Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada
The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in those countries. The four leagues traditionally included in the definition are Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Other prominent leagues include Major League Soccer (MLS) and the Canadian Football League (CFL).
MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL are commonly referred to as the "Big Four." Each of these is the wealthiest professional club competition in its sport worldwide, and along with the English Premier League they make up the top five sports leagues by revenue in the world. In addition, the sports of these four leagues were all developed in their modern forms in North America, and all except American football have become popular internationally. Because the leagues enjoy a significant place in popular culture in the U.S. and Canada, the best players from these leagues often become cultural icons in both countries.
Each of the Big Four leagues, as well as Major League Soccer and the Canadian Football League, averages at least 15,000 fans in attendance per game as of 2018. The two indoor leagues, the NHL and NBA, play in arenas that average under 19,000 seats, resulting in the CFL holding the third highest average attendance of the six leagues, at close to 24,000 per game, after the NFL and MLB.
The Big Four leagues currently have 30–32 teams each, most of which are concentrated in the most populous metropolitan areas of the United States and Canada. Unlike the promotion and relegation systems used in sports leagues in various other regions around the world, North American sports leagues maintain the same teams from season-to-season. Expansion of the league usually occurs by adding newly formed teams, though mergers with competing leagues have also occurred. Teams do not leave the league unless they are disbanded (which has not happened since 1954) or merged with another team (which has not happened since 1978). Relocation can change the name of a team, but it is generally still considered to be the same entity.
Baseball, American football, and ice hockey have had professional leagues continuously for over 100 years; early leagues such as the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, Ohio League, and National Hockey Association formed the basis of the modern MLB, NFL, and NHL, respectively. Basketball was invented in 1891 and its first professional league formed in the 1920s. The Basketball Association of America, founded in 1946, formed the basis of the NBA in 1949, has lasted for over 75 years. Soccer was first professionalized in 1894, but leagues suffered greatly from lack of sustainability and seldom lasted more than a decade. Soccer's greatest successes were in the form of the American Soccer League (1921–1933), the original North American Soccer League (1968–84), and, currently, Major League Soccer (1996–present). MLS is the seventh highest attended professional soccer league worldwide.
The term "major league" is usually limited to professional team sports. Individual professional sports competitions such as PGA Tour golf and NASCAR Cup Series auto racing are also very popular and serve as those sports' most prominent competitions with levels of media coverage, competition, and fan following comparable to the major professional team sports. Amateur competitions such as college football and college basketball, at the upper echelons, also enjoy strong media coverage and fan followings but are generally recognized as inferior to the major professional leagues in level of play because of the inherent limits of the amateur sports system.
Big Four leaguesEdit
Major League BaseballEdit
Major League Baseball is the highest level of play of baseball in North America and the world, and the oldest of the major American leagues. It consists of the National League (founded in 1876) and the American League (founded in 1901). With the establishment of the American League in 1901 also came the trademarking of "Major League Baseball". Cooperation between the two leagues began in 1903 inasmuch as the two league champions began playing a "World Series". In 1904, however, there was no World Series played because one of the league champions refused to play. During the offseason, the owners of each league voted to have the league champions automatically play one another in the World Series and it would be 90 years before another World Series wasn't played, in 1994, due to a work stoppage. The two leagues merged on an organizational level in 2000 with the elimination of separate league offices; they have shared a single Commissioner since 1920. There are currently 30 member teams, with 29 located in the U.S. and one in Canada. Traditionally called the "National Pastime", baseball was the first professional team sport in the U.S.
National Basketball AssociationEdit
The National Basketball Association is the premier basketball league in the world, and the youngest of the major American leagues. It was founded as the Basketball Association of America in 1946, and adopted its current name in 1949, when the BAA partially absorbed the rival National Basketball League. Four teams from the rival American Basketball Association joined the NBA with the ABA–NBA merger in 1976. It currently has 30 teams, 29 in the United States and one in Canada. The NBA is watched by audiences both domestically and internationally.
National Football LeagueEdit
The National Football League is a professional American football league and was founded in 1920 as a combination of various teams from regional leagues such as the Ohio League, the New York Pro Football League, and the Chicago circuit as a successor to Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit. For its first two seasons, 1920 and 1921, it was known as the "American Professional Football Association" (APFA) before changing its name to the current name in 1922. The NFL partially absorbed the All-America Football Conference in 1949 and merged with the American Football League in 1970. It has 32 teams, all located in the United States.
NFL games are the most attended of domestic professional leagues in the world in terms of per-game attendance, and the most popular in the U.S. in terms of television ratings and merchandising. Its championship game, the Super Bowl, is the most watched annual event on U.S. television, with Super Bowl XLIX being the single most-watched program in U.S. television history.
The NFL is the only one of the major leagues not to have a presence in Canada, where the Canadian Football League (see below) is the premier professional league in a similar but not identical gridiron football sport of Canadian football.
National Hockey LeagueEdit
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league and it is the only one of the major leagues to have been founded in Canada. It was formed in 1917 as a successor to the Canadian National Hockey Association (founded in 1909), taking all but one of the NHA's teams. The NHL partially absorbed the rival World Hockey Association in 1979. There are 31 teams, with 24 in the U.S. and 7 in Canada; the league will expand to 32 teams in 2021.
The most popular sports league in Canada, and widely followed across the northern and northeastern U.S., the NHL has expanded westward and southward in recent decades to attempt to gain a more national following in the United States, in cities such as Denver, San Jose, Dallas, Miami, Nashville, Phoenix, Raleigh, Tampa, and Las Vegas with varying success. Ice hockey still remains much more popular in the northern states of the U.S. closer to Canada, such as the Upper Midwest, New England and the mid-Atlantic States of New Jersey, New York (the New York Metropolitan area has 3 NHL teams compared to 2 for each of the other 3 leagues) and Pennsylvania, than in the rest of the United States. The NHL has more Canadian teams (seven) than MLB, the NBA, the NFL, and Major League Soccer combined (five).
Other notable professional leaguesEdit
Nate Silver of the ESPN-owned website FiveThirtyEight has argued that there is a case to be made for the inclusion of Major League Soccer and the Canadian Football League in the major professional sports leagues of North America.
Canadian Football LeagueEdit
The Canadian Football League is the highest level of play in Canadian football. The league was organized in 1956 as a cooperative agreement between two regional leagues, the IRFU (which dated to 1907) and the WIFU (which was founded in 1936), and became independent from Football Canada in 1958. The league now consists of nine teams, all based in Canada. The Grey Cup is awarded annually to the champion every November and is the highest attended sporting event in the nation. The oldest extant teams, the Hamilton Tiger-Cats and the Toronto Argonauts, trace their origins to the late 1860s and early 1870s, which ranks them amongst the oldest professional sports teams of any kind still in existence on the continent. The CFL attempted an expansion into the United States in cities that had no NFL team between 1993 and 1995. The expansion teams all folded (though the management structure of the Baltimore Stallions was moved to a relaunched Montreal Alouettes franchise).
The CFL is the second most popular league in Canada, after the NHL. It has the third highest average attendance of the northern North American leagues, behind the NFL and MLB; in 2010 the average attendance was 26,781, with a total attendance of 1,928,225.
Major League SoccerEdit
Major League Soccer (MLS) is the top-level men's professional soccer league in the United States. As of the league's 2021 season, MLS has 27 teams, 24 teams in the United States and 3 in Canada, with three more U.S.-based teams scheduled to start play in the next two years (one in 2022, and two in 2023). The league began play in 1996, its creation a requirement by FIFA for awarding the United States the right to host the 1994 World Cup. MLS was the first Division I outdoor soccer league in the U.S. since the North American Soccer League operated from 1968 to 1984. MLS has increased in popularity following the adoption of the Designated Player Rule in 2007, which allowed MLS to sign stars such as David Beckham and Thierry Henry. In 2017, MLS reported an average attendance of 22,112 per game, with total attendance exceeding 8.2 million overall, both breaking previous MLS attendance records, while 2018 saw Atlanta United FC break multiple single-game attendance records, with crowd figures of over 70,000 among the highest team attendances worldwide. With an average attendance of over 20,000 per game, MLS has the third highest average attendance of any sports league in the U.S. after the National Football League (NFL) and Major League Baseball (MLB), fourth highest in North America after NFl, MLB, and CFL, and is the seventh highest attended professional soccer league worldwide.
The Canadian Soccer Association does not sanction MLS as a first-division league, with that title going instead to the Canadian Premier League (CPL). However, MLS is generally acknowledged as having a higher quality of play than the CPL, and has significantly more media coverage and economic success. As of its upcoming 2021 season, the CPL has eight teams, including two representing markets not served by any major league team (Halifax, Nova Scotia and Victoria, British Columbia).
Traits of these major leaguesEdit
Major professional sports leagues are distinguished from other sports leagues in terms of business and economic factors, popularity of the league, and quality of play. The following table compares the Big Four leagues, plus CFL and the MLS, on certain attributes that collectively attempt to indicate whether the league has "major league" status. The table includes the longevity and stability of the league, as measured by the year founded and the last time the league underwent expansion and contraction, the number of teams in the league, and the popularity of the league, as measured by annual revenues and average attendance.
|National Football League||American football||1920[o 1]||32||2002||1952[o 2]||$15.3||67,396|
|Major League Baseball||Baseball||1903[o 3]||30||1998||1899[o 4]||$10.7||30,042|
|National Basketball Association||Basketball||1946[o 5]||30||2004||1954||$8.8||17,884|
|National Hockey League||Ice hockey||1917[o 6]||32||2021||1978||$5.1||17,422|
|Canadian Football League||Canadian football||1958[o 7]||9||2014||2006||$0.2||24,644|
|Major League Soccer||Soccer||1996||27||2021[o 8]||2014[o 9]||$1||22,112|
- The NFL was originally called the American Professional Football Association and adopted its present name in 1922. Other "founding" dates recognized to be of significance by the NFL include the founding of the American Football League (originally a rival league) in 1960, the establishment of what eventually became the Super Bowl in 1966 and the full merger of the AFL and NFL in 1970. 1966 in particular considered a significant epoch by football historians as the start of the "Super Bowl era" while the 1970 merger remains the only time a rival North American sports league has fully merged into an established league with all of its teams intact and its playing records fully recognized as part of the history of the older league. The NFL had earlier partially absorbed the All-American Football Conference (founded in 1947) in 1950, but unlike the latter case with the AFL the NFL did not recognize AAFC records.
