The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. Appeals from the second circuit are heard by the Supreme Court of the United States. Its territory comprises the states of Connecticut, New York and Vermont. The court has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
- District of Connecticut
- Eastern District of New York
- Northern District of New York
- Southern District of New York
- Western District of New York
- District of Vermont
|United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit|
|Location||Thurgood Marshall U.S. Courthouse|
|Established||June 16, 1891|
|Circuit Justice||Sonia Sotomayor|
|Chief Judge||Debra Ann Livingston|
The Second Circuit has its clerk's office and judges hear oral arguments at the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse at 40 Foley Square in Lower Manhattan. Due to renovations at that building, from 2006 until early 2013, the court temporarily relocated to the Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse across Pearl Street from Foley Square; certain court offices temporarily relocated to the Woolworth Building at 233 Broadway.
Because the Second Circuit includes New York City, it has long been one of the largest and most influential American federal appellate courts, especially in matters of contract law, securities law, and antitrust law. In the 20th century, it came to be considered one of the two most prestigious federal appellate courts, along with the District of Columbia Circuit Court. Several notable judges have served on the Second Circuit, including three later named Associate Justices of the United States Supreme Court: John Marshall Harlan II, Thurgood Marshall, and Sonia Sotomayor. Judge Learned Hand served on the court from 1924 to 1961, as did his cousin, Augustus Noble Hand, from 1927 until 1953. Judge Henry Friendly served from 1959 to 1986.
Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse at 500 Pearl Street; the court's former temporary home
Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse at 40 Foley Square
Current composition of the court Edit
As of August 10, 2023[update]:
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|66||Chief Judge||Debra Ann Livingston||New York, NY||1959||2007–present||2020–present||—||G.W. Bush|
|69||Circuit Judge||Raymond Lohier||New York, NY||1965||2010–present||—||—||Obama|
|72||Circuit Judge||Richard J. Sullivan||New York, NY||1964||2018–present||—||—||Trump|
|73||Circuit Judge||Joseph F. Bianco||Central Islip, NY||1966||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|74||Circuit Judge||Michael H. Park||New York, NY||1976||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|75||Circuit Judge||William J. Nardini||New Haven, CT||1969||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|76||Circuit Judge||Steven Menashi||New York, NY||1979||2019–present||—||—||Trump|
|77||Circuit Judge||Eunice C. Lee||New York, NY||1970||2021–present||—||—||Biden|
|78||Circuit Judge||Beth Robinson||Burlington, VT||1965||2021–present||—||—||Biden|
|79||Circuit Judge||Myrna Pérez||New York, NY||1974||2021–present||—||—||Biden|
|80||Circuit Judge||Alison Nathan||New York, NY||1972||2022–present||—||—||Biden|
|81||Circuit Judge||Sarah A. L. Merriam||Bridgeport, CT||1971||2022–present||—||—||Biden|
|82||Circuit Judge||Maria Araújo Kahn||New Haven, CT||1964||2023–present||—||—||Biden|
|41||Senior Circuit Judge||Jon O. Newman||Hartford, CT||1932||1979–1997||1993–1997||1997–present||Carter|
|42||Senior Circuit Judge||Amalya Lyle Kearse||New York, NY||1937||1979–2002||—||2002–present||Carter|
|50||Senior Circuit Judge||John M. Walker Jr.||New Haven, CT||1940||1989–2006||2000–2006||2006–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|52||Senior Circuit Judge||Dennis Jacobs||New York, NY||1944||1992–2019||2006–2013||2019–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|53||Senior Circuit Judge||Pierre N. Leval||New York, NY||1936||1993–2002||—||2002–present||Clinton|
