Harrison, New Jersey
|Harrison, New Jersey|
|Town of Harrison|
|Motto(s): "Beehive of Industry"|
Location of Harrison within Hudson County and the state of New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Harrison, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||April 13, 1840 (as township)|
|Reincorporated||March 25, 1869 (as town)|
|Named for||William Henry Harrison|
|• Body||Town Council|
|• Mayor||James A. Fife (D, term ends December 31, 2018)|
|• Municipal clerk||Paul J. Zarbetski|
|• Total||1.319 sq mi (3.416 km2)|
|• Land||1.203 sq mi (3.116 km2)|
|• Water||0.116 sq mi (0.299 km2) 8.76%|
|Area rank||468th of 566 in state
9th of 12 in county
|Elevation||20 ft (6 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2016)||16,231|
|• Rank||183rd of 566 in state
9th of 12 in county
|• Density||11,319.3/sq mi (4,370.4/km2)|
|• Density rank||25th of 566 in state
9th of 12 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0885245|
As of the 2010 United States Census, Harrison's population was 13,620, reflecting a decline of 804 (−5.6%) from the 14,424 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 999 (+7.4%) from the 13,425 counted in the 1990 Census. Once considered "the beehive of industry", the town is undergoing a residential renewal, particularly along the Passaic River.
Colonial era – 1840sEdit
The area that is now Harrison was a part of a charter granted to Captain William Sandford of Barbados. New Barbadoes Neck consisted of 30,000 acres (120 km2) and extended north from Newark Bay to present-day Rutherford, between the Passaic and Hackensack Rivers. Sandford sent his nephew, Major Nathanial Kingsland, to enter into an agreement for the purchase the land from the Unami Native Americans, a branch of the Leni Lenape.
A road to the Hudson Waterfront was completed in 1750, named for Douwe's Ferry which it met at its eastern end to cross the Haceknsack River. In 1790 the state legislature decided that "public good would be served by a 64-foot road from Paulus Hook to Newark Couthouse". By 1795, a bridge over the Hackensack 950 feet (290 m) long and another over the Passaic 492 feet (150 m) long (at the site of the Bridge Street Bridge) were built creating an uninterrupted toll road connection. It is now known as the Newark Turnpike.
In 1826, the New Jersey Legislature, Lodi Township was formed from the southern portion of New Barbadoes Neck in Bergen County. Since Lodi Township was part of Bergen County, matters dealing with the county government and courts had to be taken to Hackensack.
In 1840, the inhabitants of Lodi Township joined with present-day Secaucus, Bayonne, Jersey City, Hoboken, Weehawken, and Union City and petitioned for the creation of a new county due to the great distance which the petitioners had to travel to reach the county seat in Hackensack. This appeal resulted in the creation of Hudson County and the first mention of Harrison occurs in the law which was passed on April 13, 1840. Harrison Township was thereby established.
The first committee meeting of the Township of Harrison was held on April 16, 1840, and it is widely accepted that Harrison was named for President William Henry Harrison, who was elected that year.
1850s – present dayEdit
General N. N. Halstead succeeded in getting the necessary laws passed in Trenton and April 8, 1867, Kearny became a separate Township from land that was a part of Harrison, which included East Newark at the time; East Newark later seceded from Kearny, establishing their own Borough.
On March 25, 1869, Harrison town was incorporated, replacing the township.
While campaigning for re-election in 1912, President William Howard Taft told residents gathered for a rally that "you have reason to be proud of this Hive of Industry", from which was coined the town's motto, "The Beehive of Industry", which is still used today.
The town's proximity to rail lines and a large waterfront made Harrison favorably situated for trade. Some of the industries which called Harrison home included the Edison Lamp Works, Worthington Pump and Machinery, the RCA Company, the Peter Hauck Brewery, Driver-Harris Company, Crucible Steel Company, Otis Elevator, Hartz Mountain, Remco Industries, Nopco Chemical and Hyatt Roller Bearing.
