Abolition of monarchy

The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in government, usually hereditary.

Abolition has been carried out in various ways, including via abdication leading to the extinction of the monarchy, legislative reform, revolution, coup d'état, and decolonisation. Abolition became more frequent in the 20th century, with the number of monarchies in Europe falling from 22 to 12 between 1914 and 2015, and the number of republics rising from 4 to 34. Decolonisation and independence have resulted in an abolition of monarchies in a number of former colonies such as those created by the United Kingdom.

Motivations for abolition include egalitarianism and anti-class views, opposition to undemocratic and hereditary institutions, perception of monarchy as anachronistic or outdated, and opposition to a particular monarch or dynasty.[1][2] In many colonies and former colonies, abolishing the influence of the monarchy of a colonising state is considered part of decolonisation. In many Commonwealth realms, the monarchy may be viewed as a foreign institution running counter to the national identity or national sovereignty.

In the 21st century, some countries that are monarchies have significant republican movements, such as Spain[3] and Australia.[4]

Since the beginning of the 20th century, restorations of monarchies have been comparatively rare. Examples are the monarchy of Spain, which since 1947 had been nominally a regency with a vacant throne but the Bourbon dynasty was restored in 1975; the reinstatement in 1991 of the Emir of Kuwait following abolition in 1990 and the Gulf War; and a 1993 transition of Cambodia from a Marxist-Leninist republic to an elective monarchy.

17th centuryEdit

Under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, in 1649, King Charles I was tried for high treason, convicted and executed. This marked the conclusion of the English Civil War which resulted in the Parliament of England overthrowing the English monarchy, and initiating a period of an English republic (known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms). After eleven years, in 1660, a limited monarchy was restored but moderated by an independent Parliament.[5][6]

18th centuryEdit

AmericasEdit

Organized anti-monarchism in what is now the United States developed out of a gradual revolution that began in 1765, as colonists resisted a stamp tax through boycott and condemnation of tax officials.[7] While they were subject to the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain (as the monarchy was a limited monarchy since 1660), the North American citizens increasingly clashed with the Parliament that did not provide seats for parliamentary representatives from North America. With the Declaration of Independence in 1776, anti-monarchical propaganda resulted in violent protests that systematically removed symbols of monarchy. For instance, an equestrian statue of George III in New York City was toppled. Parliamentary loyalists were particularly affected by partisan attacks, with tens of thousands leaving for British Canada.[8] Property that remained was confiscated by each of thirteen newly created States through newly passed laws.[9] Artifacts from the colonial period depicting the British monarchy are seldom found in the United States. However, not all sentiment equated to anti-monarchism. A normality of a monarchy at the head of a polity remained, that some Americans saw a presidency in monarchical terms, a Caesar of the republic, was an early debate in the new republic.[10]

EuropeEdit

One of the most significant abolitions of monarchy in history – along with the Dutch Republic of 1581–1795 – involved the French monarchy in 1792 in the French Revolution.[11] The French monarchy was later restored several times with differing levels of authority. Napoleon, initially a hero of the Republican revolution, crowned himself emperor in 1804, only to be replaced by the Bourbon Restoration in 1815, which in turn was replaced by the more liberal July Monarchy in 1830. The 1848 Revolution was a clearer anti-monarchic uprising that replaced the succession of royal leaders with the short-lived Second French Republic. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte established the Second French Empire (1852–1870), retaining republican aspects while placing himself in the center of the state until the losses in the Franco-Prussian War led to his fall, resulting in the French Third Republic and the definitive end of the monarchy in France. Monarchism, which had held a majority in the National Assembly after the 1871 election, slowly fizzled out over the course of the rest of the century.[12]

19th centuryEdit

AfricaEdit

Madagascar

The monarchy of Madagascar, known as the Merina Kingdom, came to an end in 1897 when France made it a colony and overthrew Queen Ranavalona III.

Zimbabwe

In 1629 the Mwenemutapa attempted to throw out the Portuguese. He failed and in turn he himself was overthrown, leading to the Portuguese installation of Mavura Mhande Felipe on the throne. In 1917 Mambo Chioko, the last king of the dynasty, was killed in battle against the Portuguese.

AmericasEdit

Mexico

The First Mexican Empire existed from the September 1821 Declaration of Independence until the emperor's abdication in March 1823. The Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824. Due to French intervention under Napoleon III, the Second Mexican Empire lasted from 1864 to 1867, when it collapsed and its Emperor, Maximilian I of Mexico, was executed.