- This date reflects the demise of the original Dallas Texans, who folded after only one season. However, the Texans were immediately replaced by the Baltimore Colts, meaning the league was not reduced in size for the 1953 season. Although the Colts were awarded the assets (including player contracts) of the Texans, they are considered a separate franchise. The last time the league fielded fewer teams for a subsequent season was after the 1950 season when the original Baltimore Colts (also considered to be unrelated to the modern Colts franchise) folded. Also, the date in the table does not recognize the temporary 1995 suspension of the Cleveland Browns in which the then-extant Cleveland football organization was transferred to what was considered an expansion franchise in Baltimore - because the Browns were later restocked via an expansion draft after a three year absence, the NFL does not consider this event to be a contraction.
- This date reflect the year the modern World Series was first contested, although an earlier version of the Series was contested in the 1880's between the National League and the defunct American Association. The two component leagues of Major League Baseball, the National and American Leagues, were founded in 1876 and 1901 respectively. MLB also celebrates the anniversary of the start of professional baseball in 1869. MLB underwent a major organizational change following the 1920 season when the office of Commissioner of Baseball, with far more significant powers over both leagues than the earlier National Commission that had preceded this office, was established. The AL and NL commenced regular season interleague play in 1997 and fully merged on an organizational level, i.e. they abolished their separate league offices and vested all authority in the office of the Commissioner, after the 1999 season. Since its constituent leagues began co-operation in 1903, MLB has never recognized a third major league or absorbed a rival league although the proposed Continental League of the early 1960's was only forestalled when the AL and NL added two teams each.
- The elimination of four NL teams following the 1899 season is undoubtedly the most recent occasion where MLB has fielded fewer teams for the following season, however some baseball historians regard the original Baltimore Orioles to have folded outright following the 1902 MLB season, and replaced by an expansion team that eventually became the New York Yankees for the following season, in a manner similar to the NFL's last "contraction" as listed in this table.
- This date reflects the establishment of the Basketball Association of America, which adopted its current name after absorbing the rival National Basketball League in 1950. Although the NBL pre-dated the BAA by nine seasons, the NBA continues to regard the 1946-47 BAA season (as opposed to the 1937-38 NBL season) to be its inaugural one. The NBA has always awarded an internally-created trophy to its champions - the league adopted the trophy's present design in 1977 and its current name (the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy) in 1984. The NBA later partially absorbed the rival American Basketball Association (founded in 1967) in 1976.
- The Stanley Cup was first awarded in 1893, but did not become the NHL's de facto championship trophy until 1926. Although the NHL recognizes its founding date as 1917, three of its four charter members had previously been members of the National Hockey Association founded in 1910. Upon its founding, the NHL assumed the NHA's then-extant position as the eastern challenger for the Stanley Cup which at the time was a trophy contested between the champions of the NHA/NHL and various leagues based in Western Canada and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. This arrangement continued until 1926 when the last major western-based league folded, after which the NHL took sole possession of the Stanley Cup to be awarded to its playoff champion ever since. The NHL later partially absorbed the rival World Hockey Association (founded in 1972) in 1979.
- The Grey Cup was first awarded in 1909. The CFL was formed under its present name by the merger of the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union, founded in 1907 and 1936, respectively, however these leagues had already been the only two competing for the Grey Cup since the 1955 season. For this reason, either this season or the immediately preceding one (when the BC Lions joined the WIFU) is often reckoned to be the start of the "modern era" of Canadian football. Moreover, although the IRFU and WIFU changed their names to the Eastern and Western Football Conferences respectively, they did not begin inter-sectional regular season play until 1961, did not fully harmonize their regular season calendars and lengths until 1974 and did not fully merge on an organizational level until 1981.
- Expansion teams are scheduled to begin play in Charlotte in 2022 and St. Louis in 2023. A Sacramento team was set to start play in 2023, but has since been delayed indefinitely.
- This date reflects the demise of Chivas USA, which was folded by the league after the 2014 season. However, if "contraction" is defined as a reduction in the size of a league from one season to the next, the only MLS contraction came in 2001, when MLS went from 12 teams to 10 with the folding of both of its Florida teams. The 2015 season, the first after Chivas' demise, saw two new teams enter the league.
|League||Revenues (bn)||TV revenue||Ref.|
|National Football League||$16.9||$9.1bn|||
|Major League Baseball||$10.7||$2.1bn|||
|National Basketball Association||$8.8||$2.6bn|||
|National Hockey League||$5.1||$820m|||
|Major League Soccer||$1.2||$90m|||
|Canadian Football League||$0.2||$50m|||
The top four major leagues each have revenues that can be many times greater than the payrolls of less popular sports leagues in the two nations. In terms of overall league revenue, the NFL, MLB and the NBA rank as the top three most lucrative sports leagues in the world, with the English Premier League and the NHL ranked at fourth and fifth place.
The major sports leagues have their games televised on the Big Four U.S. broadcast TV networks—ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox—enjoy strong TV viewer ratings, and earn significant revenues from these TV contracts. All of the top four major sports leagues have had television contracts with at least one of the original "big three" U.S. broadcast television networks (ABC, CBS, and NBC) since those networks' early years, indicative of the sports' widespread appeal since their inception, continuing today additionally with Fox. In Canada, the NHL has been broadcast on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation since 1952. In Canada, there is only one MLB team and one NBA team, and there exist zero Canadian NFL teams; therefore, the U.S. national telecasts for those three leagues are usually simulcast by a Canadian broadcaster.
|League||Ratings / viewers||US TV rev.|
|NFL||10 / 16.6m (aggregate)||$7.2 bn|
|NBA||2.3 / 3.9m (ABC, 16 games)
1.1 / 1.7m (TNT, 52 games)
1.1 / 1.7m (ESPN, 76 games)
|MLB||1.4 / 2.1m (Fox, 12 games)
0.8 / 1.1m (ESPN, 16 games)
0.3 / 0.4m (FS1, 40 games)
0.2 / 0.3m (TBS, 13 games)
|NHL||1.3m (NBC, 12 games)
0.3m (NBCSN, 100 games)
|MLS||1.0m (FOX, 5 games)
0.3m (ESPN, 34 games)
0.2m (FS1, 29 games)
0.3m (Univ, 34 games)
The NFL has the largest TV contracts, and earns over $6 billion annually from its contracts with Fox, CBS, NBC, ESPN and DirecTV for the 2014 through 2022 seasons. MLB earns $1.5 billion annually from its contracts for the 2014 through 2021 seasons with ESPN, Fox, and Turner Sports (TBS).
The NBA's nine-year television deal beginning with the 2016–17 season with ABC/ESPN and TNT generates annual league TV revenues of $2.7 billion. The NHL earns $633 million annually from its media deals—$200m annually in the U.S. from a 10-year contract with NBC Sports that runs through the 2020–21 season, and $433m in Canada with Rogers Sportsnet.
All four major sports leagues have launched a network of their own—NBA TV in the U.S. in 1999 and in Canada in 2001, the NFL Network in 2003, the NHL Network in Canada in 2001 and in the U.S. in 2007, and the MLB Network in 2009. All networks remain in operation today except for the Canadian NHL Network, which was shut down shortly before the league's 2015–16 season.
Teams in the MLB, NBA, and NHL—which play several days per week—negotiate contracts with local broadcasters to air most of their games, both terrestrial networks and regional sports networks. Some teams (such as the New York Yankees) may even partially or fully own the cable network upon which their games are broadcast, and often receive more revenue from local broadcasts than any other source. NFL teams, which generally play once per week, do not negotiate local broadcast contracts, but are allowed to negotiate their own television deals for preseason games with syndication and broadcast stations.
MLS matches are shown in English on ESPN and Fox Sports, and in Spanish on Univision. MLS's eight-year contracts for U.S. rights for the 2015–2022 seasons earn a combined $90 million annually.
Major professional sports leagues generally have significantly higher average attendance than other sports leagues. The following table shows the average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada that have an average attendance of 15,000 or higher. (All attendance figures are based on figures from 2019 or earlier, as social distancing restrictions mandated most sporting events in 2020 and 2021 be held either with reduced capacity or without any spectators.
|National Football League||32||67,100 (2018)||16|||
|Major League Baseball||30||28,830 (2018)||162|||
|Canadian Football League||9||23,855 (2018)||18|||
|Major League Soccer||27||21,873 (2018)||34|||
|National Basketball Association||30||17,857 (2019)||82|||
|National Hockey League||31||17,456 (2019)||82|||
Major-league franchises are generally worth very large amounts of money, due in large part to high revenues earned by the league's teams. These franchise valuations are reflected in periodic analyses of teams' values, as well as by the expansion fees commanded by the leagues. The highest value franchises in the respective leagues tend to be located in the largest markets (e.g., MLB's New York Yankees, NHL's New York Rangers), whereas the lowest value franchises tend to be in smaller markets (e.g., NFL's Buffalo Bills, NBA's New Orleans Pelicans). The NHL has the largest multiples between the highest-value and lowest-value teams, with the New York Rangers worth 5.5 times as much as the Arizona Coyotes.
|League||Median value||High value||Low value||Expansion
Recent expansion franchises have commanded huge entry fees, which represent the price the new team must pay to gain its share of the existing teams' often guaranteed revenue streams. The Houston Texans paid $700 million to join the NFL in 2002. By comparison, the Charlotte Bobcats (now the Hornets) paid $300 million to join the NBA. The Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Rays (originally Devil Rays) paid $130 million each to join MLB. The most recently announced NHL entry, the Seattle Kraken (starting play in 2021), paid $650 million to join the league, a 30% increase from the $500 million paid by the Vegas Golden Knights to join the league in 2017. The Golden Knights' fee was a dramatic increase from the $80 million paid by each of the previous two teams to enter the NHL, the Columbus Blue Jackets and Minnesota Wild. Two of the six most recently announced Major League Soccer expansion teams, 2019 entrant FC Cincinnati and 2020 arrival Nashville SC, each paid a $150 million expansion fee, a significant increase from the $100 million that New York City FC paid to join MLS in 2015.[a][b] MLS has since announced plans to expand to 30 teams by 2023, and set the expansion fee for the 28th and 29th teams (ultimately Sacramento Republic FC and St. Louis City SC) at $200 million. The 30th team, ultimately unveiled as Charlotte FC and set to start play in 2022, reportedly paid $325 million. For comparison, the Ottawa Redblacks paid C$7 million to join the Canadian Football League.