As the U.S. moved into the 20th century, these facilities played a major role in the development of new products for both the private and public sector, peaking during World War II. The small town of about only 14,000 residents had more than 90,000 workers commuting into it on a daily basis. In the 21st century the town is undergoing a transformation from a manufacturing center to a residential and service sector town.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of 1.319 square miles (3.416 km2), including 1.203 square miles (3.116 km2) of land and 0.116 square miles (0.299 km2) of water (8.76%).
|Population sources: 1850–1920
1850 1870 1880–1890
1930–1990> 2000 2010
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,620 people, 4,869 households, and 3,262 families residing in the town. The population density was 11,319.3 per square mile (4,370.4/km2). There were 5,228 housing units at an average density of 4,344.9 per square mile (1,677.6/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 58.30% (7,941) White, 2.18% (297) Black or African American, 0.56% (76) Native American, 16.28% (2,217) Asian, 0.01% (2) Pacific Islander, 18.48% (2,517) from other races, and 4.19% (570) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44.18% (6,017) of the population.
There were 4,869 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.23.
In the town, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 35.0% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.0 years. For every 100 females there were 105.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 105.7 males.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 14,424 people, 5,136 households, and 3,636 families residing in the town. The population density was 11,811.1 people per square mile (4,564.9/km2). There were 5,254 housing units at an average density of 4,302.2 per square mile (1,662.8/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 66.10% White, 0.98% African American, 0.40% Native American, 11.89% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 15.96% from other races, and 4.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 36.97% of the population.
As of the 2000 Census, 7.22% of Harrison's residents identified themselves as being of Chinese ancestry. This was the fifth-highest percentage of people with Chinese ancestry in any place in New Jersey with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry.
There were 5,136 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.2% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.27.
In the town, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 36.8% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $41,350, and the median income for a family was $48,489. Males had a median income of $33,069 versus $26,858 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,490. About 10.1% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.
Harrison is governed under the Town form of New Jersey municipal government. The government consists of a mayor and Town Council comprising eight council members elected on a partisan basis as part of the November general elections. A mayor is elected directly by the voters at-large to a four-year term of office. The Town Council consists of eight members elected to serve four-year terms on a staggered basis, with one seat from each of the four wards up for vote one year, one seat from each of the four wards up the next year and then two years with no elections.
The town is divided into four electoral wards, with each ward represented by two council members, with a total of eight council members on the Town Council. Each ward is divided into three districts (except for the 1st Ward, which has two districts), for a total of 11 electoral districts.
The head of the government is the mayor. The mayor chairs the Town Council and heads the municipal government. The Mayor may both vote on legislation before the Council and veto ordinances. The Mayor's veto can be overruled by ¾ of the Town Council voting to overrule the veto.
Town Council meetings are held on the first Tuesday of the month at 7:00 pm (except in July and August, when no meetings are held, at the call of the chairman), in Council Chambers, which is located on the second floor of the Town Hall at 318 Harrison Avenue. Public Caucus Meetings are held at 6:30 pm.
As of 2018[update], the Mayor of Harrison is Democrat James A. Fife, who is serving a term of office ending December 31, 2018. Members of the Harrison Town Council are Laurence M. Bennett (D, 2018; Ward 3), Michael Dolaghan (D, 2019; Ward 4), James P. Doran (D, 2018; Ward 4), Jesus R. Huaranga (D, 2018; Ward 1), Carol Mandaglio (D, 2019; Ward 1), Anselmo Millan (D, 2018; Ward 2), Francisco Nascimento (D, 2019; Ward 3) and Victor Villalta (D, 2019; Ward 2).
While serving a term scheduled to end on December 31, 2014, longtime Mayor Raymond McDonough died on February 12, 2014, after suffering a heart attack at town hall. Later that month, the town council selected James Fife, a former Harrison High School principal, to complete term of McDonough's seat as mayor, which he had held since 1995.
Harrison had one of the longest-serving mayors in American history, Frank E. Rodgers, who was first elected in 1946, defeating incumbent Frederick J. Gassert who had served for 16 years, and served for 48 years, from 1947 to 1995, being elected to 24 two-year terms. He also served two terms in the New Jersey State Senate, from 1978 to 1984.
Federal, state and county representationEdit
Harrison is located in the 8th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 32nd state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Harrison had been part of the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
New Jersey's Eighth Congressional District is represented by Albio Sires (D, West New York). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (Paramus, 2019).
For the 2018–2019 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 32nd Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nicholas Sacco (D, North Bergen) and in the General Assembly by Angelica M. Jimenez (D, West New York) and Vincent Prieto (D, Secaucus). The Governor of New Jersey is Phil Murphy (D, Middletown Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Sheila Oliver (D, East Orange).