Brazil

In Brazil, the monarchy was formally established in 1815 through the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (of which the Kingdom of Brazil was a constituent state), it evolved into the Empire of Brazil in 1822, and was abolished in 1889, when Emperor Pedro II was overthrown by a republican military coup (the status of the republic was confirmed by a plebiscite in 1993 that resulted in 86% of the votes to the republican government).

AsiaEdit

Burma

The monarchy of Burma was abolished in 1885 when the last king, Thibaw Min, lost his throne and the country was annexed by Britain.

South Asia

In 1858 the Mughal Empire came to an end after losing a war against Britain, and its Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, lost his throne.

EuropeEdit

Italy

Between 1859 and 1861, four monarchies in Southern Europe ceased to exist (Parma, Modena, Tuscany and the Two Sicilies) when they all became part of the new Kingdom of Italy.

Spain

In Spain monarchy was abolished from 1873 to 1874 by the First Spanish Republic, but then restored until 1931.

PacificEdit

Hawaii

In 1893 foreign business leaders overthrew Queen Liliʻuokalani of the Kingdom of Hawaii. They established a republic, which was annexed by the United States in 1898.

Tahiti

The monarchy of Tahiti came to an end in 1880 when France made it a colony and overthrew King Pōmare V.

Manu'a

After ceding sovereignty of the Manu'a islands of modern-day American Samoa to the United States in 1904, the last King of Manu'a, Tui Manu'a Elisara, died on 2 July 1909. All attempts to revive the position since his death have been met with opposition by the United States Government.[13]

20th centuryEdit

NationalismEdit

ChinaEdit

The monarchy of China ceased to exist in 1912 when the Xinhai Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen succeeded in overthrowing the young Xuantong Emperor; this marked the end of the Qing dynasty and the start of the Republic of China. In 1915, Yuan Shikai briefly proclaimed the Empire of China with himself as the emperor; the regime failed to gain legitimacy and collapsed three months later. In 1917, the Qing loyalist Zhang Xun sought to revive the Qing dynasty and briefly reinstalled the Xuantong Emperor to the Chinese throne; this attempt is known as the "Manchu Restoration" in historiography.

During the Xinhai Revolution, Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty of China in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was subsequently proclaimed, although the Republic of China laid claims to Outer Mongolia and was widely recognized by the international community as having sovereignty over it. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was established, bringing an end to the monarchy in Mongolia.

GreeceEdit

Throughout Greece's eventful modern history, the monarchy was toppled and restored several times between and after the two World Wars. The last king, Constantine II, was forced into exile after a coup when he tried to stage a counter-coup later that year. In 1967 and the republic was proclaimed in 1973 by the then-ruling military dictatorship. The final abolition of the monarchy was confirmed overwhelmingly after constitutional legality was restored, by free referendum in 1974.

World War I and aftermathEdit

Russian EmpireEdit

World War I led to perhaps the greatest spate of abolitions of monarchies in history. The conditions inside the Russian Empire and the poor performance in the war gave rise to a revolution which toppled the entire institution of the monarchy, followed by a second revolution against that government in October of the same year that executed Tsar (Imperator (Императоръ)) Nicholas II and implemented a Marxist-Leninist government. The Russian civil war saw various monarchist, Republican, anarchist, nationalist and socialist factions fight each other with bourgeois independence movements winning in the Baltic States, Poland and Finland and the Bolsheviks winning everywhere else.

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, MontenegroEdit

The defeated German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires saw the abolition of their monarchies in the close aftermath of the war, ending the reigns of Wilhelm II, Charles I and Mehmed VI respectively. The monarchs of the constituent states within the German Empire, most importantly Ludwig III of Bavaria, Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and Wilhelm II of Württemberg, soon abdicated. During the war, monarchies were planned for Poland (Kingdom of Poland), the Grand Duchy of Finland (to have a Finnish King), and Lithuania (Mindaugas II of Lithuania), with a protectorate-like suzerainty exercised by the German Empire. Both intended kings renounced their thrones after Germany's defeat in November 1918. King Nicholas I of Montenegro lost his throne when the country became a part of Yugoslavia in 1918.