All of the top four major leagues exhibit stability in most of their franchises. No team from the top four leagues has collapsed outright since the 1970s. The last team to cease operations was the NHL's Cleveland Barons in 1978, when financial pressures forced a merger with the Minnesota North Stars. MLB voted in 2001 to contract from 30 teams to 28, but ran into opposition and never executed the contraction plan. Unlike many leagues in other countries which use a system of promotion and relegation, franchises in these leagues are stable, and do not change annually.
Relocation of teams is generally uncommon compared to minor leagues. However, all of the top four major leagues have had at least one franchise relocate to another city since 2004. Among the Big Four leagues, the NFL has had the highest number of recent relocations, relocating three teams over the course of the late 2010s. The NHL is the most recent to expand, having added the Las Vegas-based Vegas Golden Knights for 2017 and adding the Seattle Kraken in 2021 (none of the other Big Four leagues have added expansion teams since 2004).
Since 2005, in contrast to the Big Four leagues, MLS has operated on a policy of continuous expansion; after bottoming out at 10 teams in 2004, it has never gone more than one season without adding one or two expansion teams, with further expansion teams already scheduled through 2023 and no indication that the league will cease awarding expansion teams. By 2023, MLS will have tripled in size from its 2005 minimum, with 30 teams. The league has contracted three teams in its history: teams in Miami and Tampa Bay folded in 2002, and the Los Angeles-based Chivas USA squad folded in 2014. MLS has had one franchise relocate, the San Jose Earthquakes, which became the Houston Dynamo in 2006; the Earthquakes returned as an expansion club in 2008, inheriting the pre-relocation history of the original Earthquakes.
All seven CFL franchises between Vancouver and Toronto have been in place since the BC Lions were founded in 1954. The league has had problems in the two markets east of Toronto; both Montreal and Ottawa have each seen two CFL teams fail since the 1980s, although both cities have active teams as of the 2014 season (the cities are now represented by the Alouettes and Redblacks, respectively). Among existing teams, none has ever formally relocated from one city to another; the Alouettes, however, inherited a management structure from the Baltimore Stallions, a team from the league's unsuccessful 1990s-era South Division. The CFL has had either eight or nine teams in operation since its inception except for the 1994 and 1995 seasons in which the league temporarily expanded into the United States.
In the fifty years between 1903 and 1953, MLB experienced no franchise changes (no new franchises, no franchises ceasing operations, and no franchises moving), the longest such period of stability of any Big Four league.
Number and locations of franchisesEdit
Each of the Big Four leagues has at least 30 teams (the NFL has had 32 teams since 2002 and the NHL added its 31st team in 2017), and each has had at least 29 teams since the year 2000. Major League Soccer has 27 teams; it adopted a policy of continuous expansion at a rate of one to two new franchises a year since 2005, and was set to reach its long-range target of 30 teams in 2023 before the Sacramento expansion bid was placed on hold. The CFL has nine franchises, with a tenth team potentially joining in the early 2020s.
All of the top four major leagues grant some sort of territorial exclusivity to their owners, precluding the addition of another team in the same area unless the current team's owners consent, which is generally obtained in exchange for compensation, residual rights, or both. For example, to obtain the consent of the Baltimore Orioles to place an MLB team in Washington (about 35 miles (56 km) away), a deal was struck under the terms of which television and radio broadcast rights to Nationals games are handled by the Orioles franchise. Regarding territorial rights, the main concern for many team owners is television revenue, although the possibility of reduced ticket sales remains a concern for some teams. Because the NFL shares all of its television revenue equally, and most of its teams sell out their stadiums, some NFL owners are seen as less reluctant to share their territories. For example, the return of the NFL to Baltimore in 1996 attracted no serious opposition from the Washington Redskins organization.
As of 2021, 49 metropolitan areas (42 in the U.S., seven in Canada) have at least one team in the Big Four leagues. Austin FC, which starts play in 2021, is the first MLS team in a market not also occupied by at least one Big Four team. The CFL has one team, the Saskatchewan Roughriders, in a market not served by any other major league (the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, while having their city to themselves, are on the outskirts of both the Buffalo-Niagara Region and the extended Greater Toronto Area). The newest major league market is Las Vegas, which received the Vegas Golden Knights in 2017 and the Las Vegas Raiders in 2020.
Major leagues have franchises placed nationwide, with multiple franchises in each of the United States' four census regions—Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.
Major leagues tend to place franchises only in the largest, most populated metropolitan areas. Most major league teams are in metro areas having populations over two million. All but seven continental U.S. metropolitan areas over one million people host at least one major sports franchise. All five U.S.-based major leagues each currently have at least two teams in both the New York/North Jersey area and the Los Angeles/Anaheim market. MLB, which historically (as a result of its history as two rival leagues) had a team in each component league in Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis up until the mid-20th century, still has AL and NL teams in Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area.
MLB, more than any other major league, focuses its teams in the largest markets. MLB is the only major league that does not have any teams in markets with fewer than 1.75 million people; both it and the NFL have teams in every U.S. market with over 4 million people. The NHL is the major league that least follows the general trend, due to the fact that a disproportionate number of its franchises are in cities with cold winters. The NHL lacks teams in a number of southern metropolitan areas with populations of over 3 million (Houston, Atlanta, San Diego) but has five teams in northern metropolitan areas with fewer than 1.25 million people (Buffalo and four Canadian markets). While only one MLB team, the San Diego Padres, is located in a market that has no other major league teams, seven NBA teams are located in cities devoid of any additional "Big Four" franchises: Memphis Grizzlies, Oklahoma City Thunder, Orlando Magic, Portland Trail Blazers, Sacramento Kings, San Antonio Spurs and Utah Jazz (Salt Lake City). Four of these seven NBA-only cities also lack an MLS team (Memphis, Oklahoma City, Sacramento, San Antonio; Sacramento was scheduled to become home to an MLS team in 2023, but this move has since been placed on hold).
|League||Largest metropolitan area
|Smallest metropolitan area|
|NFL||San Diego (3.1m)‡||Green Bay (0.3m)|
|MLB||Montreal (4.1m)||Milwaukee (1.8m)|
|NBA||Montreal (4.1m)||Oklahoma City (1.2m)|
|NHL||Houston (6.1m)||Winnipeg (0.8m)|
|MLS||Phoenix (4.7m)||Salt Lake City (1.7m)|
|CFL||Quebec City (0.8m)‡||Regina (0.2m)|
The NFL has one major exception. The Green Bay Packers survive in major league sports' smallest metropolitan area (300,000 population) thanks to a unique community ownership, proximity to the neighboring Milwaukee market (giving a combined metro area of over two million), a league business model that relies more heavily on equally-distributed television revenue that puts small-market teams at less of a disadvantage, and the loyalty of their Cheesehead fan base. The only Packers home games that have failed to sell out since 1960 were games during the 1987 players' strike that were played with replacement players. Green Bay is one of two NFL teams, the other being the Jacksonville Jaguars, that are the only major league franchises in their metropolitan area.
Both MLB and the NFL have had two prolonged recent exceptions in which the league was absent from one of the U.S.'s ten most populous metropolitan areas; from 1972 to 2004, ninth-place Washington, D.C. had no MLB team, and from 1995 to 2016, second-place Los Angeles had no NFL teams.
The NHL's national footprint is a relatively recent situation. Historically, the league was concentrated in the northeast, with no teams south of New York City or west of Chicago from 1935 until 1967. The league expanded its footprint westward in a 1967 expansion but, other than the unsuccessful Atlanta Flames, avoided the South until making a major expansion into the territory in the 1990s.
Both the NBA and MLS have higher concentrations of teams in the western United States than the other major leagues. Whereas the NBA's teams tend to be somewhat more evenly distributed across the United States, MLS's presence in areas of the southern United States has historically been sparse; after MLS folded its two Florida-based teams after the 2001 season, it did not re-enter the South until Orlando City SC joined the league in 2015, with Atlanta United FC following in 2017. With the addition of Minnesota United FC in 2017 and Inter Miami CF in 2020, MLS remains absent from two markets with an otherwise complete set of the Big Four leagues: Detroit and Phoenix.
The CFL had a total of six teams in the United States over a three-year period between 1993 and 1995, all in medium-sized markets that lacked an NFL team at the time; of the seven markets those teams occupied, three (Baltimore, San Antonio and Sacramento) had other major league franchises at the time, and two would later receive a major team (Memphis and Las Vegas). The league also played occasional games in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s.
The largest metropolitan area without a major professional sports franchise depends on the definition of "metropolitan area". Among areas defined by the United States Census Bureau as Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), California's Inland Empire is the largest without a major franchise. However, it is part of Greater Los Angeles, a region defined by the US Census as a Combined Statistical Area (CSA), and is thus part of the Los Angeles television market. The largest CSA without a major franchise is the Hampton Roads area of southeastern Virginia, spilling over into a small part of North Carolina. The largest TV market without a major franchise is the Hartford–New Haven market, covering all of Connecticut except Fairfield County (the state's closest to New York City).