|54||Senior Circuit Judge||Guido Calabresi||New Haven, CT||1932||1994–2009||—||2009–present||Clinton|
|55||Senior Circuit Judge||José A. Cabranes||New Haven, CT||1940||1994–2023||—||2023–present||Clinton|
|58||Senior Circuit Judge||Chester J. Straub||inactive||1937||1998–2008||—||2008–present||Clinton|
|59||Senior Circuit Judge||Robert D. Sack||New York, NY||1939||1998–2009||—||2009–present||Clinton|
|62||Senior Circuit Judge||Barrington D. Parker Jr.||New York, NY||1944||2001–2009||—||2009–present||G.W. Bush|
|63||Senior Circuit Judge||Reena Raggi||Brooklyn, NY||1951||2002–2018||—||2018–present||G.W. Bush|
|64||Senior Circuit Judge||Richard C. Wesley||Geneseo, NY||1949||2003–2016||—||2016–present||G.W. Bush|
|67||Senior Circuit Judge||Gerard E. Lynch||New York, NY||1951||2009–2016||—||2016–present||Obama|
|68||Senior Circuit Judge||Denny Chin||New York, NY||1954||2010–2021||—||2021–present||Obama|
|70||Senior Circuit Judge||Susan L. Carney||New Haven, CT||1951||2011–2022||—||2022–present||Obama|
List of former judges Edit
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for|
|1||William James Wallace||NY||1837–1917||1891–1907[Note 1]||—||—||Arthur / Operation of law||retirement|
|2||Emile Henry Lacombe||NY||1846–1924||1891–1916[Note 2]||—||—||Cleveland / Operation of law||retirement|
|3||Nathaniel Shipman||CT||1828–1906||1892–1902||—||—||B. Harrison||retirement|
|4||William Kneeland Townsend||CT||1849–1907||1902–1907||—||—||T. Roosevelt||death|
|5||Alfred Conkling Coxe Sr.||NY||1847–1923||1902–1917||—||—||T. Roosevelt||retirement|
|6||Henry Galbraith Ward||NY||1851–1933||1907–1921||—||1921–1924||T. Roosevelt||retirement|
|7||Walter Chadwick Noyes||CT||1865–1926||1907–1913||—||—||T. Roosevelt||resignation|
|8||Martin Augustine Knapp||NY||1843–1923||1910–1916||—||—||||reassigned to the 4th Circuit|
|9||Henry Wade Rogers||CT||1853–1926||1913–1926||—||—||Wilson||death|
|10||Charles Merrill Hough||NY||1858–1927||1916–1927||—||—||Wilson||death|
|11||Martin Thomas Manton||NY||1880–1946||1918–1939||—||—||Wilson||resignation|
|12||Julius Marshuetz Mayer||NY||1865–1925||1921–1924||—||—||Harding||resignation|
|14||Thomas Walter Swan||CT||1877–1975||1926–1953||1951–1953||1953–1975||Coolidge||death|
|15||Augustus Noble Hand||NY||1869–1954||1927–1953||—||1953–1954||Coolidge||death|
|16||Harrie B. Chase||VT||1889–1969||1929–1954||1953–1954||1954–1969||Coolidge||death|
|18||Charles Edward Clark||CT||1889–1963||1939–1963||1954–1959||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|19||Robert P. Patterson||NY||1891–1952||1939–1940||—||—||F. Roosevelt||resignation|
|20||Jerome Frank||NY||1889–1957||1941–1957||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|22||Carroll C. Hincks||CT||1889–1964||1953–1959||—||1959–1964||Eisenhower||death|
|23||John Marshall Harlan II||NY||1899–1971||1954–1955||—||—||Eisenhower||elevation to Supreme Court|
|24||J. Edward Lumbard||NY||1901–1999||1955–1971||1959–1971||1971–1999||Eisenhower||death|
|25||Sterry R. Waterman||VT||1901–1984||1955–1970||—||1970–1984||Eisenhower||death|
|26||Leonard P. Moore||NY||1898–1982||1957–1971||—||1971–1982||Eisenhower||death|
|28||J. Joseph Smith||CT||1904–1980||1960–1971||—||1971–1980||Eisenhower||death|
|30||Paul R. Hays||NY||1903–1980||1961–1974||—||1974–1980||Kennedy||death|
|32||Robert P. Anderson||CT||1906–1978||1964–1971||—||1971–1978||L. Johnson||death|
|33||Wilfred Feinberg||NY||1920–2014||1966–1991||1980–1988||1991–2014||L. Johnson||death|
|34||Walter R. Mansfield||NY||1911–1987||1971–1981||—||1981–1987||Nixon||death|
|35||William Hughes Mulligan||NY||1918–1996||1971–1981||—||—||Nixon||resignation|
|36||James L. Oakes||VT||1924–2007||1971–1992||1988–1992||1992–2007||Nixon||death|