The Hudson County Executive, elected at-large, is Thomas A. DeGise.Hudson County Board of Chosen Freeholders District 9, comprising the West Hudson towns of Kearny, Harrison, and East Newark and most of Secaucus, is represented by Albert Cifelli.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 5,454 registered voters in Harrison, of which 3,207 (58.8%) were registered as Democrats, 312 (5.7%) were registered as Republicans and 1,934 (35.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There was one voter registered to another party.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 78.4% of the vote (2,699 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 20.0% (689 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (54 votes), among the 3,473 ballots cast by the town's 5,940 registered voters (31 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 58.5%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 68.0% of the vote (2,347 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 30.0% (1,036 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (38 votes), among the 3,453 ballots cast by the town's 5,827 registered voters, for a turnout of 59.3%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 64.8% of the vote (2,142 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 34.1% (1,128 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (16 votes), among the 3,306 ballots cast by the town's 5,411 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 61.1.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 53.2% of the vote (896 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 45.2% (762 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (27 votes), among the 1,718 ballots cast by the town's 6,032 registered voters (33 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 28.5%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 69.0% of the vote (1,542 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 24.8% (554 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 3.9% (87 votes) and other candidates with 1.3% (30 votes), among the 2,234 ballots cast by the town's 5,225 registered voters, yielding a 42.8% turnout.
The Harrison Police Department is led by Derek J. Kearns, Chief of Police.
The Harrison Fire Department operates out of a fire station located at 634 Sussex Street and operates a fire apparatus fleet of three engines, one ladder, and several special, support and reserve units. Due to cutbacks, the HFD usually is able to staff one engine with three members and one ladder with three members and one tour commander on duty. The HFD has a table of organization of 29 firefighters. In April 2013, officials from neighboring municipalities and fire departments expressed their frustration at the stresses placed on their firefighters in covering fires in Harrison.
- Engine 1 (Reserve) 1994 Emergency-One Sentry 1250/750
- Engine 2 (Reserve) 1994 Emergency-One Sentry 1250/750
- Engine 3 2006 Emergency-One Typhoon 1500/720/10/30
- Ladder 1 1991 Duplex/LTI 110' Tillered Aerial
- Duty Chief 2005 Ford Excursion
As of January 1, 2014, Monmouth Ocean Hospital Service Corporation (MONOC) EMS provides 9-1-1 ambulance service to the city of Harrison and nearby East Newark. As part of the agreement, MONOC pays a $1,500 monthly fee for its use of the firehouse on Cleveland Avenue that had previously been used by Kearny Emergency Management Services.
The Harrison Public Schools serves students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.
As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its four schools had an enrollment of 2,380 students and 162.5 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 14.6:1. Schools in the district (with 2014-15 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Harrison Early Childhood Program for (grades Pre-K3 and PreK4), Lincoln Elementary School (grades Pre-K to 3; 667 students), Hamilton Intermediate School (4-5; 302), Washington Middle School (6-8; 430) and Harrison High School (9-12; 698).
In September 2007, Harrison realigned the grades being housed in each of the school buildings in town. The new Harrison High School located on Hamilton Street between Kingsland and Schuyler Avenues opened to students in grades 9–12. As a result, the old Harrison High School building, located on 1 North 5th Street, was renamed as Washington Middle School. The old Washington Middle School, in turn, located on Hamilton Street between North 2nd and North 3rd Streets, has been renamed Hamilton School and now houses the 4th and 5th grades that formerly used the top floors of Holy Cross School. Holy Cross School has since been vacated by the Harrison Public School district.
The Harrison Public School District is participating in the Interdistrict Public School Choice Program. For the 2005–06. school year parents can request to transfer a child from the Washington School, designated by the State of New Jersey as a Category I School, to another school which is not a Category I School. Since there is only one elementary school in Harrison, parents can request a transfer to the Hoboken Public Schools under the Choice program. A transfer request will depend upon the capacity of the selected Hoboken school.
In 2000, the then Harrison High School building (now Washington Middle School) was used as the location of an open casting call by HBO for the series The Sopranos, which brought 15,000-plus TV star hopefuls to the town, doubling the town's population and bringing traffic to a standstill.
In September 2013, Harrison High School was recognized with the National Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education, one of 286 in the country to receive the award that year.
