John Cabot (Italian: Giovanni Caboto [dʒoˈvanni kaˈbɔːto]; c. 1450 – c. 1500) was an Italian navigator and explorer. His 1497 voyage to the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is the earliest-known European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century. To mark the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Cabot's expedition, both the Canadian and British governments elected Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland as representing Cabot's first landing site. However, alternative locations have also been proposed.
Gaeta, Kingdom of Naples or Castiglione Chiavarese, Republic of Genoa (disputed)
|Died||Between c. 1498 and 1501|
|Other names||Giovanni Caboto, Zuan Chabotto, Giovanni Chabotte, Juan Caboto, Jean Caboto|
|Known for||First European since the Norse colonization of North America to explore coastal parts of North America|
|Spouse||Mattea (m. circa 1470)|
|Children||Ludovico, Sebastian, and Sancto|
Name and originsEdit
Cabot is known today as Giovanni Caboto in Italian, Zuan Caboto in Venetian, Jean Cabot in French, and John Cabot in English. This resulted from a once-ubiquitous European tradition of nativizing names in local documents, something often adhered to by the actual persons themselves. (Many European names have root origins but diverged culturally in spelling, so for some names it was felt necessary to translate them as the written language may have lacked the originating structure, i.e. Charles rendered as germanic becomes Carl/Karl, Jaques in Anglo becomes Jock, Grand becomes Grant) In Venice Cabot signed his name as "Zuan Chabotto", Zuan being a form of John typical to Venice. He continued to use this form in England, at least among Italians. He was referred to by his Italian banker in London as "Giovanni", in the only known contemporaneous document to use this version of his first name.
Cabot was born in Italy, the son of Giulio Caboto and his wife; he had a brother Piero. Gaeta (in the Province of Latina) and Castiglione Chiavarese (in the Province of Genoa) have both been proposed as birthplaces. The main evidence for Gaeta are records of a Caboto family residing there until the mid-15th century, but ceasing to be traceable after 1443.
Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish envoy and Cabot's contemporary in London, described him in a letter to the Spanish Crown in 1498 as "another Genoese like Columbus". John Cabot's son, Sebastian, said his father originally came from Genoa. In 1476 Cabot was made a citizen of the Republic of Venice, which required a minimum of fifteen years' residency in the city; thus he must have lived in Venice since at least 1461.
Cabot may have been born slightly earlier than 1450, which is the approximate date most commonly given for his birth. In 1471 Cabot was accepted into the religious confraternity of the Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista. Since this was one of the city's prestigious confraternities, his acceptance suggests that he was already a respected member of the community.
Once he gained full Venetian citizenship in 1476, Cabot would have been eligible to engage in maritime trade, including the trade to the eastern Mediterranean that was the source of much of Venice's wealth. He presumably entered this trade shortly thereafter. A 1483 document refers to his selling a slave in Crete whom he had acquired while in the territories of the Sultan of Egypt, which then comprised most of what is now Israel, Syria and Lebanon. This is not sufficient to prove Cabot's later assertion that he had visited Mecca, which he said in 1497 to the Milanese ambassador in London. In this Mediterranean trade, he may have acquired better knowledge of the origins of the Eastern merchandise he would have been dealing in (such as spices and silks) than most Europeans at that time.
"Zuan Cabotto" is mentioned in a variety of Venetian records of the late 1480s. These indicate that by 1484 he was married to Mattea and already had multiple sons. Cabot's sons were Ludovico, Sebastian and Sancto. The Venetian sources contain references to Cabot's being involved in house building in the city. He may have relied on this experience when seeking work later in Spain as a civil engineer.
Cabot appears to have gotten into financial trouble in the late 1480s and left Venice as an insolvent debtor by 5 November 1488. He moved to Valencia, Spain, where his creditors attempted to have him arrested by sending a lettera di raccomandazione a giustizia ("a letter of recommendation to justice") to the authorities. While in Valencia, "John Cabot Montecalunya" (as he is referred to in local documents) proposed plans for improvements to the harbour. These proposals were rejected, however. Early in 1494 he moved on to Seville, where he proposed, was contracted to build and, for five months, worked on the construction of a stone bridge over the Guadalquivir river. This project was abandoned following a decision of the City Council on 24 December 1494. After this Cabot appears to have sought support in Seville and Lisbon for an Atlantic expedition, before moving to London to seek funding and political support. He probably reached England in mid-1495.