The NHL has been the dominant professional sports league in Canada, and was first established in Canada in 1917. The NHL was initially based entirely in eastern Canada; by 1925, Hamilton and Quebec City no longer had NHL teams, while Ottawa would leave in 1934, by which point American teams were slowly being added. The first Canadian expansion team would come in 1970 with a team in Vancouver; the NHL later added teams in Edmonton, Winnipeg and Quebec City (through absorption of WHA franchises), Calgary (via relocation from Atlanta) and Ottawa (via expansion) to go with the still-extant Toronto and Montreal teams. The distinctive place hockey holds in Canadian culture allowed these franchises to compete with teams in larger cities for some time. However, the teams in Winnipeg and Quebec City were eventually moved to larger media markets in the U.S. The NHL returned to Winnipeg in 2011 with the Atlanta Thrashers relocating to become the current version of the Winnipeg Jets. Excluding the CFL, the NHL is the only major league to have teams in Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg or Ottawa, all markets with fewer than 1.25 million, smaller than any U.S. NHL market except Buffalo. However, those Canadian cities benefit from the country's very high level of hockey fandom. A 2013 study by Nate Silver estimated that all of these markets had roughly the same numbers of avid hockey fans as U.S. markets with several times their total population.[c]
The Canadian Football League has teams in all seven current NHL markets, in addition to Hamilton, Ontario, and Regina, Saskatchewan. At least eight of these nine markets have hosted CFL teams every year since the league's officially listed inception in 1958, and no other Canadian market has ever had a CFL team of its own. In 2015, the CFL commenced Northern Kickoff, originally slated to be one preseason game and later expanded to a regular season game as well, both of which were played in Fort McMurray, an oil sands boomtown with a metro area population of less than 70,000, the smallest market to host major professional football in the modern era. Fort McMurray is in relatively close proximity to Edmonton, which was expected to boost attendance, but fewer than 5,000 fans attended the regular season game, and no games have been held in the city since (the city was devastated by a wildfire shortly thereafter). Regular season games have been played in Moncton in 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2019 to gauge expansion to the Maritime provinces in the Touchdown Atlantic; the expansion team, the Atlantic Schooners, has been proposed twice, once unsuccessfully in the 1980s, and another in the late 2010s that is still being considered. Hamilton, in addition to hosting the 2013 Touchdown Atlantic, played the rest of their 2013 season in Guelph during the construction of Tim Hortons Field.
The first Major League Baseball team in Canada was the Montreal Expos, who began play in 1969. In 2005, they moved to Washington, D.C. and became the Washington Nationals. The Toronto Blue Jays, who began play in 1977, became the first team outside the United States to win the World Series in 1992 and 1993.
The NFL is the only major league to have no team based in a Canadian city; the closest teams to Canada are the Buffalo Bills and Detroit Lions, both representing cities located on the U.S.–Canada border. The Lions play in downtown Detroit, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from Windsor, Ontario. The Bills' stadium is located 21 kilometres (13 mi) south of the Canada–U.S. border. From 2008–13, the Bills played 8 games in Toronto as part of the Bills Toronto Series which included one regular season game per year. On August 22, 2019 the Oakland Raiders played the Green Bay Packers in a preseason game at IG Field in Winnipeg.
All four major leagues have strict rules regarding who may own a team, and also place some restrictions on what other sort of activities the owners may engage in. The major leagues generally do not allow anyone to own a stake in more than one franchise, to prevent the perception of being in a conflict of interest. This rule was adopted after several high-profile controversies involving ownership of multiple baseball teams in the 1890s. Additionally, the NHL's "Original Six" period, from 1942 to 1967, was marked by the Norris family owning a controlling stake in half of the league's teams, a factor in the league's stagnation during that period.
With the exception of the NFL, every other major league has had at least one case since 2000 where the league itself has taken ownership or control of a franchise:
- MLB — Purchased the Montreal Expos in 2001 and moved the franchise to Washington, D.C. as the Nationals in 2005 before selling the team to a local group in 2006. MLB also took over the operations of the Los Angeles Dodgers in 2011, citing financial and governance issues stemming from the divorce of the team's co-owners, before Frank McCourt sold the Dodgers to an ownership group in March 2012.
- NHL — Took over the Buffalo Sabres in 2002 after owner John Rigas was arrested for embezzlement, and sold the team to Tom Golisano in 2003. The NHL also seized the Phoenix Coyotes in 2009 to prevent its owner from selling it to a buyer who intended to relocate the team, and sold the team to a Phoenix-area group in 2013.
- NBA — Purchased the New Orleans Hornets from its owner in December 2010, and sold the team to owner Tom Benson in April 2012.
- MLS — Purchased Chivas USA from Jorge Vergara in 2014 and folded the team after the 2014 season. A new L.A. franchise, Los Angeles FC, began play in 2018 as an expansion team and did not inherit Chivas USA's history.
- CFL — Seized the Ottawa Renegades from owner Bernard Glieberman in 2006, suspended the franchise, then sold it to Jeff Hunt, who reactivated it in 2014 as the Ottawa Redblacks. The CFL also accepted ownership in 2019 of the Montreal Alouettes from owner Robert Wetenhall in order to keep it operating until the league announced Sid Spiegel and Gary Stern as the team's new owners in January 2020.
The NFL (nor any of its predecessors) has not taken over operations of any team since 1962, when the American Football League took over the nearly bankrupt Titans of New York in an effort to prevent the team from folding; in 1963, a new ownership group bought the franchise and it became the New York Jets.
Many major professional sports leagues generally forbid religious groups, governments (there are some exceptions), and non-profit organizations owning a team.
The NFL has stronger ownership restrictions. The NFL forbids ownership by groups of over 24 people or publicly-traded corporations, except the grandfathered Green Bay Packers. Additionally, the league requires that at least one member of the ownership group hold a 30% interest, with stringent limits on the amount of debt that a new ownership group can take on. The NFL also forbids its owners from owning any other professional American football teams; this rule has not always been in place (as the NFL owners previously owned minor league teams in the 1940s) but was in place by the 1980s, when the DeBartolo family was scrutinized for owning both the San Francisco 49ers and USFL's Pittsburgh Maulers (as different members of the family owned each team, the league allowed the DeBartolos to keep the 49ers). Arena Football League teams were exempt from this rule during that league's existence. NFL owners were long prohibited from owning major league baseball, basketball and hockey teams unless they were in the NFL team's home market, or not located in other NFL cities. This last set of restrictions was lifted in October 2018; many owners believed that cross-ownership restrictions had outlived their purpose, and they had largely been disregarded since Stan Kroenke, who purchased the then-St. Louis Rams and moved them to Los Angeles while simultaneously owning assets in Denver, became a majority NFL owner in 2010. Additionally, media reports theorized that the cross-ownership ban materially reduced the sale price of the Carolina Panthers earlier in 2018, with several NBA team owners reportedly interested in bidding but barred by then-current NFL rules. The cross-ownership restrictions originally covered soccer, but a 1982 federal court decision in a lawsuit filed against the NFL by the original NASL went in favor of the NASL, thereby exempting soccer from these restrictions.
MLS has adopted a different league structure and operates as a single-entity league, a structure that survived a lawsuit from the players in Fraser v. Major League Soccer. During the first few years of the league, MLS for the sake of stability allowed individuals to operate multiple teams. MLS ownership arrangements have evolved, however, with operation of the league's 26 current and 4 future teams now spread among 30 ownership groups, with no member of any ownership group having a stake in more than one group.
Most franchises (six out of nine) in the Canadian Football League are owned by corporations: three (Toronto, Ottawa, & Calgary) teams are owned by public companies or subsidiaries thereof, two (Hamilton & BC) are held by individual owners, and one (Montreal) is jointly held by two longtime business partners. The remaining three are "community-owned" non-profit teams: two (Saskatchewan and Edmonton) have an ownership model with shares sold to fans, similar to the NFL's Green Bay Packers, and one (Winnipeg) operates without share capital or any formal owner, similar in function and structure to a community organization such as a community theatre.
Challenges from rival leaguesEdit
All of the majors have bested at least one rival league formed with the intention of being just as "big" as the established league, often by signing away star players and by locating franchises in cities that were already part of the existing league. In many cases, the major leagues have absorbed the most successful franchises from their failing rivals, or merged outright with them.
Baseball's National League withstood three challenges in its first quarter century of existence. The American Association began in 1882 in several lucrative markets without an NL team. For several years, the AA was a viable competitor to the NL, and the NL and AA champions competed in an informal World Series. Four of the AA's teams defected to the NL in its later years, before the AA expired in 1891. Labor problems led to the formation of the Players' League for the 1890 season; it attracted a significant percentage of the baseball talent and caused the NL and AA significant financial harm, but it lacked financial backing and folded after only one season. The minor Western League moved several franchises in NL cities and cities abandoned by the NL for the 1900 and 1901 seasons, and renamed itself the American League in direct competition with the NL. The NL and AL made peace in 1903; the resulting agreement formed what today is known as Major League Baseball. MLB withstood the challenge of the Federal League in 1914. Various Negro leagues peaked from the 1920s to the 1940s, and on barnstorming tours the Negro league players showed themselves to be MLB players' competitive equals, but after Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in 1947, the influx of black stars into the major leagues drained the Negro leagues of talent. MLB prevented the Continental League from getting off the ground in 1961–62 by placing teams in four of that league's proposed cities by either expansion or relocation.
