College Station, Texas
College Station is a city in Brazos County, Texas, situated in East-Central Texas in the heart of the Brazos Valley, in the center of the region known as Texas Triangle. It is 90 miles (140 kilometers) northwest of Houston and 87 miles (140 km) northeast of Austin. As of the 2010 census, College Station had a population of 93,857, which had increased to an estimated population of 117,191 as of September 2017. College Station and Bryan together make up the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area, the 14th-largest metropolitan area in Texas with 255,589 people as of 2015.
|College Station, Texas|
College Station is the home of Texas A&M University.
Location in the state of Texas
|• Mayor||Karl Mooney|
|• City Council|
|• City Manager||Kelly Templin|
|• City||49.6 sq mi (128.5 km2)|
|• Land||49.5 sq mi (128.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)|
|Elevation||338 ft (103 m)|
|• Density||1,978/sq mi (763.7/km2)|
|• Metro||236,819 (US: 187th)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1354786|
College Station (oftentimes called "CStat" by residents) is home to the main campus of Texas A&M University, the flagship institution of the Texas A&M University System. The city owes both its name and existence to the university's location along a railroad. Texas A&M's triple designation as a Land-, Sea-, and Space-Grant institution reflects the broad scope of the research endeavors it brings to the city, with ongoing projects funded by agencies such as NASA, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research.
The origins of College Station date from 1860, when the Houston and Texas Central Railway began to build through the region. Eleven years later, the site was chosen as the location for the proposed Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, a land-grant school. In 1876, as the nation celebrated its centennial, the school (renamed Texas A&M University in 1963) opened its doors as the first public institution of higher education in the state of Texas.
The population of College Station grew slowly, reaching 350 in 1884 and 391 at the turn of the century. However, during this time, transportation improvements took place in the town. In 1900, the I&GN Railroad was extended to College Station (the line was abandoned by the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company in 1965), and 10 years later, electric interurban service was established between Texas A&M and the neighboring town of Bryan. The interurban was replaced by a city bus system in the 1920s.
In 1930, the community to the north of College Station, known as North Oakwood, was incorporated as part of Bryan. College Station did not incorporate until 1938 with John H. Binney as the first mayor. Within a year, the city established a zoning commission, and by 1940, the population had reached 2,184.
The city grew under the leadership of Ernest Langford, called by some the "Father of College Station", who began a 26-year stretch as mayor in 1942. Early in his first term, the city adopted a council-manager system of city government.
Population growth accelerated following World War II as the nonstudent population reached 7,898 in 1950, 11,396 in 1960, 17,676 in 1970, 30,449 in 1980, 52,456 in 1990, and 67,890 in 2000. The population for the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area will range from an estimated 250,846 to 271,773 by 2030.
In the 1990s, College Station and Texas A&M University drew national attention when the George Bush Presidential Library opened in 1997 and, more tragically, when 12 people were killed and 27 injured when the Aggie Bonfire collapsed while being constructed in 1999.
College Station is located south of the center of Brazos County at  It is bordered by the city of Bryan to the northwest.(30.601433, -96.314464).
The local climate is subtropical and temperate and winters are mild with periods of low temperatures usually lasting less than two months.
Snow and ice are rare; most recently, College Station received 5 inches (13 cm) of snowfall on December 8, 2017.
Summers are warm and hot with occasional showers being the only real variation in weather.
- Average annual rainfall: 39 in (1000 mm)
- Average elevation: 367 ft (112 m) above sea level
- Average Temperature: 69.0 °F (20.6 °C)
- Agricultural Resources: Cattle, corn, cotton, eggs, hay, sorghum
- Mineral Resources: Sand, gravel, lignite, gas, oil
|Climate data for College Station, Texas (Easterwood Airport), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1882–present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||90
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||78.5
|Average high °F (°C)||61.0
|Average low °F (°C)||41.2
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||24.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−3
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.24
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||8.4||8.1||8.3||6.5||8.3||8.5||5.7||5.8||6.7||7.6||8.1||8.8||90.8|
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2000, 67,890 people, 24,691 households, and 10,370 families resided in the city. Of the 24,691 households, 21.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 58.0% were not families. About 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 2.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the city, the population was distributed as 14.4% under the age of 18, 51.2% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 9.4% from 45 to 64, and 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.0 males.