Cabot sought financing and royal patronage in England, in contrast to Columbus' expeditions being financed mainly by the Spanish crown. Cabot planned to depart to the west from a northerly latitude.[unreliable source?] Like Columbus, he still expected to find an alternative route to China.
Historians had thought that, on arrival in England, Cabot went to Bristol, a major maritime centre, to seek financial backers. This was the only English city to have had a history of undertaking exploratory expeditions into the Atlantic. Cabot's royal patent, issued by the Crown in 1496, stated that all expeditions should be undertaken from Bristol, so his primary financial supporters were probably based in that city. In any case, it also stipulated that the commerce resulting from any discoveries must be conducted with England alone, with goods only being brought in through Bristol. Although those goods would be free of other duties, the King was to receive one-fifth of the profit. This would have made Bristol into a monopoly port, with sole right to engage in colonial trade. In stating this, Henry VII of England was presumably influenced by Iberian practices: Portugal having made Lisbon into such a monopoly port, while Spain was in the process of doing the same thing with Seville.
In the late 20th century, British historian Alwyn Ruddock found documentation that Cabot went first to London, where he received some financial backing from its Italian community. She suggested one patron was Father Giovanni Antonio de Carbonariis, an Augustinian friar who was also the deputy to Adriano Castellesi, the papal tax collector. Ruddock also suggested that Carbonariis accompanied Cabot's 1498 expedition. She further suggested that the friar, on good terms with the King, introduced the explorer to King Henry VII. Beyond this, Ruddock stated that Cabot received a loan from an Italian banking house in London. As Ruddock ordered the destruction of all her research notes on her death in 2005, scholars have had to duplicate her research and rediscover documents. The Cabot Project was formed at the University of Bristol in 2009 to research Cabot and the Bristol expeditions. Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, of the University of Florence, found some of Ruddock's documentation, confirming that Cabot received money in March 1496 from the Bardi family banking firm of Florence. The bankers located in London provided fifty nobles (£16 13s. 4d.) to support Cabot's expedition to "go and find the new land". This payment from the Florentine merchants would have represented a substantial contribution, although it was not enough to completely finance the expedition.
On 5 March 1496 Henry VII gave Cabot and his three sons letters patent with the following charge for exploration:
... free authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions, and coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea, under our banners, flags, and ensigns, with five ships or vessels of whatsoever burden and quality they may be, and with so many and with such mariners and men as they may wish to take with them in the said ships, at their own proper costs and charges, to find, discover and investigate whatsoever islands, countries, regions or provinces of heathens and infidels, in whatsoever part of the world placed, which before this time were unknown to all Christians.
Those who received such patents had the right to assign them to third parties for execution. His sons are believed to have still been minors at that time.
Cabot went to Bristol to arrange preparations for his voyage. Bristol was the second-largest seaport in England. From 1480 onward it had supplied several expeditions to look for the mythical Hy-Brasil. According to Celtic legend, this island lay somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. There was a widespread belief among merchants in the port that Bristol men had discovered the island at an earlier date but had then lost track of it. In a private letter to a colleague (Quinn), Ruddock maintained that she had found evidence in Italian archives that Bristol men had discovered North America before 1470. As the island was believed to be a source of brazilwood (from which a valuable red dye could be obtained), merchants had economic incentive to find it.
Little was recorded of Cabot's first voyage. What is known as the "John Day letter", written by John Day, alias Hugh Say, a Bristol merchant originally of London, was sent during the winter of 1497–98 to an addressee believed to be Christopher Columbus. The letter refers briefly to this voyage but writes mostly about the second, 1497 expedition. Day noted: "Since your Lordship wants information relating to the first voyage, here is what happened: he went with one ship, his crew confused him, he was short of supplies and ran into bad weather, and he decided to turn back." Since Cabot received his royal patent in March 1496, it is believed that he made his first voyage that summer.
Information about the 1497 voyage comes mostly from four short letters and an entry in a 1565 chronicle of the city of Bristol (then often spelt Bristow). The chronicle entry for 1496–97 says in full:
This year, on St. John the Baptist's Day [24 June 1497], the land of America was found by the Merchants of Bristow in a shippe of Bristowe, called the Mathew; the which said ship departed from the port of Bristowe, the second day of May, and came home again the 6th of August next following.