|37||William H. Timbers||CT||1915–1994||1971–1981||—||1981–1994||Nixon||death|
|39||Ellsworth Van Graafeiland||NY||1915–2004||1974–1985||—||1985–2004||Ford||death|
|43||Richard J. Cardamone||NY||1925–2015||1981–1993||—||1993–2015||Reagan||death|
|44||Lawrence W. Pierce||NY||1924–2020||1981–1990||—||1990–1995||Reagan||retirement|
|45||Ralph K. Winter Jr.||CT||1935–2020||1981–2000||1997–2000||2000–2020||Reagan||death|
|46||George C. Pratt||NY||1928–present||1982–1993||—||1993–1995||Reagan||retirement|
|49||J. Daniel Mahoney||NY||1931–1996||1986–1996||—||—||Reagan||death|
|51||Joseph M. McLaughlin||NY||1933–2013||1990–1998||—||1998–2013||G.H.W. Bush||death|
|56||Fred I. Parker||VT||1938–2003||1994–2003||—||—||Clinton||death|
|57||Rosemary S. Pooler||NY||1938–2023||1998–2022||—||2022–2023||Clinton||death|
|60||Sonia Sotomayor||NY||1954–present||1998–2009||—||—||Clinton||elevation to Supreme Court|
|65||Peter W. Hall||VT||1948–2021||2004–2021||—||2021||G.W. Bush||death|
|71||Christopher F. Droney||CT||1954–present||2011–2019||—||2019–2020||Obama||retirement|
- Wallace was appointed as a circuit judge for the Second Circuit in 1882 by Chester A. Arthur. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
- Lacombe was appointed as a circuit judge for the Second Circuit in 1887 by Grover Cleveland. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Chief judges Edit
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve, unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges.
To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years, or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire, on what has since 1958 been known as senior status, or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
Succession of seats Edit
The court has thirteen seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were initially filled. Judges who assume senior status enter a kind of retirement in which they remain on the bench, while vacating their seats, thus allowing the U.S. President to appoint new judges to fill their seats.
See also Edit
- "Facelift Scheduled for Federal Courthouse – The New York Sun". nysun.com. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Solimine, Michael E. (Summer 2005). "Judicial Stratification and the Reputations of the United States Courts of Appeals". Florida State University Law Review. 32 (4): 1341–1342. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- "New York Law Journal". New York Law Journal. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
- Recess appointment, confirmed by the United States Senate at a later date.
- Knapp did not have a permanent seat on this court. Instead, he was appointed to the ill-fated United States Commerce Court in 1910 by William Howard Taft. Aside from their duties on the Commerce Court, the judges of the Commerce Court also acted as at-large appellate judges, able to be assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States to whichever circuit most needed help. Knapp was assigned to the Second Circuit upon his commission.
- Mack did not have a permanent seat on this court. Instead, he was appointed to the ill-fated United States Commerce Court in 1911 by William Howard Taft. Aside from their duties on the Commerce Court, the judges of the Commerce Court also acted as at-large appellate judges, able to be assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States to whichever circuit most needed help. Mack was assigned to the Seventh Circuit immediately prior to his joint assignment to the Second and Sixth Circuit. Reassigned solely to the Second Circuit in 1930.
- Gurfein was nominated for a seat on the Second Circuit by President Nixon, but he was confirmed after Nixon's resignation and was appointed to the Second Circuit by (i.e., received his commission from) President Ford.