Soccer-specific stadium is a term used mainly in the United States and Canada, to refer to a sports stadium either purpose-built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose stadium which is for a variety of sports. A soccer-specific stadium may host other sporting events (such as lacrosse, American football and rugby) and concerts, but the design and purpose of a soccer-specific stadium is primarily for soccer. Some facilities (for example Toyota Park, Toyota Stadium and Mapfre Stadium) have a permanent stage at one end of the stadium used for staging concerts.
A soccer-specific stadium typically has amenities, dimensions and scale suitable for soccer in North America, including a scoreboard, video screen, luxury suites and possibly a roof. The field dimensions are within the range found optimal by FIFA: 110–120 yards (100–110 m) long by 70–80 yards (64–73 m) wide. These soccer field dimensions are wider than the regulation American football field width of 53 1⁄3 yards (48.8 m), or the 65-yard (59 m) width of a Canadian football field. The playing surface typically consists of grass as opposed to artificial turf, since the latter is generally disfavored for soccer matches since players are more susceptible to injuries. However, some soccer specific stadiums, such as Portland's Providence Park and Creighton University's Morrison Stadium, do have artificial turf.
Lastly, the seating capacity is generally small enough to provide an intimate setting, between 18,000 and 30,000 for a Major League Soccer franchise, or smaller for minor league soccer teams. This is in comparison to the much larger American football stadiums that mostly range between 60,000 and 80,000 in which the original North American Soccer League teams played at and most MLS teams participated in during the league's inception. As opposed to gridiron-style football stadiums, where the front row of seats is elevated several feet above the field of play to allow spectators to see over the heads of substitute players and coaches on the sidelines, soccer-specific venues typically have the front row closer to the level of the pitch, providing a more intimate experience.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Division I professional soccer leagues in the United States, such as the North American Soccer League and Major League Soccer, primarily used American football fields, many of which were oversized in terms of seating capacity, undersized in terms of width of the soccer field, and often used artificial turf (none of which, at the time, were approved for international soccer under FIFA rules). Although many of the baseball parks had smaller capacities, natural grass and a wider field in which to place the field, these parks were generally in-use during the summer season, when North American–based soccer leagues, such as Major League Soccer, also hold their seasons, and the irregular field dimensions and sightlines were often considered undesirable.
The term "soccer-specific stadium" was coined by Lamar Hunt, who financed the construction of the Columbus Crew Stadium, the first soccer specific stadium used in Major League Soccer. In the 2000s, other Major League Soccer teams in the United States began constructing their own stadiums. Canada's first soccer-specific stadium was BMO Field in Toronto, home to Toronto FC. This stadium was renovated to accommodate Canadian football for the 2016 and subsequent seasons. The distinction is less prominent in Canada, where MLS's attendance figures are comparable to those of the domestic Canadian Football League, and the CFL's wider field means fewer compromises must be made to accommodate both; Tim Hortons Field was built purposely to both soccer specifications and CFL regulations. Of the three Canadian cities that host both MLS and CFL teams, only one (Montreal) has separate stadiums for each.
Major League Soccer (MLS)Edit
Current MLS soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|Avaya Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||San Jose, California||18,000||2015|
|BBVA Compass Stadium||Houston Dynamo[n 1]||Houston, Texas||22,039||2012|
|Children's Mercy Park||Sporting Kansas City||Kansas City, Kansas||18,467||2011|
|Dick's Sporting Goods Park||Colorado Rapids||Commerce City, Colorado||19,680||2007|
|Mapfre Stadium||Columbus Crew SC||Columbus, Ohio||20,145||1999|
|Orlando City Stadium||Orlando City SC[n 2]||Orlando, Florida||25,500||2017|
|Providence Park||Portland Timbers||Portland, Oregon||21,144||1926|
|Red Bull Arena||New York Red Bulls||Harrison, New Jersey||25,189||2010|
|Rio Tinto Stadium||Real Salt Lake[n 3]||Sandy, Utah||20,008||2008|
|Saputo Stadium||Montreal Impact||Montreal, Quebec||20,801||2008|
|StubHub Center||LA Galaxy[n 4]||Carson, California||27,000||2003|
|Talen Energy Stadium||Philadelphia Union||Chester, Pennsylvania||18,500||2010|
|Toyota Park||Chicago Fire[n 5]||Bridgeview, Illinois||20,000||2006|
|Toyota Stadium||FC Dallas||Frisco, Texas||20,500||2005|
Future MLS soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|Audi Field||D.C. United||Washington, D.C.||20,000||2017||2018|
|Banc of California Stadium||Los Angeles FC||Los Angeles, California||22,000||2016||2018|
|Allianz Field||Minnesota United FC||Saint Paul, Minnesota||21,500||2016||2019|
Proposed MLS soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|Stadium||Club(s)||Metro area||Proposed capacity|
|Miami MLS stadium||Miami MLS team||Miami, Florida||25,000|