The NFL has fought off the most rivals throughout the years, and to this day faces a competing start-up league every few years. One strong rival to the NFL was the All-America Football Conference of 1946–1949; three of their seven teams merged with the NFL for the 1950 season, and two of the three still exist in the NFL. Four (all unrelated) rivals were named American Football League; the last American Football League existed from 1960–1970, winning the last two of the four pre-merger Super Bowl games, before merging with the NFL in 1970. The NFL has beaten back other significant rival football leagues, often placing expansion or relocation teams in those cities following that league's demise: the World Football League of 1974–1975 (the NFL added two teams in 1975), the United States Football League of 1983–1985 (the NFL relocated one team to a USFL market in 1988), and the Canadian Football League's American franchises of 1993–1995 (the NFL added three teams in the mid 1990s, including one in the CFL's most successful U.S. market). All told, 13 of the NFL's current 32 franchises were absorbed from a rival league—all 10 AFL franchises of the 1960s, two from the AAFC, and one from the 1936 AFL.
The NBA was formed in 1949 after three years of competition between the large-market Basketball Association of America (from which the NBA traces its existence) and the industrial-based National Basketball League. The NBA also had to fend off two incarnations of the American Basketball League, the first being an Eastern circuit that predated the NBA, and the second existing from 1961 to 1963, after Abe Saperstein was repeatedly denied an NBA expansion team. The NBA later fought off the challenge of the American Basketball Association from 1967–76, in part by expanding from nine to eighteen teams. The NBA then absorbed four of the ABA's most successful franchises in a 1976 merger, and adopted several of the ABA's rule variations, most notably the three-point shot.
The NHL began its existence competing with the Western Canada Hockey League and its predecessor, the Pacific Coast Hockey Association; both had folded by 1926, leaving the NHL as the sole major North American hockey league. The NHL fended off two challenges in the 1960s and 1970s. The NHL prevented the old Western Hockey League from achieving parity in the quality of players, salaries and attendance by doubling in size from six to twelve teams in 1967, including into the WHL markets of Los Angeles and San Francisco, and added two more teams in 1970, including a former WHL team in Vancouver. During its existence from 1972 to 1979, the World Hockey Association challenged the dominance of the NHL. The WHA initially attracted stars by offering higher salaries than the NHL and successfully invalidating the NHL's reserve clause, forcing NHL teams to keep up. The bidding war brought financial distress to both leagues. With the WHA and several NHL teams faced with collapse, the NHL negotiated a merger of the leagues whereby the four strongest WHA teams joined the NHL.
The CFL has been historically protected from the competing leagues that the NFL faced, in part because of threats of parliamentary legislation to stop any CFL competitor from being allowed to play in Canada. The Canadian Football Act, proposed in 1974 but never passed, would have given the CFL a government-endorsed monopoly on professional gridiron football in Canada by prohibiting any other league from playing its games in the country; the mere introduction of the bill in Parliament prompted the WFL's Toronto Northmen to move to the United States before playing a single game and later the USFL was discouraged from establishing teams in Canada with the threat to reintroduce the Act in 1982. In the context of the modern North American sports market as a whole, however, CFL has faced and survived numerous challenges from upstart US-based leagues seeking to establish themselves as a second-tier gridiron football league relative to the NFL and thus competing with the CFL for player talent and consumer exposure. The vast majority of these leagues (such as the USFL, UFL, XFL and its later reincarnation, and AAF) have all been short-lived; all but the current XFL have folded, with that league currently (as of late 2020) being reorganized. Similarly, the CFL itself played the role of a competitor to the NFL during its mid-1990s expansion out of Canada and into the US market, which was also short lived.
Fixed league membershipEdit
In general, sports leagues in the United States and Canada never developed any system of promotion and relegation like those in Europe. A major professional sports team stays at the top level of the sport, regardless of their performance.
A major factor in this development was the greater distances between cities, with some teams separated by at least half the continent, which in turn resulted in higher traveling costs. When the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs was established in 1876, its founders judged that in order to prosper, they must make baseball's highest level of competition a "closed shop", with a strict limit on the number of teams, and with each member having exclusive local rights. This guarantee of a place in the league year after year would permit each club owner to monopolize fan bases in their respective exclusive territories and give them the confidence to invest in infrastructure, such as improved ballparks. This in turn would guarantee the revenues needed to support traveling across the continent. With the introduction of TV exposure and other sources of increased revenue during the 20th century, team owners have no incentive to risk giving up this annual income in favor of establishing an "open shop system" where they could be relegated to a lower league that does not generate that kind of lucrative money. There has been discussion of Major League Soccer adopting promotion and relegation, but MLS is not pursuing the option. Eight current MLS teams—Seattle Sounders FC, Portland Timbers, Vancouver Whitecaps FC, CF Montréal, Orlando City SC, Minnesota United FC, FC Cincinnati, and Nashville SC—were promoted from lower leagues through the traditional expansion process, without regard to on-pitch record; instead new teams are brought into MLS based on the financial strength of their ownership and market. Sacramento Republic FC was scheduled to become the ninth such MLS team in 2023 until its lead investor pulled out of the expansion deal.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)
All of the major North American professional sports leagues use a draft system to assign prospective players to teams. The NFL, NHL and NBA all use their respective drafts to ensure a certain measure of parity between franchises, so that teams with losing records draft early in the draft, while the league champions pick last in each round. (In the NFL, the relationship is directly linear, so that the worst team always gets the first overall pick; the NHL and NBA, in efforts to thwart tanking, use a draft lottery to determine the early draft order.) Three of the top four major leagues possess sophisticated player development systems.
The vast majority of MLB players are developed through the minor league baseball system. Prospective players generally are drafted, and are then assigned to the appropriate minor league level for development. With the growth of college baseball and in the past few decades, more players opt to play at the collegiate level and delay entry into the MLB draft; college baseball players with professional aspirations will usually also play collegiate summer baseball to gain experience and exposure while maintaining their college eligibility. Individual teams' large scouting staffs have given way to smaller staffs and subscriptions to commercial player scouting services. Entering the majors directly from high school or college is rare, and most of the few that have were quickly reassigned to the minors. MLB clubs also sign many players from Latin American countries, have also recruited many players from the Japanese leagues.
Most of the NBA's talent comes from college and high school basketball, although minimum age rules have ended the NBA's practice of drafting players directly from high school beginning in 2006. The NBA's developmental league, now known as the G League, was implemented in 2001 by the NBA to perform the role of a farm system in helping with player development and market reach, but NBA teams more frequently recruit talent from overseas professional leagues, mostly in Europe with a few players being recruited from leagues in Latin America, China, and Australia. Prior to the development of the G League, the Continental Basketball Association had served as a minor league to the NBA.
The National Football League is the only one of the four major sports leagues that does not have a formalized farm system. The source for almost all NFL players is college football, but NFL also has International Player Pathway Program for potential international prospects. Drafted players from college immediately join the main team; if they fail to make the regular season roster, a limited number of players may be assigned to the practice squad. NFL teams rarely recruit players from other gridiron football leagues. American football also has the least global reach for prospects, with one exception being several players from other codes of football primarily as kickers and punters. The league's teams backed the World League (later known as NFL Europe) in the 1990s and 2000s, and purchased teams in the Arena Football League for a period in the 2000s. As of 2019, the National Football League Players Association explicitly opposes having an official minor league in the same model as the other major sports, mainly because of the risk of injury.
Each NHL team has an affiliate in North America's top-tier minor hockey league, the American Hockey League, and most have an affiliation with teams in the ECHL. For decades, the traditional route to the NHL has been through junior hockey and the Canadian Hockey League (CHL). Beginning in the 1970s, NHL teams began drafting and signing prospects from Europe, and a growing number of NHL hopefuls are forgoing the CHL in favor of NCAA Division I college hockey. Additionally, USA Hockey also sanctions junior hockey leagues, such as the United States Hockey League and North American Hockey League, that allow players to develop while also retain NCAA eligibility in order to make the NHL. Almost all draft picks are initially assigned to an affiliate in their NHL team's minor league system for development.
MLS teams sign players from their youth academies, from the MLS college draft, and from overseas. MLS teams rely on their youth academies, which are now a requirement for all MLS clubs. MLS clubs can operate youth teams as young as 13–14 years old. Some youth academy teams participate in lower-tier leagues. MLS also holds an annual draft in which top college soccer players are selected. MLS has a formal relationship with the United Soccer League, which operates (among other leagues) the Division II USL Championship (USLC) and Division III USL League One (USL 1). All MLS teams are nominally required to field a reserve team in a USL league, either by direct ownership or affiliation with a separately owned team, although this requirement has yet to be strictly enforced. This setup allows developing MLS players to gain playing experience.
The CFL's draft is limited to Canadian citizens, plus non-citizens who were raised in Canada. In addition to university/college football, the CFL draft also draws players from the long-established Canadian Junior Football League and its component leagues. The league also draws from the same pool of free agents as the NFL, with players who do not make the NFL often going north to seek work in the CFL. The CFL requires free agents to sign contracts, and thus stay in the league, for a minimum of two years. Unique to the CFL is the concept of the negotiation list, which allows CFL teams to unilaterally declare exclusive rights to any given player. Described as an "enduring mystery," the negotiation list forces players to accept the offer they are given, usually at league minimum, with no leverage to negotiate with other teams; there is no order or limits to the negotiation list, and teams can add or remove players to a 45-position negotiation list without their permission and at any time, regardless of age. Since 2018, ten of the 45 players must be publicly announced.
High player salariesEdit
|League||Average salary||Team salary cap|
|MLB||$4.36 mil||$210 mil*|
|NFL||$2.7 mil||$198.2 mil + $40 million per team in player benefits|
|NBA||$7.7 mil||$109.14 mil|
|NHL||$2.78 mil||$81.5 mil|
|CFL||$0.113 mil||$5.70 mil|
|MLS||$0.345 mil||$9.225 mil|
The average annual salary for players in the four major leagues is about US$2.9 million in 2008, although player salaries can range from $500,000 for backup players to as much as $40 million (up to around $60 mil in the NFL and the NBA by 2021, not counting endorsements and sponsorship deals) for superstars.