World War II and aftermathEdit

Italy, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, CroatiaEdit

World War II saw another spate of abolition. In 1922, Benito Mussolini's March on Rome led to King Victor Emmanuel III appointing Mussolini Prime Minister. In 1939 Italy invaded Albania and removed the reigning self-proclaimed King Zog and instated their own King Victor Emmanuel III as its new monarch. Italy, along with the eastern European monarchies of Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania were forced to join with Germany by their dictators in World War II against the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Western allies and the Soviet Union. When Yugoslavia fell in 1941 the Independent State of Croatia was established under a nominal monarchy, but it was in fact a one party state under Ante Pavelić and a puppet state of Nazi Germany. With the fall of Mussolini in July 1943, the monarchy in Croatia was abolished. As the Axis powers were defeated in the war, communist partisans in occupied Yugoslavia and occupied Albania seized power and ended the monarchies. Communists in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania removed their monarchies with strong backing by the Soviet Union, which had many troops and supporters placed there during the course of the war. Through this, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Simeon II of Bulgaria and Michael I of Romania all lost their thrones. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy had remained King after the Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy but transferred most of his powers to his son after the Armistice of Cassibile. After Victor Emmanuel abdicated to save the monarchy, a narrow referendum in 1946 ended the short reign of his son King Umberto II and the Italian monarchy ceased to exist.

RepublicanismEdit

Australia (monarchy kept after referendum)Edit

In a 1999 referendum, the voters of Australia rejected a proposal to replace the constitutional monarchy with a republic with a president appointed by Parliament. The proposal was rejected in all states, with only the Australian Capital Territory voting in favor. Though polling consistently showed a majority in favour of a republic, the result of the referendum was attributed to a split among republicans between those who supported the presented model and those who supported a directly elected president.[14][15][16][17]

SpainEdit

In Spain, the monarchy was again abolished in 1931 by the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939). In 1947, Francisco Franco declared Spain a Monarchy but kept himself as regent for life with the constitutional setup essentially unchanged. Per the right the 1947 law granted him to decide who would be the future Spanish monarch, he appointed Juan Carlos of Bourbon his successor in 1969. The "Prince of Spain" became king at Franco's death in 1975, and during the Spanish transition to democracy, the Spanish constitution of 1978 put the monarchy on a new constitutional basis. The existence of monarchy in Spain is an entrenched clause with much stricter rules for constitutional amendment than other constitutional provisions.[18]

PortugalEdit

The monarchy of Portugal was also overthrown in 1910 (5 October), two years after the assassination of King Carlos I, ending the reign of Manuel II, who died in exile in England (1932), without issue.

Communism, socialism, and IslamismEdit

AfghanistanEdit

In 1973, the monarchy of King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan was abolished after a socialist-supported coup d'état led by Mohammad Daoud Khan, from the same Musahiban royal family.

EthiopiaEdit

Emperor Haile Selassie I was overthrown in 1974 as a result of the Ethiopian Revolution, ending almost 3000 years of monarchical rule in Ethiopia.

IndochinaEdit

In 1945, during the August Revolution, Bảo Đại abdicated under the pressure of the Việt Minh led by Ho Chi Minh. This marked the end of the Nguyễn dynasty and the Vietnamese monarchy. From 1949 to 1955, Bảo Đại served as the Quốc Trưởng (lit. "Chief of State") of the State of Vietnam and did not receive the title of Hoàng Đế (lit. "Emperor").

Political upheaval and Communist insurrection put an end to the monarchies of Indochina after World War II: a short-lived attempt to leave a monarchical form of government in post-colonial South Vietnam came to naught in a fraudulent 1955 referendum, a military coup overthrew the kingless monarchy in Cambodia in 1970 and a Communist takeover ended the monarchy in Laos in 1975. Cambodia's monarchy later saw an unexpected rebirth under an internationally mediated peace settlement with a former king Norodom Sihanouk being restored as a figurehead in 1993.

Middle EastEdit

The monarchy of Iran was abolished by the Islamic revolution of 1979 overthrowing Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

SikkimEdit

King Palden Thondup Namgyal of Sikkim lost his throne in 1975 when the country became a state of India following a referendum.

DictatorshipEdit

EgyptEdit

The monarchy of Egypt was abolished in 1953, after the revolution of 1952, which caused King Farouk I to abdicate in favor of his infant son Fuad II.

TunisiaEdit

The monarchy of Tunisia ended in 1957 when Muhammad VIII al-Amin lost his throne.

IraqEdit

The monarchy of Iraq ended in 1958 when King Faisal II was killed and a republic proclaimed.

YemenEdit

The monarchy of Yemen was abolished in 1962 when King Muhammad al-Badr was overthrown in a coup, although he continued to resist his opponents until 1970.

LibyaEdit

King Idris of Libya was overthrown by a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969.