The median income for a household[clarification needed] in the city was $21,180, and for a family[clarification needed] was $53,147. Males had a median income of $38,216 versus $26,592 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,170. About 15.4% of families and 37.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.
The city of College Station has a council-manager form of government. Voters elect the members of a city council, who pass laws and make policy. The council hires a professional city manager who is responsible for day-to-day operations of the city and its public services.
Northgate is a mixed-use district north of Texas A&M University that features a combination of businesses, restaurants, apartments, churches, and entertainment. It is a vibrant part of the city known for its eclectic mix of restaurants and bars. A large portion of the stores, bars, and restaurants in Northgate are frequented and patronized by Texas A&M students, and the establishments employ A&M students, as well. In total, the district spans about 145 acres (0.59 km2), bounded by Wellborn Road to the west, South College Avenue to the east, the College Station city limits to the north, and University Drive to the south. The district is the home of the Dixie Chicken and of the first Texas location for the regional fast-food chain Freebirds World Burrito.
Northgate's roots started in the 1930s as the city began enjoying rapid population growth from the influx of Texas A&M University students, professors, and their families. Realizing that proximity to the campus would be a boon for revenues, the first business district was established in College Station near the campus, taking its name for the closest on-campus landmark: the north gate. When the city was incorporated in 1938, its first City Hall was opened in the new district. In 1994, restoration efforts began to revitalize the ailing area. A four-day music festival, "North By Northgate", was introduced in 1998 and has become an annual tradition, renamed the "Northgate Music Festival" in 2002. In 2006, the city council incorporated Northgate as a special tax zone to finance additional improvements and expansions.
Live music is a major draw to the Northgate area, with venues such as Church Street BBQ and Hurricane Harry's consistently providing evening concerts. Many well-known musicians, especially in the Texas country music scene, have gotten their starts playing on the porches and stages found in the Northgate area. Notable names include Robert Earl Keen, Grammy award-winner Lyle Lovett, Dub Miller, and Roger Creager. The district is bisected to the north by Church Street, made famous by the Robert Earl Keen and Lyle Lovett duet "The Front Porch Song".
Wolf Pen Creek DistrictEdit
Wolf Pen Creek District is a large commercial development adjacent to Post Oak Mall and between two of the city's main commercial thoroughfares: Earl Rudder Freeway and Texas Avenue. The area consists of a greenway with trails, a $1.5 million amphitheater and entertainment area, a small lake, the Spirit Ice Arena, and is the home of the Arts Council of the Brazos Valley. The amphitheater has hosted a variety of musical events, including the annual Starlight Music Series, a concert series that starts in late spring and runs through late summer. Wolf Pen often has sidewalk for a scenic run that when completed is about 1 mi (2 km).
Wellborn became a community in 1867 as a construction camp on the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. The town's name has been attributed to a well at the construction camp, a foreman named E.W. Wellborn, or a landowner named W.W. Willburn. Also in 1867, a post office opened in the community under the name Wellborn Station. In 1870, the name was shortened to Wellborn. On April 14, 2011, the City Council of College Station voted 5-2 to annex Wellborn, thus making the community the Wellborn district. Wellborn is often mispronounced as well-born but is pronounced by locals as Well-burn.
- Business Center at College Station
- A 200-acre (81 ha), class "A" business center 5 miles (8 km) from the university, its current residents include firms involved in telecommunications, software development, and technology manufacturing.
- Spring Creek Corporate Campus
- A 100-acre (40 ha), class "A" business center, a greenbelt surrounds most of the campus and provides a buffer between the new development and adjacent land uses which include the Pebble Creek Country Club and Woodland Hills Subdivision.
- Texas A&M University Research Park
- This 324-acre (131 ha) research park was established to provide businesses direct partnering opportunities with Texas A&M University. Several companies and nonprofit research interests have located in the park, including Schlumberger, Lynntech, AdventGX, Notequill, the Institute of Food Science and Engineering, the Electron Beam Food Research Facility, the Academy of Advanced Telecommunications and Learning Technologies, and the International Ocean Discovery Program.
- Crescent Pointe
- Crescent Pointe is a master-planned, mixed-use development of roughly 192 acres (78 ha), with frontage on University Drive (Highway 60) and Harvey Road (Highway 30).