The John Day letter of winter 1497–98 provides considerable information about Cabot's second voyage. Day is believed to have been familiar with the key figures of the expedition and thus able to report on it. If the lands Cabot had discovered lay west of the meridian laid down in the Treaty of Tordesillas, or if he intended to sail further west, Columbus would probably have believed that these voyages challenged his monopoly rights for westward exploration.[unreliable source]
In addition to these letters, Alwyn Ruddock claimed to have found another, written on 10 August 1497 by the London-based bankers of Fr. Giovanni Antonio de Carbonariis. This letter has yet to be found. From various written comments made by Ruddock, the letter did not appear to contain a detailed account of the voyage. Ruddock said the letter contained "new evidence supporting the claim that seamen of Bristol had already discovered land across the ocean before John Cabot's arrival in England." She contended that Bristol seamen had reached North America two decades before Cabot's expedition.
Details of the voyageEdit
The known sources do not concur on all aspects of the events, and none can be assumed to be entirely reliable. Cabot was described as having one "little ship", of 50 tons' burden, called Matthew of Bristol (according to the 1565 chronicle). It was said to be laden with sufficient supplies for "seven or eight months". The ship departed in May with a crew of 18 to 20 men. They included an unnamed Burgundian (modern-day Netherlands) and a Genoese barber, who presumably accompanied the expedition as the ship's surgeon (barbers in that era also routinely performed dentistry and minor surgery).
It is likely that two ranking Bristol merchants were part of the expedition. One was William Weston, who had not been identified as part of Cabot's expedition before the discovery of a new document in the late 20th century by historian Margaret Condon. In 2009, historian Evan Jones published this document: a letter from Henry VII ordering the suspension of legal proceedings against Weston because it was the King's intent that Weston would shortly undertake a voyage for the King to the "new founde land". This was probably the voyage under Cabot's patent, making William Weston the first Englishman to lead an expedition to North America. In 2018, Condon and Jones published a further article that showed that Weston and Cabot had been jointly rewarded by the king in January 1498, suggesting that the explorers were working together before the start of the second voyage. The same article revealed that Weston received a £30 reward after he returned from his successful 1499 voyage.
Leaving Bristol, the expedition sailed past Ireland and across the Atlantic, making landfall somewhere on the coast of North America on 24 June 1497. The exact location of the landfall has long been disputed, with different communities vying for the honor. Historians have proposed Cape Bonavista and St. John's, Newfoundland; Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia; Labrador; and Maine as possibilities. Since the discovery of the John Day letter in the 1950s, it seems most likely that the initial landfall was either on Newfoundland or nearby Cape Breton Island. This is because Day's letter implies that the coastline explored in 1497 lay between the latitudes of Bordeaux, France and Dursey Head in southern Ireland. The initial landfall seems to have taken place close to the southern latitude, with the expedition returning home after reaching the northern one.
For the 500th-anniversary celebrations, the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom designated Cape Bonavista in Newfoundland as the "official" landing place. Here in 1997, Queen Elizabeth II along with members of the Italian and Canadian governments greeted the replica Matthew of Bristol, following her celebratory crossing of the Atlantic.
Cabot is reported to have landed only once during the expedition and did not advance "beyond the shooting distance of a crossbow". Pasqualigo and Day both state that the expedition made no contact with any native people; the crew found the remains of a fire, a human trail, nets, and a wooden tool. The crew appeared to have remained on land just long enough to take on fresh water; they also raised the Venetian and Papal banners, claiming the land for the King of England and recognising the religious authority of the Roman Catholic Church. After this landing, Cabot spent some weeks "discovering the coast", with most "discovered after turning back".
On return to Bristol, Cabot rode to London to report to the king. On 10 August 1497, he was given a reward of £10—equivalent to about two years' pay for an ordinary labourer or craftsman. The explorer was fêted; Soncino wrote on 23 August that, similar to Christopher Columbus, Cabot "is called the Great Admiral, and vast honour is paid to him and he goes dressed in silk, and these English run after him like mad". Such adulation was short-lived, for over the next few months the king's attention was occupied by the second Cornish uprising of 1497.