Imperialism expansion and decolonisationEdit

Commonwealth of NationsEdit

Many monarchies were abolished in the middle of the 20th century or later as part of the process of decolonization. The monarchies of India, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, Guyana, and Malawi were abolished shortly after they became independent of the United Kingdom, while remaining within the Commonwealth. The monarchy of Ireland was not abolished following the Irish war of independence in the 1920s. The Irish Free State was nominally a monarchy but transitioned towards more and more Republican forms of government throughout its existence. The Irish Constitution that came into force in 1937 left the question of Republic or monarchy vague, but established a President of Ireland, an office usually absent in monarchies. The monarchy was officially abolished by the Republic of Ireland Act of 1948, which came into force in 1949. Some Commonwealth realms waited a little longer before abolishing their monarchies: Pakistan became a republic in 1956 and South Africa in 1961. Gambia abolished its monarchy in 1970, while Sierra Leone became a republic in 1971, as did Sri Lanka in 1972, Malta in 1974, Trinidad and Tobago in 1976, and Fiji in 1987. The latest country to become a republic within the Commonwealth was Mauritius in 1992. With the exemption of Ireland, in each case the deposed monarch was Elizabeth II.

KoreaEdit

In 1910 the last emperor of Korea, Sunjong, lost his throne when the country was annexed by Japan. However, the Korean royal family was mediatized as a puppet family within the Japanese imperial family. Many of the Korean royals were forcibly re-educated in Japan and forced to marry Japanese royalty and aristocrats to meld the ruling families of the two empires. With the abolition of the Japanese aristocracy and cadet branches of the imperial family, the Korean royals officially lost their remaining status.[citation needed]

South AsiaEdit

The independence of the Indian subcontinent from the British Raj in 1947 posed a unique problem. From 1858, when the British government had replaced Company Rule in India with the Raj, it had been governed as a quasi-federation, with most of the subcontinent under the rule of the British monarch. The remainder of the subcontinent, however, was under a form of indirect rule through its division and subdivision into over 500 subnational monarchies, known as princely states; each was ruled by a prince in a subsidiary alliance with the British government. The princely states ranged from powerful and largely independent principalities such as Hyderabad or Mysore, with a high level of autonomy, to tiny fiefdoms a few dozen acres (in the low tens of hectares) in size.

In 1947, it was agreed that the Indian subcontinent would be partitioned into the independent British dominions of India and Pakistan, with the princely states acceding to one nation or the other. The accession process proceeded smoothly, with the notable exception of four of the most influential principalities. The Muslim ruler of the Hindu-majority state of Junagadh acceded to Pakistan, but his decision was overruled by the Indian government, while Hyderabad chose to be independent, but was forcibly annexed to India in 1948. The Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, among the largest and most powerful of the principalities, but with a Muslim-majority population, initially held off on a decision. In the autumn of 1947, an invading force from Pakistan frightened the ruler into acceding to India. The ruler of Kalat, in Baluchistan, declared his independence in 1947, after which the state was forcibly merged with Pakistan, resulting in an insurgency persisting to this day. With the promulgation of the Indian constitution in 1950, India abolished its monarchy under the British crown and became a Republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, followed by Pakistan in 1956; as a result of both developments, the majority of the princes formally lost their sovereign rights. A few remaining principalities in Pakistan retained their autonomy until 1969 when they finally acceded to Pakistan. The Indian government formally derecognized its princely families in 1971, followed by Pakistan in 1972.

21st centuryEdit

The Kingdom of Nepal was transformed into a Republic by the 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly in 2008.[19][20]

Monarchism in former monarchiesEdit

In a referendum in Brazil in 1993, voters rejected an attempt to restore the country's monarchy. Unsuccessful efforts to restore the monarchies of some of the Balkan states in the former Eastern Bloc continue. Former King Michael of Romania and Prince Alexander of Serbia have been allowed to return, gained some popularity, played largely apolitical public roles, but never came close to being restored to their ancestral thrones. However, in Bulgaria, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who was deposed from the Bulgarian throne in 1946, was elected and recently served as the Prime Minister of his country from 2001 to 2005. The only formerly socialist country to have held a referendum on the monarchy was Albania where the claimant to his father's throne, the self-styled Leka I, lost by a 2/3 majority, though it was later revealed upon Leka's death in 2011 by the Albanian government that the referendum had been rigged in favour of the republic.

New monarchies in the 20th centuryEdit

The 20th century also saw the formation of a number of new monarchies that still exists to this day such as: Bhutan (1907), Jordan (1921), Saudi Arabia (1932) & Malaysia (1957).