NFL, MLB, and NBA, have the biggest and longest contracts in the history of professional sports.
NBA players have the highest average player salaries of the four leagues; however, their teams also have the smallest rosters.
The NFL has the highest average team payroll. However, NFL rosters are far larger (55 players) than the other three leagues (many players on NFL rosters see little actual game play), and teams play far fewer games, making their players on average the lowest paid of the Big Four major leagues. After a brief lockout during the 2011 off-season, the owners and union signed a new CBA that imposed a hard salary cap of $120 million in the 2011 season, but temporarily suspended the salary floor, which returned in the 2013 season at 89% of the cap.
MLB is now alone among the major leagues in that it lacks any form of a salary cap and has enacted only modest forms of revenue sharing and luxury taxes. Compared to the other leagues, there is a far greater disparity between MLB payrolls. The New York Yankees had the highest payroll of any American sports team in 2006 when they paid $194 million in players' salaries – nearly twice the NFL salary cap and nearly thirteen times the payroll of the Florida Marlins who spent about $15 million (significantly less than the mandatory minimum team payrolls in the NFL and NHL).
For the 2010–11 NHL season, the average player salary was slightly above the pre-lockout level of US$1.8 million. In the same season, the league's salary cap was US$59.4 million per team, with the salary floor set at US$16 million under the cap. For the 2018–19 season, the cap has been set as US$79.5 million, with the floor at US$58.8 million.
MLS has lower average salaries and smaller payrolls than the other leagues. MLS kept a strict rein on player salaries until 2007, when MLS introduced the Designated Player Rule, which allows MLS teams to pay higher wages for star players. David Beckham was the first player signed under this rule. The highest MLS payroll in 2019 was Toronto FC, with $24.5 million. The league's average salary is about $345,000 per year. MLS' minimum player salary will increase from $63,542 to $85,502 for most players.
The CFL has a relatively smaller annual player salary and salary cap compared to the other leagues. The average salary in 2018 is $113,000 and the salary cap in 2018 is CAD $5.2 million. As recently as the 1990s, loopholes in the salary cap allowed CFL teams to pay select marquee players a salary comparable to their NFL counterparts, but financial problems forced the league to close those loopholes. Starting quarterbacks, typically the highest paid players on a CFL roster, can make as much as CAD $750,000.
Dominance of the sportEdit
Each of the top four major leagues are the premier competitions of their respective sport on the world stage. Major League Baseball is increasingly luring away the stars from the Japanese leagues, the European hockey leagues have become a major source of star talent for National Hockey League clubs, and the National Basketball Association frequently recruits talent from professional leagues in Europe, Latin America, Australia and China.
All four leagues are considered to be the top league in their respective sports, not only in revenue, but also in quality of talent, player salaries, and worldwide interest. However, of the four major leagues, the NFL has the least presence outside both countries; it is mainly an American and Canadian interest. Basketball is a strong spectator and participation sport in parts of the world, and the NBA is unquestionably the top basketball league. Hockey (Europe) and baseball (East Asia, Latin America, Caribbean) have loyal followings in some of the world's other regions as well. Selling league broadcasting rights to foreign markets is another way for the leagues to generate revenue, and all the leagues have tried to exploit revenue streams outside of their home market.
The NHL is the top professional hockey league in the world, as NHL teams routinely defeat teams from European leagues, and the NHL attracts top players from European leagues. The NHL has been playing exhibition games against European teams since 2007 in the "NHL Premiere" series, the NHL Challenge, and the Victoria Cup, and NHL teams have won 24 games to the European teams' four. During the height of the Cold War the Soviet League had comparable talent to the NHL, but since the decline of Communism in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s, NHL teams have enticed away most of the elite players from Europe due to higher salaries.
Major League Soccer is not the premier soccer competition in the world, or even in the Americas, in terms of competition success, revenues, and players. MLS teams compete with top teams from North America, Central America and the Caribbean in the CONCACAF Champions League, with Mexican clubs winning the title each year since the current format was introduced in the 2008–09 season. MLS has annual revenues of about $300 million, whereas five European soccer leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, and France) have annual revenues in excess of $1 billion. The top players from MLS often move to Europe in search of tougher competition and higher salaries. However, MLS has steadily improved in international stature in recent years. The league implemented the Designated Player Rule in 2007, allowing MLS to attract and retain international stars such as David Beckham. MLS attendance has increased to the point where MLS average attendance is among the top ten soccer leagues worldwide. The introduction of soccer-specific stadiums had improved revenue growth.
In the late 1940s and 1950s, the Canadian Football League (CFL) and the U.S. National Football League (NFL) operated on roughly equal footing financially, with even some U.S.-born star players joining CFL teams. The situation changed along with the rise of the American Football League (AFL) founded in 1959. By the end of the 1960s, revenue from the U.S. television market and absorption of the AFL helped the NFL become much more successful than its Canadian counterpart. By the 1980s, the CFL became virtually unknown outside of Canada. Attempts to promote the CFL included the failed CFL USA experiment in the 1990s. In 2009, a record number of 6.1 million viewers watched the CFL's annual Grey Cup championship game, while 151.6 million viewers watched the NFL's annual Super Bowl championship game that same year.
Use of the phrase "world champions"Edit
The perceived lack of competition from the rest of the world has contributed to the long-standing but controversial practice of the North American media referring to the major sports league champions as world champions. Today, the phrase is more popular in the United States but it retains some acceptance in Canada. However, this practice is usually mocked by non-Americans.
Usage of the phrase in baseball started with organization of championship series between the National League and the earlier American Association in the 1880s, later to be known as the World Series. Major League Baseball later set up the World Baseball Classic, a quadrennial international competition, in an effort to crown a true world champion. By the 1950s, the phrase World Champions was also being used by the newly formed NBA. The Super Bowl, the interleague championship between the NFL and American Football League, was explicitly named a "World Championship Game" for its first iteration.
In hockey, the Stanley Cup was initially open only to Canadian teams, but in 1914, the Cup's trustees allowed American teams to compete, with the provision that the Stanley Cup winners were to be recognized as World's Champions. The phrase was repeatedly engraved on the Cup, and continued to be used, when the NHL began admitting American franchises. When the NHL assumed formal control of the Cup in 1947, the resulting agreement required "that the winners of this trophy shall be the acknowledged World's Professional Hockey Champions" (in contrast to the IIHF's Ice Hockey World Championships, at the time nominally contested by amateurs, although Eastern Bloc nations violated the rules and used de facto professionals). When the World Hockey Association commenced play in the 1970s, they sought to challenge for the Stanley Cup, referring to the 1947 agreement. Both the NHL and the Cup trustees rejected the WHA's challenges; nevertheless, the NHL stopped calling its champions the World Champions, as by this time, the Soviet Championship League was regularly beating the NHL in interleague competitions and the IIHF World Championship was officially opened up to professionals in 1976. Since then, the NHL has called their champions the Stanley Cup Champions.
Several major sports leagues are showcased on a major holiday. The NFL has always played on Thanksgiving Day since its inception in 1920. The NBA has played on Christmas Day since 1947. And since 2008, the NHL has had the Winter Classic on New Year's Day. Furthermore, the CFL has two longstanding holiday events: the Labour Day Classic and Thanksgiving Day Classic.
Baseball and soccer are not particularly associated with any holidays; however, in baseball's case, teams generally play on the major summer holidays since MLB teams play almost every day during their season, and currently themes special uniforms and ceremonies for Memorial Day, Canada Day (for the Toronto Blue Jays), American Independence Day, and the American/Canadian Labor Day.
History and expansion of major leaguesEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)
Professional sports leagues as known today evolved during the decades between the Civil War and World War II, when the railroad was the main means of intercity transportation. As a result, virtually all major league teams were concentrated in the northeastern quarter of the United States, within roughly the radius of a day-long train ride, within the Great Lakes and the Northeast regions. Early professional soccer activity was concentrated almost entirely on an East Coast corridor from Baltimore to Boston, except for the St. Louis metropolitan area.
There were very few major league teams in the far west until after World War II. As travel and settlement patterns changed, so did the geography of professional sports. The NFL attempted to establish traveling teams representing the west and other far-flung regions in 1926 and barnstormed in Los Angeles that season; the experiment did not last beyond that year. The first west coast major-league franchise was the NFL's Los Angeles Rams, who moved from Cleveland in 1946. The same year, the All-America Football Conference began play, with teams in Los Angeles and San Francisco, and the Miami Seahawks. Baseball extended west in 1958 in the move of the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants. The NBA followed in 1960 with the move of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, while the NHL would not have a west coast presence until it expanded in 1967. Almost all of the NHL's initial franchises in the Southern and Western United States were unsuccessful and relocated. From 1982 until 1991, the Kings were the only U.S.-based NHL franchise south of St. Louis and/or west of the Twin Cities. Since then, as newer, fast-growing Sunbelt areas such as Phoenix, Tampa, and Dallas became prominent, the major sports leagues have expanded or franchises have relocated to service these communities.
The National Hockey League was established in 1917 in Canada. When the WHA and NHL merged, the NHL inherited teams in three Canadian cities, Edmonton, Winnipeg and Quebec City. MLB's first Canadian team was the Montreal Expos, a team that was added in 1967; MLB added the Toronto Blue Jays a decade later. MLS's first was Toronto FC, which was added in 2005; it was soon followed by the Montreal Impact and Vancouver Whitecaps. The Toronto Huskies were a charter member of the Basketball Association of America in 1946, but that team only lasted one season; the NBA would then make a permanent expansion into Canada in 1995 when the Toronto Raptors and now-departed Vancouver Grizzlies were established.