Once Henry's throne was secure, he gave more thought to Cabot. On 26 September, just a few days after the collapse of the revolt, the king made an award of £2 to Cabot. On 13 December 1497, the explorer was awarded a pension (or salary) of £20 per year. This was to be payable from customs receipts collected in Bristol. The pension was backdated to March 1497, to make clear that Cabot was in the king's service at the time of his expedition. Despite the royal grant, Bristol's customs officers initially refused to pay Cabot his pension, forcing the explorer to obtain an additional warrant from the king. On 3 February 1498, Cabot was given new letters patent covering the voyage and to help him prepare another expedition. In March and April, the king also advanced a number of loans to Lancelot Thirkill of London, Thomas Bradley, and John Cair, who were to accompany Cabot's new expedition.
The Great Chronicle of London (1189–1512) reports that Cabot departed with a fleet of five ships from Bristol at the beginning of May 1498, one of which had been prepared by the king. Some of the ships were said to be carrying merchandise, including cloth, caps, lace points, and other "trifles". This suggests that Cabot intended to engage in trade on this expedition. The Spanish envoy in London reported in July that one of the ships had been caught in a storm and been forced to land in Ireland, but that Cabot and the other four ships had continued on.
For centuries, no other records were found (or at least published) that relate to this expedition; it was long believed that Cabot and his fleet were lost at sea. But at least one of the men scheduled to accompany the expedition, Lancelot Thirkill, is recorded as living in London in 1501.
It is not known whether Cabot died during the voyage, returned safely and died shortly after, or arrived in the Americas and chose to remain there, perhaps remaining with the Indigenous people in a similar manner to Étienne Brûlé.
The historian Alwyn Ruddock worked on Cabot and his era for 35 years. She suggested that Cabot and his expedition successfully returned to England in the spring of 1500. She claimed their return followed an epic two-year exploration of the east coast of North America, south into the Chesapeake Bay area and perhaps as far as the Spanish territories in the Caribbean. Her evidence included the well-known world map of the Spanish cartographer Juan de la Cosa. His chart included the North American coast and seas "discovered by the English" between 1497 and 1500.
Ruddock suggested that Giovanni Antonio de Carbonariis and the other friars who accompanied the 1498 expedition had stayed in Newfoundland and founded a mission. If Carbonariis founded a settlement in North America, it would have been the first Christian settlement on the continent and may have included a church, the only medieval church to have been built there.
The Cabot Project at the University of Bristol was organized in 2009 to search for the evidence on which Ruddock's claims rest, as well as to undertake related studies of Cabot and his expeditions. The lead researchers on the project, Evan Jones and Margaret Condon, claim to have found further evidence to support aspects of Ruddock's case, including some of the information she intended to use to argue for a successful return of the 1498 expedition to Bristol. These appear to place John Cabot in London by May 1500, although Jones and Condon have yet to publish their documentation.
The project is collaborating on an archaeological excavation at the community of Carbonear, Newfoundland, located at Conception Bay and believed the likely location for Carbonariis's possible mission settlement. The Archaeology of Historic Carbonear Project, carried out by Memorial University of Newfoundland, has conducted summer fieldwork each season since 2011. So far, it has found evidence of planter habitation since the late 17th century and of trade with Spain through Bilbao, including a Spanish coin minted in Peru.
Additional English voyagesEdit
Ruddock claimed that William Weston of Bristol, a supporter of Cabot, undertook an independent expedition to North America in 1499, sailing north from Newfoundland up to the Hudson Strait. If correct, this was probably the first Northwest Passage expedition. In 2009, Jones confirmed that William Weston (who was not previously known to have been involved) led an expedition from Bristol [with royal support] to the "new found land" in 1499 or 1500, making him the first Englishman to lead the exploration of North America. This find has changed the understanding of English roles in exploration of that continent. In 2018, Condon and Jones published a further article about William Weston. This revealed that Weston and Cabot had received rewards from King Henry VII in January 1498, following a royal audience, thereby confirming that the two explorers were involved by this stage. Condon and Jones also revealed that in 1500 the King rewarded Weston £30 for "his expenses about the finding of the new land".
King Henry VII continued to support exploration from Bristol. The king granted Hugh Eliot, Robert Thorne, and his son a bounty of £20 in January 1502 for purchasing the Gabriel, a ship for an expedition voyage that summer. Later in 1502 or early 1503, he paid Eliot a reward of £100 for a voyage, or voyages, in "2 ships to the Isle of new finding," as Newfoundland was called. This amount was larger than any previously accounted for in royal support of the explorations. Around this time the Bristol-based explorers established a formal company, backed by Letters Patent, called the Company Adventurers to the New Found Land. This conducted further expeditions in 1503 and 1504.
