and in their contributions to the National Team.

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "د نږدې شلو ولایاتو لپاره نوي والیان او امنیې قوماندانان وټاکل شول". 7 November 2021. Archived from the original on 25 November 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Area and Administrative and Population". Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  3. ^ a b "Estimated Population of Afghanistan 2021-22" (PDF). National Statistic and Information Authority (NSIA). April 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2021. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  4. ^ "The U.S. Board on Geographic Name". U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  5. ^ a b "Settled Population of Balkh province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13" (PDF). Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Central Statistics Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
  6. ^ a b "Estimated Population of Afghanistan 2020-21" (PDF). Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, National Statistics and Information Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  7. ^ Balkh entry Archived 2022-04-21 at the Wayback Machine at Britannica Online.
  8. ^ a b "Khurasan", The Encyclopaedia of Islam, page 55. Brill. 1967. Archived from the original on 2024-02-25. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  9. ^ a b "Balkh". World Food Programme. Archived from the original on 2013-09-05.
  10. ^ Cotterell (1998), p. 59)
  11. ^ Herzfeld, Ernst (1968). The Persian Empire: Studies in geography and ethnography of the ancient Near East. F. Steiner. p. 344.
  12. ^ P. Leriche, "Bactria, Pre-Islamic period." Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. 3, 1998.
  13. ^ Holt (2005), pp. 41–43.
  14. ^ Justinus XLI 1.8.
  15. ^ "Strabo,11.11.1". Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2021-02-20.
  16. ^ UCLA Language Project, Pashto, Link Archived 2009-01-03 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Silk Road, North China, C. Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham". Archived from the original on 2019-07-17. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
  18. ^ Pannier, Bruce (January 29, 2022). "Taliban's Arrest Of Ethnic Uzbek Commander Sparks Clashes In Northern Afghanistan". Radio Free Europe. Archived from the original on April 1, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  19. ^ "Taliban governor of Afghanistan's Balkh killed in blast - police". Reuters. 2023-03-09. Archived from the original on 2023-03-09. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  20. ^ "Bountiful Harvests Attract Farmers to New Horticultural System". The World Bank. September 14, 2015. Archived from the original on 2022-08-10. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  21. ^ "Balkh melon yield up but prices down this year". Pajhwok Afghan News. July 19, 2022. Archived from the original on 2022-08-01. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  22. ^ "Qush Tepa Canal to be completed before scheduled date". Pajhwok Afghan News. August 9, 2022. Archived from the original on 2022-08-09. Retrieved 2022-08-09.
  23. ^ Mackenzie, James; Qadir Sediqi, Abdul (2018-10-07). "Afghanistan signs major mining deals in development push". reuters.com. Reuters. Archived from the original on 2021-11-05. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre, https://www.cimicweb.org/AfghanistanProvincialMap/Pages/SarePul.aspx Archived 2014-05-31 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Balkh Province". Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. Naval Postgraduate School. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
  26. ^ "Afghanistan Geographic & Thematic Layers". Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
  27. ^ "Database". Archived from the original on 2024-02-25. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  28. ^ "Database". www.afghan-bios.info. Archived from the original on 2024-02-25. Retrieved 2024-02-10.
  29. ^ "Database". www.afghan-bios.info. Archived from the original on 2024-02-25. Retrieved 2024-02-10.
  30. ^ "Provincial Profile". Archived from the original on October 8, 2022.
  31. ^ "UNHCR Sub-Office MAZAR-i-SHARIF DISTRICT PROFILE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  32. ^ "Simorgh Alborz". 28 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2013.

External links edit