Some of the Big Four sports leagues have looked to expand their revenues by playing overseas games in attempt to develop a wider international fan base. There has been increasing cooperation between the NBA and the Euroleague. In 2005, the two bodies agreed to organize a summer competition known as the NBA Europe Live Tour featuring four NBA teams and four Euroleague clubs, with the first competition taking place in 2006. The NBA has also played teams from Australia's National Basketball League, and since 2015, the league has played all-star games in the Johannesburg, South Africa, area against squads composed of NBA players who were either born on or whose parents were born on the African continent.
The NFL has attempted to promote its game worldwide by scheduling selected pre-season games abroad since 1976. The NFL had promoted the game abroad through NFL Europe, but NFL Europe was unprofitable and ceased operations in 2007. The NFL began its International Series, holding at least one regular-season game at Wembley Stadium in London every year since 2007. The NFL held three games at Wembley in the 2014 season. Since then, Twickenham Stadium, the home of English rugby union, has been added as a second London venue. The primary venue for London NFL games is set to switch to Tottenham Hotspur Stadium, opened in 2019 by the soccer club of that name. The new stadium hosted two of the four London games in the 2019 season. The current contract between the NFL and The Football Association, owners of Wembley Stadium, will expire after the 2020 season, while the NFL has a contract with Tottenham Hotspur (aka Spurs) for games through 2027. The Spurs stadium, in which the NFL made a modest investment, is designed to be capable of hosting both forms of football on a single weekend if necessary.
Relations between leaguesEdit
Although they are competitors, the "Big Four" leagues also cooperate. Some owners have teams in multiple leagues; as mentioned above, the NFL restricts cross-league ownership but the other leagues do not. In the early years of professional basketball, the American Basketball League, the de facto major league of the 1920s, was backed primarily by NFL owners. There are common business and legal interests; the leagues will often support one another in legal matters since the courts' decisions might establish precedents that affect them all. One recent example was the Supreme Court decision in 2010 in American Needle, Inc. v. National Football League, in which the NFL (which ultimately lost the case) received amicus curiae briefs from the NBA, NHL, and MLS. The leagues' commissioners occasionally meet in person, most recently in 2009.
The leagues also cooperate in the construction and use of facilities. Many NBA and NHL teams share arenas, and, in years past, such sharing was very common for MLB and NFL teams. Multi-purpose stadiums were built to accommodate multiple sports in the later half of the 20th century; the last multi-purpose stadium in the NFL, what is now Rickey Henderson Field at Oakland Coliseum, hosted its last NFL game in 2019. Even in situations where separate stadiums have been constructed for each team (as is generally the norm in the 21st century), the individual stadiums may be constructed adjacent to each other and share parking space and other infrastructure. More recently, MLS teams have used NFL and CFL stadiums as either full-time home fields (much less so now, due to the league's insistence on soccer-specific stadiums) or for special event games; in reverse, in at least one case, an NFL team (the Los Angeles Chargers) used a soccer-specific MLS stadium on a temporary basis from 2017 to 2019 while a larger stadium was built for them. In recent years, two MLS teams have shared stadiums permanently with NFL teams that were explicitly built to host both sports. The Seattle Sounders share Lumen Field with the Seattle Seahawks; the Seahawks were owned by Paul Allen, also a member of the Sounders ownership group, until his death in 2018. Atlanta United FC shares Mercedes-Benz Stadium with the Atlanta Falcons, with both teams under the ownership of Arthur Blank. When Charlotte FC starts MLS play in 2022, it will share Bank of America Stadium with the Carolina Panthers, with both teams owned by David Tepper. In Canada, Vancouver Whitecaps FC share BC Place with the CFL BC Lions. The Seattle, Atlanta, and Vancouver stadiums employ innovative stadium design features to reduce maximum seating for MLS games to enhance gameday atmosphere, and Charlotte's stadium will be renovated to add such features before the MLS team's debut. Additionally, New York City FC shares Yankee Stadium with the New York Yankees MLB team, which also owns part of NYCFC, and Toronto FC shares BMO Field with the CFL's Toronto Argonauts, with both teams now owned by the company that also owns Toronto's NBA and NHL teams.
Also notable in recent years have been the NHL's Winter Classic and Heritage Classic, which have been held in NFL, CFL, and MLB, as well as college football, stadiums. A unique situation is the TD Place Complex in Ottawa; the same structure serves as the indoor Ottawa Civic Centre (which hosted the NHL's Senators in the 1990s), while on the roof of that arena was seating for Frank Clair Stadium (at that time home of the CFL's Ottawa Rough Riders; by 2014 the stadium was renovated into TD Place Stadium and is now home to the CFL's Ottawa Redblacks).
In the early years of the NFL and to a lesser extent the NHL, it was not uncommon for teams to share nicknames with their MLB counterparts. For example, until 1957 New York City played host to baseball and football Giants. MLB's Pittsburgh Pirates shared its nickname with an NFL team (which ultimately became the Pittsburgh Steelers) as well as a now-defunct early NHL team, while the Canadian football team Hamilton Tigers shared a team name with an NHL team. The most recent example of two major teams sharing a franchise name was between 1960 and 1987; when the NFL's Chicago Cardinals relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, it was allowed to keep the Cardinals name despite the established existence of a baseball team of the same name.
As of 2015, MLB also handles the NHL's digital operations.
- Professional sports leagues in the United States
- Major women's sport leagues in North America
- Major professional sports teams of the United States and Canada
- List of shared franchise names in North American professional sports
- Sports in the United States
- Sports in Canada
- Sports in Mexico
- List of American and Canadian cities by number of major professional sports franchises
- List of professional sports leagues
- List of attendance figures at domestic professional sports leagues – a summary of total and average attendances for the major sports leagues from around the world.
- List of professional sports leagues by revenue
- Sports in the United States
- An identical $150 million fee was paid by the new ownership group of Columbus Crew SC when they purchased the team from Anthony Precourt in 2018. As part of the deal, Precourt received the rights to Austin FC, which will start play in 2021.
- Inter Miami CF, announced in January 2018 as a 2020 entry, only paid a $25 million fee. David Beckham, the public face of the ownership group, received an option for a future MLS team at that specified fee as part of his original MLS playing contract in 2007.
- For example, Silver's study concluded that Edmonton's media market had nearly the same number of avid hockey fans as that of Philadelphia, despite the Philadelphia market having more than four times the population of the Edmonton market.
- "Major sports leagues all make a lot of money, here's how they do it:, Major sports leagues all make a lot of money, here's how they do it".
- Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada#Attendance
- MLSsoccer.com, The expansion, refs, Cascadia: MLS Commissioner Don Garber covers it all in annual address, February 27, 2013, http://www.mlssoccer.com/news/article/2013/02/27/expansion-refs-cascadia-commissioner-garber-covers-it-all-march-soccer-addre
- "Government, Community, and Sports Teams: Tax Credits - The Policy Circle".
- "Major Professional Sports Leagues: The US & Canada | The Daily Gazette, Major Professional Sports Leagues: The US & Canada | The Daily Gazette".
- "What Is the Oldest Major Sports League in the U.S.?".
- "Power Ranking the Best Basketball Leagues in the World, Outside of the NBA | Bleacher Report | Latest News, Videos and Highlights".
- "NFL maintains massive lead in attendance " Sporting Intelligence". Sportingintelligence.com. January 4, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Patra, Kevin (February 2, 2015). "Super Bowl XLIX is most-watched show in U.S. history". National Football League. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
- Hickey, Walt (April 4, 2014). "The 'Big Five' in North American Pro Sports". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Survey: Canadian interest in pro football is on the rise". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009.
- "CFL Attendance Down 4.5%; Montreal Sellout Streak At 104 Games". Sports Business Daily. November 10, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- "2016 MLS Attendance". SoccerStadiumDigest.com. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Molinaro, John (April 24, 2019). "Canadian Premier League FAQ: What you need to know". Sportsnet. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "MLS vs the major leagues: can soccer compete when it comes to big business?", The Guardian, March 12, 2014.
- "The NFL made roughly $16 billion in revenue last year", USA Today, July 15, 2019
- "The NFL brought in enough money last year to pay for 10 Pluto missions", SBNation, July 20, 2015
- "Major League Baseball revenue for 2019 season hits a record $10.7 billion". CNBC. December 22, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "Let's Update the Estimated Local TV Revenue for MLB Teams". Fangraphs. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "Forbes Releases 22nd Annual NBA Team Valuations". Forbes. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Paulsen (October 6, 2014). "NBA Announces 9-Year Extension With ESPN, Turner, Through 2025". Sports Media Watch. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "How much the NHL could make by restarting its season". Fortune. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "NHL's Most Valuable Teams 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Television revenue number approximate, due to differences in American and Canadian dollar exchange rates; the league draws US$200 m from American television and C$433 m from Canadian television in its most recent contracts.
- "Major League Soccer's Most Valuable Teams 2019: Atlanta Stays On Top As Expansion Fees, Sale Prices Surge". Forbes. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- "MLS preparing comprehensive TV rights deal for 2022". Sports Pro Media. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Hodgson, Glen and Mario Lefebvre. The pro sport market in Canada Archived September 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Conference Board of Canada. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- "BARNES: CFL agrees to new six-year TV deal with TSN". Toronto Sun. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
- Paulsen (April 16, 2016). "Warriors Love Boosts NBA, But Not As Much As Heat Hatred". Sports Media Watch. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- "In rough season, MLB on FOX hits historic TV ratings low", Sporting News. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- "MLB TV Partners See Mixed Regular-Season Results During First Year Of New Deal", Sports Business Journal, October 2, 2014.
- "MLB playoffs give Fox Sports 1 big chance to win viewers - SportsBusiness Daily | SportsBusiness Daily Global". SportsBusiness Daily. September 22, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "NBC Sports' 2018-19 NHL Regular-Season Coverage Delivers Viewership Increases Across All Platforms". April 8, 2019.
- "MLS scores in key metrics in 2018".