Harrison Lions Club was chartered on July 25, 1951. The Harrison Club is part of Multiple District 16 (New Jersey) which is part of Lions Clubs International (LCI), the world's largest service organization. The club supports and provides financial aid to the district, state, and international sight projects and is also involved in community programs.
Roads and highwaysEdit
As of May 2010[update], the town had a total of 18.15 miles (29.21 km) of roadways, of which 15.23 miles (24.51 km) were maintained by the municipality, 1.57 miles (2.53 km) by Hudson County and 1.35 miles (2.17 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
By car, Harrison depends on Interstate 280 which runs through town. Westward, I-280 leads to Route 21, the Garden State Parkway, and Interstate 80. Eastward, it leads to Route 7 and the New Jersey Turnpike.
Replacement of Interstate 280's partial access in central Harrison with service roads, a new interchange, and an overpass (to improve access to Harrison Avenue, the PATH station, and Red Bull Arena, and to give north-south passage to local street traffic) is in the planning stages.
The Harrison station on the PATH rapid transit system offers service to Newark, Jersey City, Hoboken and New York City. Built in 1913 and relocated to its present location in 1936, its major reconstruction was approved on March 28, 2012, and was scheduled to run from January 2013 to April 2017. The completion target was tentatively moved to 2018, and settling a required right-of-way renewal with Amtrak may delay the completion further.
The Northeast Corridor, built in the 19th century by the Pennsylvania Railroad and now owned by Amtrak, carries NJ Transit trains, and passes through the city on the same alignment as the PATH. There was a stop on the Northeast Corridor in Harrison, but it was eliminated due to the ease of picking up trains in Newark at Penn Station.
Harrison Waterfront Development PlanEdit
The Harrison Waterfront Redevelopment Plan invited developers to submit plans that capitalize on the presence of the Harrison PATH Station and the Passaic River within a 275-acre (1.11 km2) area that covers 35% of the whole town. The Plan seeks to unite the developers' proposals with a design theme that includes motifs from Harrison's industrial, cultural, and environmental history as a means of fostering a new identity for Harrison that provides a variety of mixed-use, transit-oriented, pedestrian-scale development that will make Harrison a regional destination.
Red Bull ArenaEdit
Harrison is the location of the Red Bull Arena soccer stadium, home of the New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer. After years of construction delays, the arena opened on March 20, 2010, with an exhibition game against the Brazilian club Santos FC. The soccer-specific stadium (SSS) was constructed at a cost of $200 million and has a capacity of approximately 25,000, with a natural grass field, featuring a full wavy translucent European-style roof that covers all of the seats in the stadium but not the field. The stadium sits alongside the Passaic River with a view of the Newark skyline, and is accessible via public transportation at the PATH train stop in Harrison. The stadium is owned and operated by Red Bull GmbH.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Harrison include:
- Angelo M. "Chubby" Cifelli (born 1939), singer, songwriter, musician. who had a 1967 hit with "Tell it to the Rain" by Frankie Valli & The Four Seasons.
- Dave D'Errico (born 1952), former professional soccer player.
- Samuel Taylor Darling (1872-1925), pathologist and bacteriologist.
- Sam Dente (1922–2002), major league baseball shortstop from 1947–1955.
- Bhairavi Desai, founding member of the Taxi Workers Alliance in New York.
- Jack Dunleavy (1879–1944), Major League Baseball outfielder and pitcher from 1903 to 1905.
- Bernard Epstein (1920-2005), mathematician and physicist who wrote several widely used textbooks on mathematics.
- Robert Firth (1918-1984), United States federal judge.
- Tom Florie (1897-1966), soccer forward who played in both the first and second American Soccer Leagues, winning two National Challenge Cup titles and was inducted into the U.S. National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1986.
- Daisy Fuentes (born 1966), model, actress and former MTV VJ.
- Joe Gardi (c. 1939-2010), head football coach at Hofstra University for 16 seasons, from 1990 to 2005, where he compiled a record of 119–62–2.
- Kevin Gilmore (1949–1970), college football player who was a member of the 1970 Marshall University football team and died in the crash of Southern Airways Flight 932. His body was not identified and he is buried with five other unidentified players in the Springhill Cemetery.
- Fred A. Hartley Jr. (1902–1969), served ten terms in the United States House of Representatives where he represented the New Jersey's 8th and New Jersey's 10th congressional districts.