- The Brazos Transit District (formerly Brazos Valley Transit Authority) provides public bus transportation in the Bryan/College Station area.
- Texas A&M Transportation Services provides bus transportation throughout College Station and Bryan for students, faculty, and staff of Texas A&M University and Blinn College. On Texas A&M football game days, the department provides additional park-and-ride service to and from Kyle Field.
- Starline Travel offers weekend service from Texas A&M's campus to downtown Houston, with additional Houston service for Aggie game days and additional service to Dallas during major A&M breaks.
- Groundshuttle provides daily shuttles to and from Houston airports (Hobby and Bush).
- State Highway 6: Earl Rudder Freeway (East Bypass)
- State Highway 6 Business: Texas Avenue South
- State Highway 30: Harvey Road
- State Highway 40: William D. Fitch Parkway
- State Highway 47
- State Highway 308: College Avenue
- Farm to Market Road 60: University Drive / Raymond Stotzer Parkway
- Farm to Market Road 2154: Wellborn Road
- Farm to Market Road 2347: George Bush Drive
- Farm to Market Road 2818: Harvey Mitchell Parkway (West Bypass)
- Union Pacific Railroad line: Union Pacific Corporation (NYSE: UNP)
Easterwood Airport, owned by Texas A&M, is located three miles (5 km) southwest of College Station and has flights to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston.
As of May 2008, the local unemployment hovered around 3 to 4%, among the lowest in Texas. This rate is largely attributed to the significant role the university plays in the local economy. However, underemployment is an ongoing issue.
- Texas A&M University System - education - 16,248
- Bryan Independent School District - education - 1,949
- St. Joseph Regional Health Center - health services - 1,590
- Sanderson Farms - poultry processing - 1,539
- College Station Independent School District - education - 1,400
- Reynolds and Reynolds/Rentsys - computer hardware/software - 959
- City of Bryan - government - 889
- City of College Station - government - 865
- Walmart - retail - 650
- Ply Gem - windows - 611
- H-E-B Grocery - retail - 590
Post Oak MallEdit
Post Oak Mall was the city's first mall and is currently the largest mall in the Brazos Valley. The 82-acre (330,000 m2) mall is home to 125 stores; its opening on February 17, 1982, helped create the impetus for growing economic and commercial developments for College Station. It is currently the largest taxpayer in College Station and the second-largest in the Brazos Valley, though the anchor stores are free-standing units that are privately owned and taxed separate from the mall proper. Over 75% of retail sales in the Brazos Valley come from sales at the mall's stores.
- Football: Kyle Field (capacity: 102,733 <106,000 in 2014 only, during reconstruction>)
- Racing: Texas World Speedway (capacity 23,000)
- Basketball/volleyball: Reed Arena (largest crowd: 13,657 for basketball)
- Baseball: Olsen Field (largest crowd: 11,052)
- Soccer: Ellis Field (largest crowd: 8,204)
- Track and field: Anderson Track and Field Complex (capacity: 3,500)
- Tennis: George P. Mitchell Tennis Center (largest crowd: 2,339)
- Softball: Aggie Softball Complex (largest crowd: 2,341)
- Hockey: Spirit Ice Arena (capacity: 500)
- Golf: Texas A&M Traditions Club
- Bowling: Grand Station Entertainment (capacity: 600+)
Media and journalismEdit
College Station is part of the Bryan-College Station Arbitron market #238.
