List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political. Fifty generally recognised sovereign states, Kosovo with limited, but substantial, international recognition, and seven largely unrecognised de facto states with limited to no recognition have territory in Europe and/or membership in international European organisations. There are eight entities that are not integral parts of a European state or have special political arrangements.

Boundary of EuropeEdit

GeographicalEdit

Under the commonly used geographic definition, the boundary between the continents of Asia and Europe stretches along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea in the east, the Greater Caucasus range,[1] and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, in the south.[2][3] Based on such a commonly used division of the continents, the transcontinental countries of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey have territory in both Asia and Europe.

The island of Cyprus in Western Asia is close to Anatolia (or Asia Minor) but is often considered to be a part of Europe and is a current member of the European Union. Like Cyprus, Armenia is also entirely in Western Asia but is a member of several European organisations.[4]

Although the Mediterranean Sea provides a clearer divide between Africa and Europe, some traditionally European islands such as Malta, Pantelleria, the Pelagie Islands, and Sicily are actually located on the African Plate.[5] The island of Iceland is part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, straddling the Eurasian Plate and the North American Plate.[6]

Some territories which are geographically outside of Europe have strong connections with European states. Greenland, for example, has socio-political connections with Europe and is part of the Kingdom of Denmark but is located closer to the continent of North America and is usually grouped with that continent.[7]

Other territories are part of European countries but are geographically located on other continents, such as the French overseas regions,[8] the Spanish autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the coast of Africa,[9] and the Dutch BES islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba in the Caribbean.[10]

PoliticalEdit

The political boundaries of Europe vary with the definition of Europe that is used by different political organizations. For instance, the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights include 47 countries in their definition of Europe. The European Higher Education Area includes 48 countries, and the European Cultural Convention and the European Olympic Committees include 50 countries in their definitions.

Sovereign statesEdit

 
Political map of Europe and the surrounding region

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[11] According to the Montevideo Convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[12]

UN member states and UNGA non-member observer stateEdit

There are 50 sovereign states with territory located within the common definition of Europe and/or membership in international European organisations that are almost universally recognized internationally. All are either member states of the United Nations or non-member observer states at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA),[13] and all except Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Vatican City are members of the Council of Europe.[14] 44 countries have their capital city located within Europe, and (as of 2022) 27 of those countries are member states of the European Union, which means that they are highly integrated with one another and share their sovereignty through EU institutions.

Each entry in the list below has a map of its location in Europe. Territory in Europe is shown in dark-green; territory not geographically in Europe is shown in a lighter shade of green. The lightest shade of green represents other states in the EU and is shown on the maps of all territories within the EU.

* = Member of the EU[15]
Flag Map English short, formal names, and ISO
[16][17][18][19]
Domestic short and formal name(s)
[16][17][18]
Capital
[19][20][21]
Population 2021
[22][23]
Area
[a][24]
Currency
[19]
Albania[b]

Republic of Albania

ALB
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
2,854,710 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) Albanian lek
Andorra

Principality of Andorra

AND
Catalan: Andorra – Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella

Catalan: Andorra la Vella
79,034 468 km2 (181 sq mi) Euro
Armenia[c]

Republic of Armenia

ARM
Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan

Armenian: Երևան (Yerevan)
2,790,974 29,743 km2 (11,484 sq mi) Armenian dram
Austria*

Republic of Austria

AUT
German: Österreich – Republik Österreich Vienna

German: Wien
8,922,082 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi) Euro
Azerbaijan[c]

Republic of Azerbaijan

AZE
Azerbaijani: Azǝrbaycan – Azǝrbaycan Respublikası Baku

Azerbaijani: Bakı
10,312,992 86,600 km2 (33,436 sq mi) Azerbaijani manat
Belarus

Republic of Belarus

BLR
Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка Беларусь (Bielaruś – Respublika Bielaruś)

Russian: Беларусь – Республика Беларусь (Belarus' — Respublika Belarus')
Minsk

Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)

Russian: Минск (Minsk)
9,578,167 207,600 km2 (80,155 sq mi) Belarusian rubel
Belgium*

Kingdom of Belgium

BEL
Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België

French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique

German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
Brussels

Dutch: Brussel

French: Bruxelles

German: Brüssel
11,611,419 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi) Euro
Bosnia and Herzegovina