- Marty Kavanagh (1891–1960), Major League Baseball infielder from 1914 to 1918.
- Beverly Kenney (1932–1960), jazz singer who recorded six albums before her suicide.
- Ray Lucas (born 1972), former NFL quarterback who played for the New York Jets, among other teams.
- Edward F. McDonald (1844–1926), represented New Jersey's 7th congressional district from 1895 to 1899.
- Patrick "Paddy" McGuigan (c. 1860–1938), bare-knuckle boxer who was inducted into the New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame.
- Matt Pinfield (born 1966), music personality and TV host, best known for being a video deejay on MTV and VH1.
- Henry Pogorzelski (born 1922), mathematician best known for his work on Goldbach's conjecture, the still-unsolved problem of whether every even number can be represented as a sum of two prime numbers.
- Tab Ramos (born 1966), retired soccer midfielder.
- Frank E. Rodgers (1909-2000), politician who as Mayor of Harrison for 48 years from 1946 to 1995, having been elected to 24 consecutive two-year terms in office and placing him among the longest-serving mayors in U.S. history.
- Fred Shields (1912–1985), soccer player for the United States at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin who was elected to the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1968.
- Joe Stripp (1903–1989), Major League Baseball third baseman from 1928 to 1938.
- Aloysius Michael Sullivan (1896-1980), poet, magazine editor, radio announcer and author, best known for his collection of poems Songs of the Musconetcong.
- Bill Summers (1895-1966), umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the American League from 1933 to 1959.
- George Tintle (1892–1975), soccer goalie elected to the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 1952.
- Jones, Richard G. "As Newark Neighbor Moves Toward Rebirth, Some Pains Are Felt", The New York Times, February 21, 2007. Accessed December 15, 2011. "It was a sobering descent from the days when Harrison, which juts into the Passaic River just across from Newark, was the city where the likes of R.C.A., Otis Elevator and Thomas A. Edison helped forge the town's motto: 'Beehive of Industry.'"
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- Brenzel, Kathryn. "Ready to move: How Harrison is transforming from an industrial powerhouse", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 11, 2015. Accessed August 31, 2015.
- From the Hackensacks to the Dutch, Lyndhurst Historical Society. Accessed December 15, 2011. "Since Major Kingsland was stationed on Barbados and the shape of the territory he purchased here was a neck of land between two rivers, he named his acquisition 'New Barbadoes Neck.' In June 1671, Nathaniel Kingsland sold the southern third of New Barbadoes Neck (Harrison, East Newark, Kearny and North Arlington) to William Sanford for 200 pounds."
- chronology, Liberty Historic Railway. Accessed September 11, 2013.
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- Bergen County New Jersey Municipalities, Dutch Door Genealogy. Accessed December 15, 2011. "Lodi Township was formed March 1, 1826 from area taken from New Barbadoes Township. In 1840 a part of its area was transferred to Harrison Township in Hudson County."
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- Akin, Stephanie. "Harrison, a town in transition, is backdrop for latest Port Authority intrigue", The Record (Bergen County), February 2, 2014. Accessed April 20, 2015.
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- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 276, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 26, 2013. "Harrison in 1850 contained a population of 1,345; in 1860, 2,556; and in 1870, 2,789." Population for 1870 of 2,789 is incorrect and appears to be duplicated from data for that year for Greenville.
- Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 139. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed July 26, 2013.
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- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 – Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Harrison town, Hudson County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 12, 2012.
- Chinese Communities, EPodunk. Accessed August 23, 2006.
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- Staff. "Harrison Mayor Raymond McDonough dies after suffering massive heart attack at Town Hall", The Jersey Journal, February 12, 2014.
- Staff. "Harrison picks ex-principal Fife to succeed McDonough as mayor", The Jersey Journal, February 26, 2014. Accessed August 2, 2014. "Former Harrison High School Principal James A. Fife was selected by the Harrison Town Council yesterday to succeed Raymond J. McDonough as mayor. McDonough, who had been mayor since 1995, suffered a massive heart attack in his Town Hall office Feb. 12 and died."
- Nieves, Evelyn. "Our Towns; 24 Terms Are Enough, Harrison Mayor Decides", The New York Times, March 29, 1994. Accessed July 9, 2016.
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