North American Soccer League (NASL)Edit
Current NASL soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|Clarke Stadium||FC Edmonton||Edmonton, Alberta||5,000||1938|
|WakeMed Soccer Park||North Carolina FC||Cary, North Carolina||10,000||2002|
|Juan Ramón Loubriel Stadium||Puerto Rico FC||Bayamón, Puerto Rico||22,000||1974 (2012 renovation)|
Proposed NASL soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|New York Cosmos Stadium||New York Cosmos||Elmont, New York||25,000|
United Soccer League (USL)Edit
Current USL soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
All USL teams will be required to play in self-owned, soccer-specific stadiums by the 2020 season. The following is a list of current USL stadiums that are soccer-specific stadiums:
Premier Development League (PDL)Edit
Current PDL soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|City Park Stadium||Westchester Flames||PDL||New Rochelle, New York||1,845||1970s|
|Lusitano Stadium||Western Mass Pioneers||PDL||Ludlow, Massachusetts||3,000||1918|
|Macpherson Stadium||Carolina Dynamo||PDL||Browns Summit, North Carolina||1,600||2002|
NCAA (Division I)Edit
Other soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|Atlanta Silverbacks Park||Atlanta Silverbacks||NPSL||Atlanta, Georgia||5,000||2006|
|Fifth Third Bank Stadium||Kennesaw State Owls||NCAA||Kennesaw, Georgia||8,300||2010|
|King George V Park||National Stadium
|St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador||10,000||1925|
|Kiwanis Municipal Park Stadium||Williamsburg, Virginia|
|Maryland SoccerPlex||Washington Spirit||NWSL||Germantown, Maryland[n 6]||5,128||2000|
|Metropolitan Oval||Queens, New York||1,500||1925 (2001 renovation)|
|Orange Beach Sportsplex||Local teams||Local||Orange Beach, Alabama||1,500||2001|
|Starfire Sports||Seattle Sounders FC 2
Seattle Sounders Women
|Uihlein Soccer Park||MSOE Raiders||NCAA||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||7,000||1994|
|Virginia Beach Sportsplex||Virginia Beach, Virginia||10,500||1999|
|WRAL Soccer Center||CASL teams||CASL||Raleigh, North Carolina||3,200||1990|
Past soccer-specific stadiumsEdit
|Mark's Stadium||Fall River F.C.||North Tiverton, Rhode Island||15,000||1922|
|BMO Field||Toronto FC||Toronto, Ontario||30,991||2007||2007–present||Changed into a multi-purpose stadium in 2016 after becoming the home of the CFL's Toronto Argonauts.|
The term "football-specific stadium" is sometimes used in countries where the sport is known as football rather than soccer, although the term is not common in countries where football is the dominant sport and thus football-specific stadiums are quite common. The term tends to have a slightly different meaning in these countries, usually referring to a stadium without an athletics track surrounding the field. Some soccer stadiums in Europe are also used for other sports, including Rugby, American Football, and Field Hockey. The problem with oversized stadiums designed for another sport is particularly visible in European American Football leagues and conflicts between teams sharing the stadium (a notable example are Eintracht Braunschweig and the Braunschweig Lions which share a stadium) and (often municipal) owners of the stadiums sometimes arise, leading to attempts at single sport-specific venues.
- Also used by the Houston Dash of the NWSL.
- Also used by the Orlando Pride of the NWSL and Orlando City B of the USL.
- Also used by the Real Monarchs SLC of the USL.
- Was also used by the Los Angeles Sol of Women's Professional Soccer in that team's only season in 2009.
- Also used by the Chicago Red Stars of the NWSL.
- The stadium is located in Germantown, but has a Boyds postal address.
- Sakiewicz, Edward Paul (2006). "Chapter I: Introduction". A Comparative Study of Enterprise Risk Management and Decision Making Criteria Used in Developing Soccer-specific Stadiums for Major League Soccer. p. 24. Retrieved August 1, 2015 – via Google Books.
- "Laws of the Game 2010/2011" (PDF). FIFA. p. 7. Retrieved October 9, 2010. Although the official Laws of the Game allow for pitches in adult matches to be 100–130 yards (91–119 m) long by 50–100 yards (46–91 m) wide. The more restrictive range is specified for international matches like the ones used in the FIFA World Cup.
- Fox Sports (September 10, 2014). "USWNT stars not backing down on artificial playing surface stance". FOX Sports. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- Andrews, Phil (December 31, 2005). "Philadelphia's Field of Dreams: MLS' Newest Home". Bleacher Report. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "M.L.S. Continues to Bolster Growing Brand With New Stadium in Houston". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 12, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Schrotenboer, Brent (January 12, 2017). "Chargers plan to play in smallest 'NFL stadium' for next two seasons". USA Today. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- Arace, Michael (September 10, 2013). "Michael Arace commentary: Aging Crew Stadium still has a big advantage". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Granillo, Larry (September 14, 2009). "Football, Baseball, and the Era of the "Superstadium"". Wezen-Ball. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- "BMO Field". The Stadium Guide. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
- Weber, Mark (May 14, 2012). "Fenway Park and the Waterfront Stadium". The Vancouver Province. Retrieved February 27, 2013.