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Prime Minister of Afghanistan

The Prime Minister of Afghanistan was a post in the Afghan government. The position was created in 1927 as an official appointed by the King of Afghanistan. The holder served mostly as an advisor, until the end of the Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1973. During the 1980s, the position was the head of government.

Prime Minister of Afghanistan
Sardar-Mohammad-Hashim-Khan.tif
Mohammad Hashim Khan, longest serving Prime Minister of Afghanistan
Appointer King (1927–1973)
President (1978–2001)
Formation 25 October 1927
1 May 1978
First holder Shir Ahmad
Final holder Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai
Abolished 17 July 1973
21 August 1997

Contents

History of the officeEdit

KingdomEdit

The Chairman of the Council of Ministers was not headed by the Prime Minister, but the King. Only during his absence was the Premier the acting Chairman of the Council.

Until 1963, King Mohammed Zahir Shah appointed his relatives as prime ministers. King Zahir Shah also had the power to dismiss or transfer the Prime Minister.

This was changed, stating that the Head of the Afghan Government was the Prime Minister, and that the government consisted of its ministers. It was the first time that King Zahir Shah did not play an important role in the government, leaving it to an elected authority. However, it also stated that they cannot engage in any other profession during their tenure of office.

The 1964 Constitution also granted the Prime Minister the power to summon the Electoral College in case of the death of the King. The Prime Minister only answered to the Wolesi Jirga about the General Policy of the government, and individually for their prescribed duties.[1]

Democratic RepublicEdit

In April 1978, Mohammed Daoud Khan was killed during a coup that started the Saur Revolution. The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) revived the office of Prime Minister that year, and it remained throughout the 1980s.

The President was in charge of the appointment of the Prime Minister, who in turn appointed the Council of Ministers. The Council's stated purpose was to formulate and implement domestic and foreign policies, to formulate economic development plans and state budgets, and to ensure public order.

Under the 1987 Constitution, the President was required to appoint the Prime Minister in order to form the Government. The Prime Minister had the power to dissolve the government. Several Afghan presidents during the Democratic Republic era were also appointed as Prime Minister. With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Prime Minister was no longer in charge of the government. The General Secretary of the PDPA or the Director of the KHAD exercised greater power.

Also, the 1990 Constitution established that only Afghan-born citizens are eligible to hold the office, something that was not specified in the previous documents.

Islamic State/EmirateEdit

After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullah's government, a transitional state was created. Thus, the office of Prime Minister once again played an important role in the history of the nation.

There was constant friction between the President and the Premier during this period. The State had collapsed and there was not an effective central Government from 1992 until 1996. Thus, the position became de facto ceremonial, with little power in what was left of the Government.

The title was abolished when the Taliban forces of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan took over control in 1996. The Deputy Leader of the Taliban was often known as the Prime Minister throughout its rule. With the death of Mohammad Rabbani in 2001,[2] the Taliban decided not to revive the office.

Until August 1997, the government which the Taliban had ousted, which remained in rebellion until the end of the Taliban rule in 2001, had a Prime Minister in the government, but the position was abolished.

List of heads of governmentEdit

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Name Birth–Death Took office Left office Political Affiliation
Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1973)
Shir Ahmad   c. 1885–? 25 October 1927 January 1929 Independent
Prime Minister; Deposed
Shir Giyan   Died 1929 January 1929 1 November 1929 Independent
Prime Minister; Deposed
Mohammad Hashim Khan   1885–1953 1 November 1929 9 May 1946 Independent
Prime Minister; Member of the Barakzai dynasty
Shah Mahmud Khan   1890–1959 9 May 1946 7 September 1953 Independent
Prime Minister; Member of the Barakzai dynasty
Mohammed Daoud Khan   1909–1978 7 September 1953 10 March 1963 Independent
Prime Minister; Member of the Barakzai dynasty
Mohammad Yusuf   1917–1998 10 March 1963 2 November 1965 Independent
Prime Minister
Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal   1919–1973 2 November 1965 11 October 1967 Independent
(until 1966)
Progressive Democratic Party
Prime Minister
Abdullah Yaqta   1914–2003 11 October 1967 1 November 1967 Independent
Acting Prime Minister
Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi   1921–1979 1 November 1967 9 June 1971 Independent
Prime Minister
Abdul Zahir   1910–1982 9 June 1971 12 November 1972 Independent
Prime Minister
Mohammad Musa Shafiq   1932–1979 12 November 1972 17 July 1973 Independent
Prime Minister; Deposed
Republic of Afghanistan (1973–1978)
Post abolished (17 July 1973–27 April 1978)
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1987)
Nur Muhammad Taraki   1917–1979 1 May 1978 27 March 1979 People's Democratic Party
(Khalq faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Hafizullah Amin   1929–1979 27 March 1979 27 December 1979 People's Democratic Party
(Khalq faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Assassinated
Babrak Karmal   1929–1996 27 December 1979 11 June 1981 People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Sultan Ali Keshtmand   1935– 11 June 1981 30 November 1987 People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; First Tenure
Republic of Afghanistan (1987–1992)
Sultan Ali Keshtmand   1935– 30 November 1987 26 May 1988 People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; First Tenure
Mohammad Hasan Sharq   1925– 26 May 1988 21 February 1989 Independent
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Sultan Ali Keshtmand   1935– 21 February 1989 8 May 1990 People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Second Tenure
Fazal Haq Khaliqyar   1934–2004 8 May 1990 15 April 1992 People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
(until June 1990)
Homeland Party
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Resigned
Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992–2002)
Abdul Sabur Farid Kohistani   1952–2007 6 July 1992 15 August 1992 Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin
Prime Minister
Vacant (15 August 1992–17 June 1993)
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar   1947– 17 June 1993 28 June 1994 Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin
Prime Minister; First Tenure
Arsala Rahmani Daulat   1937–2012 28 June 1994 1995 Islamic Dawah Organisation
Acting Prime Minister
Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai   1944– 1995 26 June 1996 Islamic Dawah Organisation
Acting Prime Minister
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar   1947– 26 June 1996 11 August 1997 Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin
Prime Minister; Second Tenure; The Islamic State remained the internationally recognized government, despite only controlling about 10% of Afghan territory
Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai   1947–1997 11 August 1997 21 August 1997 Independent
Prime Minister; Killed in an aircraft crash
Post vacant (21 August 1997–present)
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996-2001)
Mohammad Rabbani   1955–2001 27 September 1996 13 April 2001 Taliban
Prime Minister; The Taliban regime was internationally unrecognized, despite controlling about 90% of Afghan territory; Died in office
Abdul Kabir   1958 to 1963– 16 April 2001 13 November 2001 Taliban
Acting Prime Minister; The Taliban regime was internationally unrecognized, despite controlling about 90% of Afghan territory; Deposed

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^   This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress document: Richard S. Newell (1997). Peter R. Blood, ed. "Afghanistan: A country study". Federal Research Division. The Constitutional Period, 1964-73. 
  2. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (20 April 2001). "Muhammad Rabbani, Advocate of Some Moderation in Taliban". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 

External linksEdit