Summary table since the 20th centuryEdit

Country Last monarch Year Notes
1900s
Songhai Askia Malla 1901 Ousted by the French, the country became a part of French West Africa.
  Rimatara Tamaeva V Ousted by the French.
  Nuku Hiva Ousted by the French.
Gumma Firisa 1902 Annexed by Ethiopian Empire
  Aceh Alauddin Muhammad Da'ud Syah II 1903 Aceh War
  Dahomey Agoli-agbo 1904 In 1904 the area became part of a French colony, French Dahomey.
Oyo Adeyemi I Alowolodu 1905 Last monarch died, the country became a part of British Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
Habr Yunis Nur Ahmed Aman 1907 Incorporation into British Somaliland.
  Bali Dewa Agung Jambe II 1908 Incorporation into Dutch East Indies.
  Mwali 1909 The country was incorporated into French Third Republic.
1910s
  Portugal Manuel II 1910 Republican Coup d'État.
  Korea Sunjong Native monarchy abolished; replaced by rule by Japan, a monarchy, through 1945.
Angoche Ousted by the Portuguese, the country was incorporated into Portugal.
Nri Eze Nri Òbalíke 1911 Ousted by the British, the country became a part of Southern Nigeria Protectorate.
Kasanje The country was incorporated into Portuguese West Africa.
  Riau-Lingga Abdul Rahman II Abolished by the Dutch.
  China Xuantong 1912 Xinhai Revolution – Emperor ousted by warlords and republicans. (Briefly restored in 1917)
Wadai Dud Murra of Wadai French annexation of Wadai Empire.
Ndzuwani Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar The country was incorporated into French Third Republic.
  Samos Grigorios Vegleris The country was incorporated into Greece.
  Kongo Manuel III 1914 Position abolished by Portuguese after an unsuccessful revolt.
Mbunda Mwene Mbandu Kapova I of Mbunda Position abolished by Portuguese after an unsuccessful revolt.
  Sultanate of Sulu Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II 1915 Split into American Insular Government over the Philippine islands, British North Borneo and the Dutch East Indies.
Darfur Ali Dinar 1916 Darfur formally re-incorporated into Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
  China Hongxian Monarchy dropped, shortly after the outbreak of the National Protection War.
  Russia Nicholas II 1917 Russian Revolution of 1917.
  Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence.
  Montenegro Nicholas I 1918 Referendum deposed King and united Montenegro with Serbia.
  Germany William II All on account of German defeat in World War I and the following German Revolution.
  Prussia
  Bavaria Ludwig III
  Württemberg William II
  Saxony Frederick Augustus III
  Hesse Ernest Louis
  Baden Frederick II
  Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach William Ernest
  Mecklenburg-Schwerin Frederick Francis IV
  Mecklenburg-Strelitz Adolphus Frederick VI
  Oldenburg Frederick Augustus II
  Brunswick Ernst Augustus
  Anhalt Joachim Ernst
  Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Charles Edward
  Saxe-Meiningen Bernhard III
  Saxe-Altenburg Ernst II
  Waldeck-Pyrmont Friedrich
  Lippe Leopold IV
  Schaumburg-Lippe Adolf II
  Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Günther Victor
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
  Reuss Elder Line Heinrich XXIV
  Reuss Younger Line Heinrich XXVII
  Austria Charles I Charles I "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate. Monarchy officially abolished by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, on 10 September 1919.
  Finland Frederick Charles I Monarchy never in effect.
  Lithuania Mindaugas II
  Poland Ruled by Regency Council
  United Baltic Duchy Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg
  Courland and Semigallia Nobody, it was supposed to descendant of Ernst Johann von Biron
  Hungary Charles IV Monarchy restored in 1920, although the throne remained vacant with a Regent.
  Serbia Peter I Country transformed to Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadskyi Removed from power, following an uprising led by Symon Petliura and the withdrawal of German forces from Kiev.
1920s
  Bukhara (Uzbekistan) Mohammed Alim Khan 1920 Monarchy deposed by an invasion by the Red Army (Bukhara operation).
  Khiva (Uzbekistan) Abdallah Khan Monarchy deposed by a communist uprising aided by the Red Army (Khivan Revolution).
  North Caucasian Emirate Uzun Hajji Saltinsky Abolished by the Bolsheviks.
  Syria Faisal I Monarchy deposed, following the Siege of Damascus.
  Upper Asir Al-Hasan Bin Ayad Incorporation into Nejd.
  Jabal Shammar Muhammad bin Talal Al Rashid 1921
  Ottoman Empire Mehmed VI 1922 Sultanate abolished in 1922.
Wituland Fumo 'Umar ibn Ahmad 1923 Sultanate abolished by British, the country was incorporated into Kenya Colony.
  Greece George II 1924 Restored 1935 and later abolished again in 1973 (see below).
  Mongolia Bogd Khan Communist People's Republic proclaimed after Khan's death.
  Albania William I 1925 Monarchy restored in 1928 (Albanian Kingdom).
Mohammerah Khaz'al al-Ka'bi Sheikhdom abolished by Persia
  Hejaz Ali bin Hussein, King of Hejaz Conquered by the Nejd