In 1508–09, Sebastian Cabot undertook a final voyage to North America from Bristol. According to Peter Martyr's 1516 account, this expedition explored a section of the coast from the Hudson Bay to about Chesapeake Bay. Following his return to England in 1509, Sebastian found that his sponsor, Henry VII, had died and that the new king, Henry VIII, had little interest in westward exploration.
Cabot married Mattea around 1470, and had issue including three sons:
- Ludovico Caboto
- Sebastiano Caboto
- Santo Caboto
Sebastian Cabot's voyagesEdit
Sebastian Cabot, one of John's sons, also became an explorer, later making at least one voyage to North America. In 1508 he was searching for the Northwest Passage. Nearly two decades later, he sailed to South America for Spain to repeat Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world. He became diverted by searching for silver along the Río de la Plata (1525–1528) in Argentina.
Legacy and honorsEdit
- Giovanni Caboto (1762), painting at Ducal Palace, Venice.
- Cabot Tower (1897) in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Cabot's voyage.
- Cabot Tower, in Bristol, England. A 30-metre-tall red sandstone tower begun in 1897 to mark the 400th anniversary.
- Denis William Eden painting: John Cabot and his sons receive the charter from Henry VII to sail in search of new lands (1910), at Houses of Parliament.
- Giovanni Caboto Club (est. 1925), an Italian club located in Windsor, Ontario.
- A 1952 statue of the explorer is at Bristol's City Hall.
- John Cabot University is a United States-affiliated university established in 1972 in Rome, Italy.
- A 1985 bronze statue of the explorer by Stephen Joyce, is located at Bristol Harbourside.
- A replica of the Matthew of Bristol built to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the 1497 voyage, docked in Bristol.
- A second replica of the Matthew is located at Cape Bonavista.
- The scenic Cabot Trail in the Cape Breton Highlands is named after the explorer.
- John Cabot Academy is an independent school in Bristol, England.
- Cabot Ward was an electoral district in Bristol (abolished in 2016), indirectly named for the explorer and directly after the local Cabot Tower.
- Cabot Squares in London and Montreal.
- Cabot Circus, a 2008 shopping mall in Bristol, named as a result of a citywide poll.
- Cabot Street and Cabot Avenue in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.
- A bronze statue of the explorer stands at the Confederation Building, St. John's.
- A bronze statue of the explorer is located at Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland. Plaques in English, French and Italian commemorate the historic voyage.
- John Cabot Catholic Secondary School in Mississauga, Ontario, is named after the explorer.
- Giovanni Caboto park located in Edmonton, Alberta.
- The Cabot Institute for the Environment at the University of Bristol is named after him.
- In 1897, the Newfoundland Colony issued a postage stamp, and in 1947, the Dominion of Newfoundland issued a postage stamp, marking the 400th and 450th anniversaries of Cabot's voyage to that island, respectively.
- ^ "Cabato". Treccani Italy. Treccani Italy.
- ^ a b c d "Catholic Encyclopedia 'John & Sebastian Cabot'". newadvent. 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
- ^ "John Cabot". Encyclopedia Britannica. 16 December 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- ^ Frederic C., Lane (1978). Storia di Venezia (in Italian). Turin: Einaudi.
- ^ Edoardo Giuffrida, "New documents on Giovanni Caboto" in R. Mamoli Zorzi (ed.), Attraversare gli Oceani: Da Giovanni Caboto al Canada Multiculturale (Venice, 1999), 61. Juliana de Luna, Names from Sixteenth-Century Venice (2008).
- ^ "Cabot Project", Bristol Website
- ^ a b Skelton, R.A. (1979) . "Cabot, John". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- ^ "Scheda Tecnica Documentario "Caboto": I Caboto E Il Nuovo Mondo" (PDF) (Press release) (in Italian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2008. Technical Documentary "Caboto": I and Catalan origins have been proved to be without foundation.
- ^ Roberto Almagiá, Commemorazione di Sebastiano Caboto nel IV centenario della morte (Venice, 1958), pp. 37–38. (in Italian)
- ^ a b "Pedro de Ayala letter 1498 to the Spanish Crown". The Smugglers' City. Department of Historical Studies, University of Bristol. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- ^ J.A. Williamson, The Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery Under Henry VII (Hakluyt Society, Second Series, No. 120, CUP, 1962), pp. 33–34.