BIH
Bosnian: Bosna i Hercegovina

Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina

Serbian: Босна и Херцеговина
Sarajevo

Bosnian: Sarajevo

Croatian: Sarajevo

Serbian: Сарајево
3,270,943 51,197 km2 (19,767 sq mi) Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible marka
Bulgaria*

Republic of Bulgaria

BGR
Bulgarian: България – Република България (Bulgaria – Republika Bulgaria) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
6,885,868 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi) Bulgarian lev
Croatia*

Republic of Croatia

HRV
Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
4,060,135 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) Croatian kuna
Cyprus*[d]

Republic of Cyprus

CYP
Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía)

Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Nicosia

Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosía)

Turkish: Lefkoşa
1,244,188 9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi) Euro
Czechia*[e]

Czech Republic

CZE
Czech: Česko – Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
10,510,751 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi) Czech koruna
Denmark*[f]

Kingdom of Denmark

DNK
Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
5,854,240 42,933 km2 (16,577 sq mi) Danish krone
Estonia*

Republic of Estonia

EST
Estonian: Eesti – Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
1,328,701 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi) Euro
Finland*

Republic of Finland

FIN
Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta

Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
Helsinki

Finnish: Helsinki

Swedish: Helsingfors
5,535,992 338,145 km2 (130,559 sq mi) Euro
France*

French Republic

FRA
French: France – République française Paris

French: Paris
64,531,444 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi) Euro
Georgia[c]

GEO
Georgian: საქართველო (Sakartvelo) Tbilisi / T'bilisi

Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
3,757,980 69,700 km2 (26,911 sq mi) Georgian lari
Germany*

Federal Republic of Germany

DEU
German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
83,408,554 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi) Euro
Greece*

Hellenic Republic

GRC
Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Elláda – Ellinikí Dimokratía) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
10,445,365 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi) Euro
Hungary*

HUN
Hungarian: Magyarország Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
9,709,786 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi) Hungarian forint
Iceland

ISL
Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
370,335 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi) Icelandic króna
Ireland*[25][g]

IRL
English: Ireland

Irish: Éire
Dublin

Irish: Baile Átha Cliath
4,986,526 70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) Euro
Italy*

Italian Republic

ITA
Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
59,240,329 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi) Euro
Kazakhstan[h]

Republic of Kazakhstan

KAZ
Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)

Russian: Казахстан – Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan – Respublika Kazahstan)
Astana

Kazakh: Астана (Astana)

Russian: Астана (Astana)
19,196,465 2,724,900 km2 (1,052,090 sq mi) Kazakhstani tenge
Latvia*

Republic of Latvia

LVA
Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
1,873,919 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi) Euro
Liechtenstein

Principality of Liechtenstein

LIE
German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz

German: Vaduz
39,039 160 km2 (62 sq mi) Liechtenstein franc
Lithuania*

Republic of Lithuania

LTU
Lithuanian: Lietuva – Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
2,786,651 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi) Euro
Luxembourg*

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

LUX
German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg - Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg
Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg
639,321 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi) Euro
Malta*

Republic of Malta

MLT
English: Malta – Republic of Malta

Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
Valletta

Maltese: Valletta
526,748 316 km2 (122 sq mi) Euro
Moldova[b]

Republic of Moldova

MDA
Romanian: Moldova – Republica Moldova Chișinău

Romanian: Chișinău
3,061,506 33,851 km2 (13,070 sq mi) Moldovan leu
Monaco

Principality of Monaco

MCO
French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco Monaco

French: Monaco
36,686 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) Euro
Montenegro[b]

MNE
Montenegrin: Црна Гора (Crna Gora) Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица (Podgorica)
627,859 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) Euro
Netherlands*[f][i][10]

Kingdom of the Netherlands

NLD
Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Amsterdam (capital)

Dutch: Amsterdam

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag
17,501,696 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi) Euro
North Macedonia[b]

Republic of North Macedonia

MKD
Macedonian: Северна Македонија – Република Северна Македонија (Severna Makedonija – Republika Severna Makedonija) Skopje

Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)
2,103,330 25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) Macedonian denar
Norway

Kingdom of Norway

NOR
Bokmål: Norge – Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg – Kongeriket Noreg
Oslo

Norwegian: Oslo
5,403,021 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi) Norwegian krone
Poland*