  Kurdistan Mahmud Barzanji Kingdom of Kurdistan reconquered by the British.
Orungu Rogombé-Nwèntchandi 1927 Position abolished by French.
  Hobyo Ali Yusuf Kenadid Incorporated into the Italian Somaliland.
  Afghanistan Habibullāh Kalakāni 1929 After the fall of Kalakani on 13 October 1929, the Emirate ended.
1930s
Beda 1930 The country was incorporated into the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.
  Asir Sayyid al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Idrisi al-Hasani The country was incorporated into the Saudi Arabia.
Kumul Bashir Upon Maqsud Shah's death in March 1930 Jin Shuren replaced the Khanate with three normal provincial administrative districts Hami, Yihe, and Yiwu. This set off the Kumul Rebellion, in which Yulbars Khan attempted to restore the heir Nasir to the throne.
  Spain Alfonso XIII 1931 Later restored (see below).
  Najran Ali II ibn Muhsin ibn Husayn 1934 The country was incorporated into the Saudi Arabia.
Jimma Abba Jofir 1932 Ousted by Ethiopians, Jimma incorporated into Ethiopia.
  Albania Zog I 1939 Throne usurped by Victor Emmanuel III, after Italian invasion.
1940s
  Albania Victor Emmanuel III 1943 Relinquished throne after Italian armistice.
  Croatia Tomislav II Abdicated after withdrawal of Italian support.
  Iceland Christian X 1944 Union with Denmark terminated.
  Montenegro Ruled by Governor Monarchy abolished after takeover by Yugoslav Partisans
  Yugoslavia Peter II 1945 Communist reconstruction.
  Manchukuo Kangde Monarchy abolished after the Surrender of Japan. Territories returned to the Republic of China.
  Gowa Muhammad Tahur Muhibuddin Sultanate abolished.
  Vietnam Bảo Đại Monarchy abolished after the Surrender of Japan.
  Gypsy Janos I The king abdicated and no successor was elected.
  Hungary Miklós Horthy as Regent 1946 Decision of the parliament without a referendum.
  Italy Umberto II Referendum; official result: 54.3% in favour of republic.
  Bulgaria Simeon II Referendum held to decide whether the monarchy would be retained; 95% in favour of republic. Simeon later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria 2001–2005.
  Sarawak Charles Vyner Brooke White Rajahs hand over power to British crown.
  Deli Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah Acts of violence against the nobility reached its peak during the bloody incident known as the Social Revolution in 1946. Many kings and royal family in North Sumatra were murdered and robbed of property and belongings, including Tengku Amir Hamzah, the Indonesian poet who was beheaded in Kuala Begumit. The family of the Sultanate of Deli and Serdang survived thanks to the preservation of the Allied soldiers who were on duty in the field to accept the surrender of the Japanese.
  Asahan Shaibun Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah
  Langkat Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rahmad Shah
  Serdang Sulaiman Syariful Alam Shah
  Romania Michael I 1947 Forced out by the communists.
  Ireland George VI 1949 Abolished the last "Monarchy of Ireland", the King of the United Kingdom.
  Mangkunegaran Mangkunegara VII
  Siak Kasim Abdul Jalil Syaifudin I The Sultan also handed over his property for the struggle of independence of the Republic of Indonesia.
  Surakarta Sunanate Pakubuwono XII After the declaration of independence of the Republic of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, followed by Indonesian National Revolution, the Surakarta Sunanate with Mangkunegaran Princedom sent a letter of confidence to Sukarno to demonstrate their support for the Indonesian Republic. As the reward the Republic awarded the status of Daerah Istimewa (Special Region, similar to today Yogyakarta Sultanate) within the Republic of Indonesia. However, because the political agitation and opposition from Indonesian communists that led to an anti-monarchy movement and rebellion in early 1946, on 16 June 1946 the Indonesian Republic aborted the special region status; both Surakarta's and Mangkunegara's status were reduced to merely a residence and were later merged into Central Java province.
1950s
  Pontianak Syarif Hamid II of Pontianak 1950 Integration with Indonesia.
  Kotawaringin
  India George VI Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Jaisalmer Giridhar Singh Bhati The Kingdom of Jaisalmer merged with the Republic of India in 1950.
  Mysore Jayachamaraja Wodeyar The Kingdom of Mysore merged with the Republic of India in 1950
Princely States 1947-1974 Political integration of India
  Tibet Tenzin Gyatso 1951 Incorporated into the People's Republic of China.
  Egypt Fuad II 1953 Republic proclaimed one year after the 1952 Coup d'état.
  Pakistan Elizabeth II 1956 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Tunisia Muhammad VIII 1957 Decision of the parliament.
  Ashanti Prempeh II 1957 Entered into state union with Ghana after independence from the United Kingdom.
  Iraq Faisal II 1958 coup d'état
  Bima Muhammad Salahuddin In 1958, the Sumbawan principalities were abolished by the Indonesian republic and replaced by a modern bureaucratic structure
1960s
  Buton Falihi 1960