- ^ Giuffrida, "New documents on Giovanni Caboto" pp. 62–63
- ^ a b c d e f Primary Sources: "Raimondo de Raimondi de Soncino, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, 18 December 1497, The Smugglers' City, History Dept., University of Bristol
- ^ Williamson, The Cabot Voyages, pp. 93, 192–195
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- ^ "John Cabot in Seville, 1494", The Smugglers' City, Dept. of History, University of Bristol
- ^ Evan T. Jones and Margaret M. Condon, Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508 (University of Bristol, Nov. 2016), pp. 23–27.
- ^ a b Croxton, Derek (2007). "The Cabot Dilemma: John Cabot's 1497 Voyage & the Limits of Historiography". Essays in History. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2021 – via University of Virginia.
- ^ a b Evan T. Jones, "The Matthew of Bristol and the financiers of John Cabot's 1497 voyage to North America", English Historical Review (2006)
- ^ The Commercial Policy of England Toward the American Colonies: the Acts of Trade, p. 38; in Emory R. Johnson, T. W. Van Metre, G. G. Huebner, D. S. Hanchett, History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States – Vol. 1, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915
- ^ a b Bowen, Frank C. (1938). America Sails the Seas. New York: Robert M. McBride & Company. p. 40.
- ^ Evan T. Jones, "Alwyn Ruddock: John Cabot and the Discovery of America", Historical Research Vol 81, Issue 212 (2008), pp. 231–234.
- ^ The Cabot Project
- ^ a b Guidi-Bruscoli, Francesco (2012). "John Cabot and his Italian financiers". Historical Research. 85 (229): 372–393. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2012.00597.x.
- ^ Primary Sources: "First Letters Patent granted by Henry VII to John Cabot, 5 March 1496", The Smugglers' City, History Dept., University of Bristol
- ^ Skelton, R.A. (1979) . "Cabot, Sebastian". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- ^ Williamson, The Cabot Voyages, pp. 187–189
- ^ a b Jones, Evan T. (2008). "Alwyn Ruddock: John Cabot and the Discovery of America". Historical Research. 2007 (212): 237–240. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2007.00422.x.
- ^ a b Douglas Hunter, "Rewriting History: Alwyn Ruddock and John Cabot", extended July 2010 version of article by same name published in Canada's History, April 2010; accessed 24 April 2015
- ^ "Salazar's account of Bristol's discovery of the Island of Brasil (pre-1476)". The Smuggler's City. University of Bristol.
- ^ "Salazar's account of Bristol's discovery of the Island of Brasil (pre-1476)". The Smuggler's City. University of Bristol.
- ^ a b c d e f "John Day letter to the Lord Grand Admiral, Winter 1497/8", The Smugglers' City, Dept. of History, University of Bristol.
- ^ G.E. Weare, Cabot's Discovery of North America (John Macqueen, London 1897), p. 116 (Internet Archive).
- ^ "The John Day Letter". Heritage Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- ^ Woodroffe, Sasha. "Breaking the Spanish Monopoly in the Caribbean". self-published. Retrieved 13 September 2016 – via Academia.edu.
- ^ Evan T. Jones, "The Quinn papers: Transcripts of correspondence relating to the Bristol discovery voyages to North America in the fifteenth century", p. 16. Note: Based on Ruddock's letter to Quinn on 1 May 1992, she thought that the bank was Venetian; Condon and Jones found documentation in August 2010 suggesting this conclusion was incorrect and that it was Florentine.
- ^ Margaret Condon & Evan T. Jones, 'Henry VII’s letter to John Morton concerning William Weston’s voyage to the new found land'
- ^ Evan T. Jones, 'Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America: the Condon documents', Historical Research, 27 August 2009
- ^ a b Margaret M. Condon and Evan T. jones, "William Weston: early voyager to the New World", Historical Research (November 2018, published online, 3 October 2018).
- ^ Evan T. Jones and Margaret M. Condon, Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508 (University of Bristol, 2016), pp. 43–44.
- ^ Lion of Saint Mark, given by Regione Veneto to the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, for the 500th year from the arrival of John Cabot
- ^ P. D'Epiro, M. D. Pinkowish, "Sprezzatura: 50 Ways Italian Genius Shaped the World", pp. 179–180
- ^ Williamson, The Cabot Voyages, p. 214
- ^ Evan T. Jones, "Bristol, Cabot and the New Found Land, 1496–1500" in P. E. Pope and S. Lewis-Simpson (eds.), Exploring Atlantic Transitions: Archaeologies of Permanence and Transience in New Found Lands Archived 24 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine (Boydell and Brewer, 2013), pp. 29–30.