Republic of Poland

POL
Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
38,307,726 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi) Polish złoty
Portugal*

Portuguese Republic

PRT
Portuguese: Portugal – República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
10,290,103 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi) Euro
Romania*

ROU
Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: București
19,328,560 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi) Romanian leu
Russia[j]

Russian Federation

RUS
Russian: Россия – Российская Федерация (Rossija – Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow

Russian: Москва (Moskva)
145,102,755 17,098,242 km2 (6,601,668 sq mi) Russian ruble
San Marino

Republic of San Marino

SMR
Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino San Marino

Italian: San Marino
33,745 61 km2 (24 sq mi) Euro
Serbia[b]

Republic of Serbia

SRB
Serbian: Србија – Република Србија (Srbija – Republika Srbija) Belgrade

Serbian: Београд (Beograd)
7,296,769 88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) Serbian dinar
Slovakia*

Slovak Republic

SVK
Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
5,447,622 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) Euro
Slovenia*

Republic of Slovenia

SVN
Slovene: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
2,119,410 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) Euro
Spain*

Kingdom of Spain

ESP
Spanish: España – Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
47,486,935 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi) Euro
Sweden*

Kingdom of Sweden

SWE
Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige Stockholm

Swedish: Stockholm
10,467,097 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi) Swedish krona
Switzerland

Swiss Confederation

CHE
German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

French: Suisse – Confédération suisse

Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera

Romansh: Svizra – Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne

German: Bern

French: Berne

Italian and Romansh: Berna
8,691,406 41,277 km2 (15,937 sq mi) Swiss franc
Turkey[h][b]

Republic of Turkey

TUR
Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
84,775,404 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi) Turkish lira
Ukraine[b]

UKR
Ukrainian: Украïна (Ukraina)
Kyiv

Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)
43,531,422 603,550 km2 (233,032 sq mi) Ukrainian hryvnia
United Kingdom[k]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

GBR
English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland London 67,281,039 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi) Pound sterling
Vatican City

Vatican City State

VAT
Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano

Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae[26]
Vatican City

Italian: Città del Vaticano
511 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi) Euro

De facto statesEdit

The following six entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.

Flag Map English common and formal names Status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a]
Abkhazia[c]

Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by five UN member states.[27] Abkhazian: Аҧсны - Аԥсны Аҳәынҭқарра (Apsny - Apsny Ahwyntqarra)

Russian: Абхазия - Республика Абхазия (Abhaziya - Respublika Abkhaziya)
Sukhumi

Abkhazian: Аҟəа (Akwa)

Russian: Суху́м(и) (Sukhum(i))
250,000[28] 8,660 km2 (3,344 sq mi)[29]
Artsakh[c]

Republic of Artsakh
Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. De facto independent state,[30] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն (Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun)[31] Stepanakert

Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ (Step'anakert)
141,400[32] 7,000 km2 (2,703 sq mi)[33]
Kosovo

Republic of Kosovo[16]
Claimed by Serbia. Has been recognized as sovereign by 97 UN member states.[34] Albanian: Kosova / Kosovë – Republika e Kosovës

Serbian: Косово – Република Косово (Kosovo – Republika Kosovo)
Pristina[20]

Albanian: Prishtina, Prishtinë

Serbian: Приштина (Priština)
1,836,529[35] 10,887 km2 (4,203 sq mi)[24]
Northern Cyprus[d]

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey.[36] Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti North Nicosia

Turkish: Lefkoşa
294,906[37] 3,355 km2 (1,295 sq mi)[24]
South Ossetia[c]

Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by five UN member states.[27] Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)

Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)
Tskhinvali

Ossetian: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)

Russian: Цхинва́л(и) (Tskhinvál(i))
70,000[38] 3,900 km2 (1,506 sq mi)[39]
Transnistria / Trans-Dniester

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. De facto independent state,[30] recognised by 3 non-UN states. Romanian: Transnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană

Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская Республика (Pridnestrov'ye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)

Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrovia – Pridnistrovska Moldavska Respublika)
Tiraspol

Romanian: Tiraspol

Russian: Тираcполь (Tiraspol')

Ukrainian: Тирасполь (Tyraspol)
475,373[40] 3,500 km2 (1,351 sq mi)[41]