- Maske, Mark (December 14, 2011). "NFL completes TV deal with Fox, CBS and NBC totaling about $3 billion per year". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 12, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Major League Baseball completes eight-year deal with Fox, Turner Sports". ESPN. October 2, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "NBA extends television deals with ESPN, TNT". ESPN. February 14, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "Rogers reaches 12-year broadcast deal with NHL worth $5.2-billion". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. November 27, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "NHL, NBC sign record-setting 10-year TV deal". National Hockey League. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "M.L.S. and TV Networks Reach Deal to Set Weekly Slots for Games". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- "ESPN, Fox and Univision promise new emphasis to domestic game, MLS in landmark eight-year TV deal". MLSSoccer.com. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- Cite error: The named reference
torontosuncfltvwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "NFL Attendance Lowest Since '10 Despite Chargers Rebound". SportsBusiness Daily. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Brown, Maury (October 3, 2018). "Why MLB Attendance Dropped Below 70 Million For The First Time In 15 Years". Forbes. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
- "Canadian Football League 2018 Attendance on CFLdb Statistics". Stats.cfldb.ca. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- "2018 MLS Attendance". Soccer Stadium Digest. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
- "NBA Again Sets New Attendance Record; Bulls On Top For Seventh Straight Season". SportsBusiness Daily. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- "NHL Attendance Relatively Flat For '15-16 Season; Panthers Up Big In South Florida". SportsBusiness Daily. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- "Forbes, Bloomberg Battle It Out on MLB Team Valuations | FanGraphs Baseball". Fangraphs.com. November 8, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- "Sports Money: 2019 NFL Valuations". Forbes. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "The Business Of Basketball". Forbes. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "The Business Of Baseball". Forbes. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
- "NHL's Most Valuable Teams 2019: Though Buried In Standings, New York Rangers Remain On Top". Forbes. December 11, 2019. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
- "The Business of Hockey: The List". Forbes. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
- “Major League Soccer’s Most Valuable Teams 2018,” Forbes, November 14, 2018.
- "MLS announces plans to expand to 30 teams" (Press release). Major League Soccer. April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
- Lankhof, Bill (July 16, 2014). "Argonauts' off-field woes spell trouble for franchise and CFL". Toronto Sun. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Houston's NFL Franchise Called the Texans". ABC News. January 7, 2006. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Kaplan, Emily (December 4, 2018). "Seattle gets NHL expansion team, to debut in 2021-22 season". ESPN.com. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Wahl, Grant (December 15, 2016). "MLS sets timetable for expansion to 28 teams, $150M fee for teams No. 25, 26". Planet Futbol. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Savino, Christopher. "NYCFC More About Major League Soccer Than New York". Business of Soccer. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Bench, Emily (December 6, 2018). "Columbus Crew's proposed buyers pledging $645M total investment". Columbus Business First. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Salazar, Daniel (December 19, 2018). "Austin and PSV finalize soccer stadium deal; MLS team likely to kick off in 2021". Austin Business Journal. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "MLS announces David Beckham's expansion team in Miami". ESPN. January 29, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Creditor, Avi (December 17, 2019). "Charlotte Lands MLS Expansion Team as Panthers' Tepper Pays Record Entry Fee". SI.com. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
- "Group pays millions to bring CFL back to Ottawa". CTV News Ottawa. March 25, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
A group of investors has agreed to pay the Canadian Football League a $7 million fee to bring a new CFL franchise to Ottawa
- Brown, Maury (November 13, 2012). "Bizball: Ranking 10 MLB Relocation and Expansion Markets Shows Why Either is Difficult". Baseball Prospectus. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Dynamo History". Houston Dynamo. May 12, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "History | San Jose Earthquakes". Sjearthquakes.com. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Pernot, Laurent (2015). Before the Ivy: The Cubs' Golden Age in Pre-Wrigley Chicago. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0252080289.
- Jozsa, Frank P.; Guthrie, John J. (1999). Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports: How the Major Leagues Respond to Market Conditions. Praeger. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-1567201932. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- Silver, Nate (May 31, 2013). "Why Can't Canada Win The Stanley Cup?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
- "Commissioner announces Toronto plan for Bills". National Football League. Associated Press. February 1, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- "Raiders set to become first NFL team to play in three countries in one season". Oakland Raiders. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
- Boyle, Robert H. (February 2, 1959). "Black Hawks On The Wing". CNN. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2008.
- "Bud Selig says MLB will run Dodgers". ESPNLosAngeles.com. April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- "Frank McCourt to sell Dodgers". ESPNLosAngeles.com. November 2, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- "Dodgers sold to Magic Johnson group". ESPNLosAngeles.com. Associated Press. March 28, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Coyotes Finally have owner". ESPN. Associated Press. August 5, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Stein, Marc (December 6, 2010). "Sources: NBA set to take over Hornets". ESPN. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- "Saints owner agrees to buy Hornets". ESPN. Associated Press. April 13, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- Naylor, Dave (January 6, 2020). "Alouettes announce new ownership". TSN.ca. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
- "Jets history - 1962". NewYorkJets.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
- "Jets history - 1963". NewYorkJets.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
- Farmer, Sam (October 16, 2018). "NFL owners vote to allow cross-ownership in cities with football teams". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
- "Constitution and Bylaws of the National Football League" (PDF). National Football League. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
- North American Soccer League v. National Football League, 670 F.2d 1249 (2d Cir. 1982).
- "SoccerAmerica - AEG sells remaining interest in Houston Dynamo 12/15/2015". Socceramerica.com. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Rush, Curtis (September 17, 2014). "How CFL community ownership could work for Argos". TheStar.com. Toronto Star. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
The Roughriders and Eskimos are the only two community-owned teams in the CFL who sell shares to the public. The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a not-for-profit, community organization, but they do not sell shares to the public. The Winnipeg Football Club governs the team through a 13-member volunteer board of directors. [...] The Roughriders have copied the NFL’s Green Bay Packers ownership model.
- York, Marty (February 2, 1983). "USFL thwarted by Davey". The Globe and Mail.
- The Associated Press (October 3, 2018). "CFL already facing competition from nascent Alliance of American Football". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Austin, Daniel (January 8, 2020). "CFL coaches, GMs acknowledge XFL is impacting off-season". Calgary Sun. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Seifert, Kevin; Yates, Field (April 10, 2020). "XFL suspends operations, lays off employees and has no plans for 2021 season". ESPN. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Seifert, Kevin (August 7, 2020). "Sale of XFL to group that includes actor Dwayne Johnson gets approval". ESPN.com. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
- Farus, Nick (June 30, 2017). "'The true and strong and free': Why the CFL's humiliating expansion to the United States was actually a force for good". National Post. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- Cain, Louis P. and Haddock, David D.; 2005; 'Similar Economic Histories, Different Industrial Structures: Transatlantic Contrasts in the Evolution of Professional Sports Leagues'; Journal of Economic History 65 (4); pp 1116–1147
- "MLS confirms the obvious, promotion-relegation will 'never' happen". SBNation.com. August 5, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Carlisle, Jeff (February 26, 2021). "Sacramento MLS team on indefinite hold after investor pulls out of deal". ESPN.com. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
- Allen, Kevin; Jones, Mike (March 27, 2019). "Majority investor: Alliance of American Football in danger of being discontinued without NFLPA help". USA Today. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Naylor, Dave (January 29, 2018). "The enduring mystery of CFL negotiation lists". The Sports Network. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "CFL teams put Kaepernick, RG3 on negotiation lists".
- "Building the best NFL team money can buy under the 2020 salary cap".
- "How Can the NFL Prevent a Salary Cap Crisis? - The Ringer". July 23, 2020.
- "NBA Salary Cap set at $170 million for 2019-20". NBA. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- "Strike Threatens Canadian Football League 2014 Season" Archived June 1, 2021, at careertrend.com (Error: unknown archive URL)
- Tannenwald, Jonathan (February 7, 2020). "New MLS collective bargaining agreement brings big boosts to player salaries, charter travel, free agency". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- "NHL salary cap will be $79.5 million next season". NHL. June 1, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- "MLS Players 2020 Salaries Payouts (All Teams Wage Budget)". Sportekz. March 2, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "MLS and players reach labor deal with time to spare, gains to trumpet and no hard feelings". Major League Soccer. February 6, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
- "Details of Bo Levi Mitchells contract with the stampeders - Article - 3downnation". 3downnation. February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018..
- "The Manziel contract situation just got complicated - Article - TSN". TSN. January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- "Zach Collaros signs restructured contract with the Saskatchewan Roughriders". Regina Leader-Post. January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Graham Parker (February 28, 2013). "MLS is seventh best-supported league in world, says commissioner Don Garber | Football". The Guardian. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- [dead link]
- "Super Bowl XLIII now most-watched EVER? Yes! – Ratings | TVbytheNumbers". Tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com. February 3, 2009. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- "Dear America: you can't be world champions if no one else takes part". The Guardian. November 18, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- "Super Bowl contenders happy with 'world champions' title". Reuters. February 3, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- J. N. Washburn (July 21, 1974). "Soviet Amateur Athlete: A Real Pro". The New York Times.
- "Should the NHL play on holidays?". December 22, 2017.
- "Euroleague, NBA announce 2006, 2007 tournaments". Archived from the original on April 20, 2006. Retrieved May 7, 2006.
- "NFL News". National Football League. Retrieved February 19, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "NFL has game at Wembley Stadium".[dead link]
- "London Calling". Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved February 9, 2008.
- Wesseling, Chris (October 8, 2013). "NFL adds third London game in 2014 regular season". Around the League. National Football League. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "American Needle Supreme Court Ruling: NFL Loses Lawsuit". HuffPost. May 24, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- Darren Everson (May 7, 2009). "The Four Sports Commissioners Weigh In". The Wall Street Journal. pp. D9. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- "NHL, Major League Baseball Advanced Media form transformative digital-rights partnership". National Hockey League. August 4, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2017.