- ^ Margaret M. Condon and Evan T. Jones, "The grant of a pension of £20 per year to John Cabot, 13 December 1497" (University of Bristol, Explore Bristol Research, 2011)
- ^ Margaret M. Condon and Evan T. Jones, Warrant for the payment of John Cabot’s pension, 22 February 1498 (University of Bristol, Explore Bristol Research, 2011)
- ^ The Letters Patents of King Henry the Seventh Granted unto Iohn Cabot and his Three Sonnes, Lewis, Sebastian and Sancius for the Discouerie of New and Unknowen Lands, 3 February 1498, from Avalon Project
- ^ Williamson, The Cabot Voyages, pp. 217–219, 226–227
- ^ Williamson, The Cabot Voyages, pp. 214–215
- ^ Williamson, The Cabot Voyages, pp. 220–223
- ^ Williamson (1962), The Cabot Voyages, pp. 92–94
- ^ di Alberto, Magnaghi. "Caboto, Giovanni e Sebastiano". Enciclopedia Italiana. Retrieved 6 March 2017 – via Treccani.it.
- ^ Evan T. Jones and Margaret M. Condon, Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508 (University of Bristol, Nov. 2016), p. 2.
- ^ a b Evan T. Jones (2008), "Alwyn Ruddock: John Cabot and the Discovery of America", first published online 5 April 2007, Historical Research, Vol. 81, No. 212, May 2008, pp. 242–249.
- ^ "The Cabot Project", University of Bristol, 2009.
- ^ Peter E. Pope and Bryn Tapper, "Historic Carbonear, Summer 2013", Provincial Archaeology Office 2013 Archaeology Review, 2013, Vol. 12, pp. 127–133, accessed 24 April 2015
- ^ Mark Rendell, "17th-century coins unearthed in Carbonear" Archived 24 April 2015 at archive.today, The Telegram, 17 April 2014, accessed 24 April 2015.
- ^ a b Evan T. Jones, "Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America: the Condon documents", Historical Research, 27 August 2009
- ^ Evan T. Jones and M. M. Condon, "Weston, William (d. in or before 1505)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, May 2010
- ^ a b Evan T. Jones and Margaret M. Condon, Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508 (University of Bristol, Nov. 2016).
- ^ Cutler, Miriam (2011). Buenos Aires Street Guide. LibrosEnRed. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59754-653-9.
- ^ "Signal Hill National Historic Site of Canada – History". Parks Canada. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- ^ Hodges, Elizabeth (1897). The Cabots and the Discovery of America. Ernest Nister / W. F. Mack & Co. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- ^ Denis William Eden: John Cabot and his sons receive the charter from Henry VII to sail in search of new lands (1910), at Houses of Parliament
- ^ Giovanni Caboto Club History Archived 17 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Douglas Merritt, Sculpture in Bristol (Bristol, 2002), p. 90. Note: In 1956 this was designated as a "symbolic figure of an Elizabethan seaman," although the sculptor Charles Wheeler exhibited the work in the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition of 1952 as "Number 1423, John Cabot – sketch model for the statue on the New Council House, Bristol". The figure is dressed in fifteenth-century clothing, has a fifteenth-century navigational instrument (astrolabe) hanging from his belt and holds what appear to represent Cabot's letters patent.
- ^ "Study Abroad Rome Italy – An American University Rome – About JCU". Who Was John Cabot?. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- ^ "The Matthew of Bristol". matthew.co.uk. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ "Ye Matthew Legacy – Bonavista". Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada – Official Tourism Website. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ "The history and seasons of the Cabot Trail on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia". www.cabottrail.travel. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ "John Cabot Academy". Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ Crane, Nicholas (31 October 2010). Coast: Our Island Story: A Journey of Discovery Around Britain's Coastline. Random House. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4090-7455-7.
- ^ Knox, Paul (5 November 2012). Palimpsests: Biographies of 50 City Districts. International Case Studies of Urban Change. Walter de Gruyter. p. 128. ISBN 978-3-0346-1212-8.