  Ghana Elizabeth II Abolished Commonwealth monarchy, following a referendum; official result: 88% in favour of republic.
  South Africa 1961 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy pursuant to 1960 referendum; official result: 53% in favor of republic.
  Rwanda Kigeli V coup d'état, followed by referendum; official result: 80% in favor of abolishing monarchy.
  Tanganyika Elizabeth II 1962 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Yemen Muhammad al-Badr coup d'état
  South Kasai Albert Kalonji Status of the head of this state was complicated, Albert Kalonji used the title of Mulopwe (God-king/Emperor).
  Nigeria Elizabeth II 1963 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Uganda
  Kenya 1964
  Zanzibar Jamshid bin Abdullah Zanzibar Revolution
  Burundi Ntare V 1966 coup d'état
  Malawi Elizabeth II Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Fadhli Sultanate Nasser bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ahmed Alfadhli 1967 The countries were incorporated into newly created People's Republic of South Yemen.
  Qu'aiti Sultanate in Hadhramaut Ghalib II bin Awadh bin Saleh Al Qu'aiti
  Sultanate of Upper Yafa Muhammad ibn Salih Harharah
  Sultanate of Lower Yafa Mahmud ibn Aidrus Al Afifi
Muflahi Sheikhdom al Qasim ibn Abd ar Rahman
Audhali Sultanate Salih ibn al Husayn ibn Jabil Al Audhali
  Emirate of Beihan Saleh al Hussein Al Habieli
Dathina Sheikhdom
  Emirate of Dhala Shafaul ibn Ali Shaif Al Amiri
  Wahidi Sultanate of Balhaf in Hadhramaut
Sheikhdom of Shaib Yahya ibn Mutahhar al-Saqladi
Alawi Sheikhdom Salih ibn Sayil Al Alawi
Aqrabi Sheikhdom Mahmud ibn Muhammad Al Aqrabi
  Wahidi Sultanate of Haban in Hadhramaut Husayn ibn Abd Allah Al Wahidi
Qutaibi Sheikhdom
Hadrami Sheikhdom
Mausatta Sheikhdom
Busi Sheikhdom
Dhabi Sheikhdom
Haushabi Sultanate Faisal bin Surur Al Haushabi
  Kathiri Sultanate in Hadhramaut Al Husayn ibn Ali
  Mahra Sultanate
  Sultanate of Lahej Ali bin Abd al Karim al Abdali
Sheikhdom of al-Hawra
Sheikhdom of al-`Irqa
Lower Aulaqi Sultanate Nasir ibn Aidrus Al Awlaqi
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Awad ibn Salih Al Awlaqi
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom Amir Abd Allah ibn Muhsin al Yaslami Al Aulaqi
  Ankole Gasiyonga II The kingdom was formally abolished in 1967 by the government of President Milton Obote, and since then, the kingdom has not been restored officially.
Tidore Zainal Abidin Syah Sultanate abolished.
  Maldives Muhammad Fareed Didi 1968 Independence referendum.
  Libya Idris I 1969 Coup d'état
Salom Maad Saloum Fode N'Gouye Joof After king's deaths, both Kingdoms were incorporated into the new Republic of independent Senegal which gained its independence in 1960.
Sine Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof After king's deaths, both Kingdoms were incorporated into the new Republic of independent Senegal which gained its independence in 1960.
1970s
  Rhodesia Elizabeth II 1970 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy. An unrecognised government of the British colony of Southern Rhodesia had unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia in 1965, proclaiming Elizabeth II as Queen, but she did not accept the title, nor was it recognised by any other state. Following a referendum in 1969, in which 81% voted to abolish the monarchy, a republic was declared in 1970.
  Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk Later restored (see below).
  The Gambia Elizabeth II Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Guyana
  Sierra Leone 1971
  Ceylon 1972 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy, state name changed into "Sri Lanka".
  Afghanistan Mohammed Zahir Shah 1973 Coup d'état
  Ethiopia Haile Selassie I 1974
  Greece Constantine II referendum; official result: 69% against monarchy
  Malta Elizabeth II Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Sikkim Palden Thondup Namgyal 1975 Referendum; official result: 97% to become a state of India.
  Laos Savang Vatthana Communist takeover
  Trinidad and Tobago Elizabeth II 1976 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
  Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 1979 Iranian Revolution
  Central Africa Bokassa I coup d'état
1980s
  Rwenzururu Charles Mumbere 1982 Forced to abdicate by the government of Uganda; declaration of independence of Rwenzururu was annulled.
  Fiji Elizabeth II 1987 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy. Elizabeth II remained recognized as Paramount Chief by the Great Council of Chiefs until the council's de-establishment on 14 March 2012.
1990s
  Kuwait Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah 1990 Later restored (see below)
  Mauritius Elizabeth II 1992 Abolished Commonwealth monarchy.
2000s
  Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II 2007 Since the death of Malietoa Tanumafili II, subsequent O le Ao o le Malo have been elected for five-year terms.
  Nepal Gyanendra 2008 Decision of the parliament.[21]
2020s
  Barbados Elizabeth II 2021 Will abolish Commonwealth monarchy by 30 November 2021.