- KAMU-FM 90.9 NPR affiliate and sister station to KAMU-TV
- KEOS 89.1 Community Radio for the Brazos Valley
- The Bryan/College Station Eagle (city newspaper)
- The Battalion (Texas A&M University newspaper)
- Maroon Weekly (Aggie-owned and operated independent newspaper, Bryan/College Station)
- The Touchstone (left/progressive, alt/indie newspaper)
- The Jail Times (Locally-owned and operated independent newspaper, Bryan/College Station)
- 12th Man Magazine
- Aggieland Illustrated
- Insite Magazine
- AgriLeader Magazine
Local colleges and universitiesEdit
Local school districtsEdit
- Buildings with seven or more floors
- Kyle Field: 118 feet (36 m)
- Rise at Northgate: 18 floors
- Oceanography and Meteorology Building: 15 floors/151 feet (46 m)
- Albritton Bell Tower: 138 feet (42 m)
- Rudder Tower: 12 floors
- College Station Hilton: 11 floors
- Momentum Plaza (formerly Adam Corporation Building and formerly First American Bank headquarters): 121.49 ft; 10 floors
- Richardson Petroleum Engineering: 10 floors
- Civil Engineering/Texas Transportation Institute: eight floors
- Regents Building: eight floors
- Brown Engineering: seven floors
- Harrington: seven floors
- Bright Building: seven floors
- McFerrin Indoor Athletic Practice Facility: over 100 feet (30 m)
- Texas A&M University System Building: seven floors
- Evans Library: seven floors
- Cities within 30 mi (48 km)
Nearest major citiesEdit
- Cities with population over 500,000 within 200 mi (320 km)
- Houston 69.7 mi (112.2 km) (population: 2,145,146; metro population: 6,086,538)
- Austin 107.7 mi (173.3 km) (population: 820,611; metro population: 1,783,519)
- San Antonio 169 mi (272 km) (population: 1,359,758; metro population: 2,194,927)
- Fort Worth 173 mi (278 km) (population: 758,738; metro population: 6,145,037)
- Dallas 187 mi (301 km) (population: 1,223,229; metro population: 6,145,037)
The following people have lived or are currently living in College Station:
- Sara Alpern, professor of women's history at Texas A&M University
- Seth McKinney, former NFL football player and now owner of Crossfit Aggieland in College Station
- Gary Clayton Anderson, American historian and specialist in American Indian studies, resided in College Station in the early 1980s.
- George Bass (archaeologist), archaeologist, called the Father of Underwater Archaeology.
- Garland Bayliss, American historian and administrator at Texas A&M, resided in both Bryan and College Station.
- David Bereit, anti-abortion activist
- Matthew Berry, ESPN fantasy sport analyst and son of College Station mayor Nancy Berry
- Norman Borlaug, "The Man Who Saved a Billion Lives", agronomist, humanitarian, and Nobel laureate who has been called "the father of the Green Revolution"
- Robert A. Calvert, historian
- John David Crow, late athletic director at Texas A&M University; former football player and coach
- Henry C. Dethloff, historian and author
- Robert Gates, former Texas A&M University president and former Secretary of Defense
- Kristy Hawkins, IFBB professional bodybuilder
- Dick Hervey, mayor of College Station from 1971 to 1974; third secretary of the TAMU Association of Former Students from 1947 to 1964; president of Community Savings and Loan, 1964-1982; interred at College Station Cemetery
- Brianna Hildebrand, actress
- Kyle Kacal, member of the Texas House of Representatives from College Station since 2013
- Arnold Krammer, historian at TAMU, 1974-retirement in 2015
- David M. Lee, physics professor at TAMU, 1996 Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics
- R. Bowen Loftin, former president of Texas A&M University
- Lyle Lovett, singer-songwriter
- Martin V. Melosi, environmental historian at TAMU, head of the Institute for Public History at the University of Houston
- Ilan Mitchell-Smith, actor, starring in Weird Science, Journey to the Center of the Earth, among others; professor of English at California State University, Long Beach
- John N. Raney, member of the Texas House of Representatives from College Station since 2011, owner of Aggieland Book Store since 1969
- Rico Rodriguez, actor, known for his role of Manny Delgado in the ABC sitcom Modern Family
- Thomas Sadoski, award-winning actor, starring in HBO's The Newsroom, among others
- Brek Shea, soccer player, member of FC Dallas and the United States Men's National Soccer Team
- R. C. Slocum, former Texas A&M University head football coach (1989–2002)
- Bjarne Stroustrup, computer scientist, designer, and original implementor of C++; Distinguished Professor at Texas A&M University; AT&T Fellow
- Tiffany Thornton, actress, starring in Disney Channel's Sonny With a Chance
- Patrick Zurek, Roman Catholic Bishop of Amarillo, founding pastor of St. Thomas Aquinas Parish
Points of interestEdit
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for College Station have been kept at Easterwood Airport since August 1951 and at an undisclosed location 6 mi (9.7 km) to the southwest of the city center from 1 May 1882 until July 1951.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): College Station city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Resident Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012: Texas". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 12, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Top 25 most educated cities". Money Magazine. 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-26.