Non-sovereign territoriesEdit

Dependent territoriesEdit

The following six European entities are dependent territories.[42]

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English common and formal names[16][19] Legal status Domestic common and formal names Capital[20] Population[35] Area[24]
Akrotiri and Dhekelia[d]

Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
British Overseas Territory English: Akrotiri and Dhekelia – Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment 15,700 254 km2 (98 sq mi)
Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark Faroese: Føroyar

Danish: Færøerne
Tórshavn

Faroese: Tórshavn

Danish: Thorshavn
54,000 1,393 km2 (538 sq mi)
Gibraltar[43] British Overseas Territory English: Gibraltar Gibraltar 29,185 6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)
Guernsey[k]

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown Dependency in right of Guernsey[44][45][46] English: Guernsey – Bailiwick of Guernsey

French: Guernesey – Bailliage de Guernesey

Guernésiais: Guernési – Bailliage de Guernési
Saint Peter Port

French: Saint Pierre Port

Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
65,849 78 km2 (30 sq mi)
Isle of Man[k] Crown Dependency in right of Man[46][47][48] English: Isle of Man

Manx: Mannin – Ellan Vannin
Douglas

Manx: Doolish
86,866 572 km2 (221 sq mi)
Jersey[k]

Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown Dependency in right of Jersey[44][45][46] English: Jersey – Bailiwick of Jersey

French: Jersey – Bailliage de Jersey

Jèrriais: Jèrri – Bailliage de Jèrri
Saint Helier

French: Saint-Hélier

Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
96,513 118 km2 (46 sq mi)

Areas of special sovereigntyEdit

The following places are considered integral parts of their sovereign state, but have a political arrangement that was decided through an international agreement.

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English common and formal names Legal status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population Area
Åland*[49]

Åland Islands[19]
Self-governing area of Finland, significant autonomy as the result of the Åland crisis[50] Swedish: Åland – Landskapet Åland Mariehamn[19]

Swedish: Mariehamn
27,500[51] 6,787 km2 (2,620 sq mi)[51]
Northern Ireland Part of the United Kingdom, devolved government determined by the Good Friday Agreement[52] English: Northern Ireland

Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann

Scots: Norlin Airlann
Belfast[53] 1,810,863[54] 14,130 km2 (5,456 sq mi)[53]
Svalbard[16] Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty[55] Norwegian: Svalbard Longyearbyen[19][20]

Norwegian: Longyearbyen
2,019[35] 62,045 km2 (23,956 sq mi)[24]

A State-like entity with partial diplomatic recognitionEdit

A list of State-like entities with partial diplomatic recognition with which UN member states maintain diplomatic relations.

Flag Map English common and formal names Legal Status Domestic common and formal names Capital Population Area
Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Not yet an internationally recognized state, so far a part of Italy.[56] Italian: Ordine di Malta

Latin: Ordinis Malta
Palazzo Malta

Latin: Malta Palatium
3 0,012 km2
(0,0046 sq mi)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g EU candidate country.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Part of the South Caucasus, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Physiographically, Armenia falls entirely in Western Asia, while Georgia and Azerbaijan are mostly in Asia with small portions north of the Caucasus Mountains divide in Europe.
  4. ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  5. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic.
  6. ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and the Netherlands are often used as short names for their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  7. ^ The terms Republic of Ireland and Poblacht na hÉireann are official descriptions but are not official names.
  8. ^ a b Kazakhstan and Turkey both have territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  9. ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this name properly refers only to a region of the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  10. ^ Russia is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, with the vast majority of its population (78%) living within its European part.
  11. ^ a b c d The United Kingdom consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (11 August 1997). The Myth of Continents. University of California Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780520207431.
  2. ^ Charles T. Evans (1 July 2009). "Black Sea". Novaonline.nvcc.edu. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  3. ^ Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopaedia 2007. Europe. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  4. ^ "Council of Europe in Brief". Coe.int. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  5. ^ "Geological Development of the Sicilian-Tunisian Platform held in Italy (University of Urbino) on November 4, 5, 6, 1992". Oai.dtic.mil. 6 November 1992. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  6. ^ "Understanding plate motions [This Dynamic Earth, USGS]". Pubs.usgs.gov. 9 June 1994. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  7. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  8. ^ Richard Connor (11 January 2010). "French overseas territories vote to remain close to Paris". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
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