Monarchies that were abolished, restored, and continue to exist in the 21st centuryEdit

Country Year abolished Notes Year restored Years of republic
    England 1649 Commonwealth of England established, then Parliament reversed itself and invited the return of the monarchy. 1660 11
  Scotland 1652 Commonwealth 1660 8
  Spain 1873 First Spanish Republic established 1874 1
1931 Second Spanish Republic established; restored (de jure) under the regency of Francisco Franco in 1947. 1975
(de facto)
44 (16 - de jure)
  Kuwait 1990 Republic of Kuwait proclaimed prior to annexation by Iraq; restored in the Gulf War. 1991 1
  Cambodia 1970 The Khmer Republic established; restored as an elective monarchy. 1993 23

Many other monarchies continue to exist in the 21st century, never having been abolished.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "We need to abolish the monarchy – because it's not fair on anyone, including the royals". The Independent. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  2. ^ "'Essentially, the monarchy is corrupt' – will republicanism survive Harry and Meghan?". The Guardian. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Royal families: The countries that feel the strongest about abolishing their monarchies". QZ. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Does the monarchy have a future?". Dhaka Tribune. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  5. ^ "The Restoration of a Limited Monarchy in England: Definition & History, " Study.com, last accessed 28 December 2019. https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-restoration-of-a-limited-monarchy-in-england.html
  6. ^ Haley, K.H.D. (1985), Politics in the Reign of Charles II, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-13928-1
  7. ^ "Stamp Act crisis and significance, " University of Massachusetts History Club, last accessed 28 December 2019. http://www.stamp-act-history.com/stamp-act/stamp-act-crisis-significance/
  8. ^ Maya Jasanoff (2012). Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World. Random House. p. 357. ISBN 9781400075478.
  9. ^ Mark Boonshoft "Dispossessing Loyalists and Redistributing Property in Revolutionary New York," The New York Public Library, 19 September 2016, Last accessed 26 December 2019. https://www.nypl.org/blog/2016/09/19/loyalist-property-confiscation
  10. ^ Note for example: Breen, Timothy H. (2016). "4: Voices of the People". George Washington's Journey: The President Forges a New Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster (published 2017). p. 120. ISBN 9781451675436. Retrieved 24 February 2017. If most Americans saw the danger of addressing Washington as their American Caesar - he had absolutely no interest in becoming emperor - they nevertheless found it surprisingly appealing.
  11. ^ Everdell, William R. (2000). The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago. ISBN 0226224821.
  12. ^ Compare the 1871 election results with those of the end of the century in which monarchist candidates barely attained any seats
  13. ^ "Tufele; Young v." American Samoa Bar Associations. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  14. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm (1999). Fighting for the Republic. South Yarra: Hardie Grant Books. p. 250.
  15. ^ Steve Vizard (1998). Two Weeks in Lilliput: Bear Baiting and Backbiting at the Constitutional Convention. Ringwood (Vic): Penguin. ISBN 0-14-027983-0.
  16. ^ Higley, John; Case, Rhonda (July 2000). "Australia: The Politics of Becoming a Republic". Journal of Democracy. 11 (3): 136–150. doi:10.1353/jod.2000.0058. ISSN 1045-5736. S2CID 153786108.
  17. ^ Steketee, Mike (31 October 2009). "Ten years after the referendum, we are no closer to a republic". The Australian. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  18. ^ http://www.congreso.es/consti/constitucion/indice/titulos/articulos.jsp?ini=166&fin=169&tipo=2
  19. ^ https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-40866
  20. ^ https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17576006
  21. ^ "World | South Asia | Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". BBC News. 28 May 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2011.