- ^ "Cabot Square reopens after $6.3-million facelift". CTV News. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ "New shopping centre name revealed". BBC News. 26 February 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
- ^ "History:Street Names, Areas, Monuments, Plaques" (PDF). City of St. John's Archives. 25 September 2012. pp. 38–39. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ "School History". John Cabot Catholic Secondary School. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ "Giovanni Caboto Park". Edmonton Maps Heritage. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- ^ Bristol, University of. "Cabot Institute for the Environment | Cabot Institute for the Environment | University of Bristol". www.bristol.ac.uk. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
- Evan T. Jones and Margaret M. Condon, Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508 (University of Bristol, Nov. 2016). This short book provides an up-to-date account of the voyages, based on the research of the "Cabot Project". Free e-book available from the Internet Archive.
- Evan T. Jones, "Alwyn Ruddock: 'John Cabot and the Discovery of America' ", Historical Research Vol 81, Issue 212 (2008), pp. 224–254. Provides updated information on new discoveries of documents related to Cabot and his voyage, and claims made in the late 20th century by Alwyn Ruddock.
- Evan T. Jones, "Henry VII and the Bristol expeditions to North America: the Condon documents", Historical Research, 27 Aug 2009, relates primarily to newly discovered documents related to William Weston's 1499 voyage.
- Francesco Guidi-Bruscoli, 'John Cabot and his Italian Financiers', Historical Research (Published online, April 2012).
- J.A. Williamson, The Cabot Voyages and Bristol Discovery Under Henry VII (Hakluyt Society, Second Series, No. 120, CUP, 1962). Considered the essential source-book for Cabot and his voyages. Numerous documents have been discovered in the Italian, Spanish and English archives that provide new insights into these events and eras.
- Skelton, R. A. (1979–2016). "Cabot, John". Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. A short introduction; it has been updated based on material published related to The Cabot Project at the University of Bristol.
- H.P. Biggar (ed.), The Precursors of Jacques Cartier, 1497–1534: A Collection of Documents Relating to the Early History of the Dominion of Canada (Ottawa, 1911). Contains transcriptions of many of the original documents in their original languages – i.e. Latin, Spanish and Italian.
- P. D'Epiro, M.D. Pinkowish, Sprezzatura: 50 Ways Italian Genius Shaped the World, 1st Anchor Book Edition, 2001, pp. 179–180.
- Evan T. Jones and Margaret M. Condon, Cabot and Bristol's Age of Discovery: The Bristol Discovery Voyages 1480–1508 (University of Bristol, Nov. 2016). Free e-book available from the Internet Archive.
- Douglas Hunter, The Race to the New World: Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, and a Lost History of Discovery (New York: Macmillan, 2011).
- Maura, Juan Francisco. El mito de "John Cabot": construcción británica para reclamar la soberanía de Norteamérica. Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos. 788 (2016): 4–25.
- Maura, Juan Francisco. Españoles y portugueses en Canadá en tiempos de Cristóbal Colón. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia, 2021.
- John Cabot: A Man of the Renaissance, National Film Board of Canada
- John Cabot, Historica Canada
- The Cabot Project, research project at University of Bristol, led by Dr Evan Jones.
- O. Hartig, "John and Sebastian Cabot", The Catholic Encyclopedia (New Advent, 1908). Very dated.
- George Prowse Writings and Correspondence on John Cabot at Dartmouth College Library
- Introduction and Source: "Salazar's account of Bristol's discovery of the Island of Brasil (pre-1476)", The Smugglers' City, History Dept., University of Bristol
- Sources: "First Letters Patent granted by Henry VII to John Cabot, 5 March 1496", The Smugglers' City, History Dept., University of Bristol
- "Lorenzo Pasqualigo to his brothers at Venice, 23 August 1497", The Smugglers' City, History Dept., University of Bristol
- "Raimondo de Raimondi de Soncino, Milanese Ambassador in England, to Ludovico Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan, 18 December 1497, The Smugglers' City, History Dept., University of Bristol
- 'Letter, author unknown: "News sent from London to the Duke of Milan, 24 August 1497", The Smugglers' City, Dept. of History, University of Bristol, briefly notes Cabot's voyage
- The grant of a pension of £20 per year to John Cabot, 13 December 1497, University of Bristol, Explore Bristol Research, 2011.
- Warrant for the payment of John Cabot’s pension, 22 February 1498, University of Bristol, Explore Bristol Research, 2011.