- Odintz, Mark. "College Station, Texas". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- "A Guide to Historic Brazos County" (PDF). Brazos Heritage Society. 2003. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Werner, George C. "International-Great Northern Railroad". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Craig, Edith; Thomas, Beth; Lacy, Blake; Merten, Kory (2008). "Real Estate Market Overview 2008 College Station — Bryan" (PDF). Texas A&M University Real Estate Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Matthews, Blake (December 8, 2017). "Record snow blankets Houston and Texas". KHOU-TV.
- "Threaded Extremes". threadex.rcc-acis.org.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
- "Station Name: TX COLLEGE STN". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- "City of College Station : Type Of Government". cstx.gov.
- "Parole Division Region I Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - COLLEGE STATION Archived 2010-05-19 at the Wayback Machine.." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
- "Post Office Location - NORTHGATE COLLEGE STATION Archived 2010-05-19 at the Wayback Machine.." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 15, 2010.
- Jones, Finn-Olaf (2006-09-22). "College Station, Tex". New York Times. p. 1F.
- "Retail and Entertainment District: Northgate". City of College Station. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- Avison, April (2006-06-23). "College Station creates Northgate tax zone". The Bryan-College Station Eagle.
- "Wellborn, Texas". The Handbook of Texas online. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- Falls, Cody Lillich and Clay. "CS City Council Votes to Annex Wellborn".
- "Texas Employers Add 8,700 Jobs in May" (PDF). Texas Workforce Commission. 2008-06-20. p. 2. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- Nauman, Brett (2005-05-15). "New equation gives more realistic look at local jobless rate". The Bryan-College Station Eagle. Archived from the original on 2005-11-04. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "College Station Demographic Report" (PDF). City of College Station. p. 2. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Tavistock Restaurants swoops in on Freebirds". Austin Business Journal. July 23, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "Contact Us". Freebirds World Burrito. February 7, 2003. Archived from the original on February 7, 2003. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- Hensley, Laura (2007-02-16). "Post Oak Mall to celebrate 25 years". The Bryan-College Station Eagle. Retrieved 2008-01-07.[permanent dead link]
- Levey, Kelli (2004-04-04). "Post Oak Mall works to retain costumers". The Bryan-College Station Eagle. Archived from the original on 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- "What's the tallest building on A&M's campus?". Retrieved 2017-10-09.
- "RISE at Northgate". Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "Oceanography & Meteorology Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "What's the tallest building on A&M's campus?". Retrieved 2017-10-09.
- "Albritton Bell Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "J. Earl Rudder Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Hilton College Station & Conference Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Adam Corporation Headquarters". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- "Petroleum Engineering Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "CE/TTI Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Board of Regents Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.[permanent dead link]
- "Jack E. Brown Chemical Engineering Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Harrington Education Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Harvey R. Bum Bright 43 Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Photo: Construction progressing on McFerrin Athletic Center". The Bryan-College Station Eagle. 2007-04-13. Retrieved 2008-07-01.[permanent dead link]
- "The Texas A&M University System". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
- "Garland Erastus Bayliss". Bryan-College Station Eagle. May 28, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- Janet Phelps (2008-04-16). "Anti-abortion group will meet pope in Washington". The Bryan College Station Eagle. Retrieved 2008-06-16.[permanent dead link]
- Matthew Watkins (2008-05-04). "CS man has fantasy gig at ESPN". The Bryan College Station Eagle. Retrieved 2008-06-16.[permanent dead link]
- "A Guide to the Robert Calvert Papers, 1970-1995". lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- "Office of the president, History of the office". Archived from the original on 2009-02-14.
- "Hervey, James "Dick"". Bryan-College Station Eagle. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "Kyle Kacal's Biography". votesmart.org. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Sam Peshek (May 1, 2015). "Longtime Texas A&M history professor receives surprise send-off during final lecture". Bryan-College Station Eagle. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- "Nobel Prize Winner to Join Texas A&M Physics Faculty". Texas A&M University College of Science. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- "David M. Lee". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- "Martin Melosi". vi.uh.edu. Archived from the original on June 19, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- Joe Southern (2008-01-04). "A changing of the guard". Amarillo Globe-News. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
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